2002 Vol. 23, No. 1

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The Thr-Gly regions of the period gene were sequenced in the five sibling species of the Drosophila auraria species complex and D.rufa.Base composition of the species complex is coherent to that of the other gene in Drosophila.The transversions are more than the transitions;the total rate of transversion to transition is 2 to 5 between pairwise species,and the rate of transversion to transition in the third codon is 2.5 to 5.The rate of synonymous (Ks) to non-synonymous (Ka) is far higher than 10.The insynonymous mutation does not exist between some species,the low Ka value indicats that the The-Gly regions in the period gene of Drosophila auraria species complex have undergone selection pressure in their evolution.The phylogenetic tree from DNA sequences of Thr-Gly regions is important to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the species complex.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a significant role in excitatory synaptic transmission in insects and are the target for chloronicotinyl and nereistoxin insecticides.In recent years,Chilo suppressalis,an economically important pest of rice,developed high resistance against monosultap,a nereistoxin insecticide acting on nAChR.In order to reveal the hypothesized target insensitive mechanism,studies on the molecular property of nAChR from Chilo suppressalis are required.In this study,the full length cDNA of nAChR α subunit from this pest was cloned by RT-PCR.Sequence analysis shows that it is a novel nAChR α subunit,which was named as Cs α 1(Genbank accession No.AF418987).It contains 1 997 bp nucleotides and involves an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a mat ure protein of 509 amino acids excluding a signal peptide of 24 amino acids.The deduced amino acid sequence was 52%-94% identical to the reported insect nAChR genes.
In April,1995 and November,2001,44 fish specimens were collected in market of town of Yinjiang County and Lasha River at Nabang of Yinjiang County.These specimens were identified as stinging catfishes Heteropneustes fossilis and were the first record of this species in China.Eleven of 44 specimens were measured and described.This fish is diagnosed by following nine characters:four pairs of barbels,adipose fin absent,two longitudinal yellowish stripes along sides of body,head extremely depressed,mouth small and slightly arclike,anal fin base very long and disconnected with caudal fin,dorsal fin rays soft,pectoral spine developed with an associated venom gland on its base,occipital process not extending to base of doral fin.This fish is recorded widely distributed in Pakistan,India,Nepal,Bangladesh,Sri Lanka,Myanmar,Thailand and Laos.The specimens collected in China have fewer anal fin rays than records in Talwar & Jhingran (1992) and Day (1958).This difference is probably a result of geologicl variation.
The epithelial mucin,MUC1,was assayed using the SDS-PAGE method in individual milk samples from five populations,Boer goat,Chengdu Ma goat,Angora goat×Tibetan goat F[1],Jianchang black goat and Angora goat×Jianchang black goat F[1].Polymorphism is found in these goats milk MUC1 with one or two bands showing the variable mobility and being stained the equal intensity.The bands present four polymorphic forms,I.e.A,B,C and D with molecular weights 264,241,231 and 220 kDa respectively,which are higher than those in Yak and Holstein cattle previously reported.There are differences in MUC1 genotype among the goat breeds:Boer goat exhibits ten genotypes and its gene heterozygosity is 0.7272,Jianchang black goat exhibits three genotypes and its gene heterozygosity is 0.4950,however Chengdu Ma goat only exhibits one CC genotype.Genotype distribution of milk MUC1 in Boer goat,Chengdu Ma goat and Jianchang black goat is in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg law.
Rhesus monkeys were injected 11-T or were performed with unilateral cryptochidism to induce decrease of sperm count and motility.The expressions of tPA,uPA and PAI-1 mRNA in the normal and treated caput,corpus and cauda epididymis,prostate gland and seminal vesicle were examined by in situ hybridization.Results showed that after 9 weeks of 11-T injection,tPA mRNA expression increased in corpus,decreased in caput,seminal vesicle and prostate,while kept consistant in cauda;uPA mRNA expression increased in seminal vesical,decreased in caput,corpus and prostate,but remained unchanged in cauda;PAI-1 mRNA expression increased in prostate,decreased in caput,corpus and seminal vesicle,and no significant change was found in cauda.Unilateral cryptorchidism did not markedly alter the expressions for tPA,uPA and PAI-1 mRNA.These results suggest that 1)uPA produced by caput and corpus epididymis may be involved in the acquirement of sperm progressive motility;2)testosterone,but not other factors from testis or temperature regulate the tPA,uPA and PAI-1 mRNA expressions in caput,corpus epididymis,prostate and seminal vesical in a regionspecific manner.However,the expressions for tPA,uPA and PAI-1 mRNA in cauda epididymis are regulated by none of the above factors.
Data were collected from small skylarks (Alauda gulgula) and twits (Acanthis flavirostris) during the reproduction seasons of 1998-1999 in alpine meadow in order to test and confirm their reproductive patterns.The results were showed:1)In the small skylarks,the level of hatching asynchrony was low (1 d);a egg mass did not consistently vary with the laying order,but the last-laid egg mass was maximal;the hatch order had a significant positive impact on the nestling growth rate (P<0.01) and had little impact on the fledged mass and nestling period of young (P>0.05).2)In the twits,the level of hatching asynchrony was higher asynchronously (2-3 d);the egg mass increased significantly with the laying order (P<0.05);the hatch order had little impact on the growth,fledged mass and nestling period (P>0.05).The results analysis suggests that the small skylarks and twits in alpine meadow select both hatching asynchrony and brood enlarge strategy as the breeding patterns.
Urban woodlots are isolated as patches in urban matrix and possess the features of "habitat island".Moreover,their interior structures and landscape level structures are greatly modified by urbanization.We analyzed the relationships between the bird distribution and woodlot area,interior structures,distributions of microhabitat types,landscape level structures and human disturbance in 20 woodlots in Hangzhou city area.14 habitat variables and 14 microhabitat types were selected to test the relationships between the bird and habitat by Multivariate Regression Analysis and Correlation Analysis.The results indicate that bird species have a strong selectivity to the urban woodlots in Hangzhou,which is significantly correlated to not only the woodlot area but also many other habitat factors,such as the patch shape,vegetation density,microhabitat distribution,connectedness,isolation,surrounding landuse and human disturbance etc.It is the heterogeneity among the woodlots and the close association between the bird and habitat that result in the birds selective distributions.The results also indicate the importance of the conservation of special habitat and habitat diversity in maintenance of regional biodiversity.
Ficus erecta var.beecheyana is dioecious,and each forms either female syconia with female flowers or male ones with male and gall flowers.Both Blastophaga silverstriana and Sycoscatper sp.live in male syconia.The former is the only mutual pollinator,and can enter the syconia cavity to pollinate for the female syconia and lays eggs in most gall flowers ovaries of the male syconia.The latter can neither enter syconia not pollinate,but lays eggs into partial gall flowers ovaries from the outside of the male syconia by its long ovipositor.Results counting the wasps flying off syconia showed that:average 208.2 B.silverstriana flew off each syconium,the fly off process mainly lasted for 3 days,and 86.65% of the total fly off occurred on the second day;average 64.2 S.sp.flew off each syconium,the fly off process lasted for 4 days,and 66.51% of the total fly off occurred prior to the peak in B.silverstriana flying off;when the syconium ostiole was sealed artificially,B.silverstriana could not get into the syconium to lay eggs and only S.sp.laid eggs in gall flowers ovaries,and then average 165.6 S.sp.flew off each syconium,which was 2.5 times as many as that in the natural state.Obviously S.sp.is a vegetarian parasite of Ficus erecta var.beecheyana and competitor of pollinating wasps.In the meantime,it is also a destroyer of fig tree-pollinator mutualism system.
The variation of water and energy contents in the Major Energy Reserves were studied in adult grass lizards (Takydromus septentrionalis) from March to September,2000,which collected month by month from Langyashan Mountain,Chuzhou,Anhui,Eastern China.Males and females differed in water contents of tail-free carcass and liver.There were significant monthly changes in water contents and energy contents of tail-free carcass,tail and liver in both males and females.Significant monthly changes in energy contents of fat bodies were also found in both sexes.Energy contents of tail-free carcass (including lean tail-free carcass),tail (including lean tail) were all higher in males than in females,but those of liver lower in males than in females.The results indicated that seasonal variation in the major energy reserves were correlated with the reproduction and winter hibernation.
A key to 26 species of the ant genus Formica collected from Northwest China and 71 figures for workers of each species were provided,and nine new species and four new records were described in the present paper. 1 Formica miniocca sp.nov.Chang et He (Figs.2,3,47) This species is similar to F.sanguinea Latreiile,but the former alitrunk,legs and petiole node bright red;head dark red,area between frontal carinae and eyes brown;eyes smaller and much longer,maximum diameter 0.43-0.50 mm;pubescence on head and alitrunk short and sparse. Holotype worker,No.98-604,9-Ⅷ-1998,Pengyang,1 700 m,Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,coll.CHANG You-de.Paratypes 3 workers,No.98-515,same colony as holotype. 2 Formica liopthalma sp.nov.Chang et He (Figs.13,14,51) This species is similar to F.longicepis Dlussky,but the former pubescence on both eye faces lacking;1/3 up part of petiole node bent forward;behind half part of head dorsum black;hairs very sparse. Holotype worker,No.99-096,18-Ⅴ-1999,Wuwei,3 400 m,Gansu Province,coll.CHANG You-de.Paratypes 7 workers,No.99-254;12 workers,No.99-005;4 workers,No.99-090,same as holotype. 3 Formica robusta sp.nov.Chang et He (Figs.18,19,54) This species is similar to F.candida F.Smith,but the former head back,alitrunk and legs,petiole node,gaster,antenna and scape reddish brown;body stout,pronotum width 0.75-0.86 mm;eyes larger,maximum diameter 0.37-0.41 mm. Holotype worker,No.98-109,8-Ⅸ-1998,Liupan Mountains,1 900 m,Jingyuan,Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,coll.CHANG You-de.Paratypes 4 workers,No.99-606,same as holotype;2 workers,No.98-423,3-Ⅹ-1998;12 workers,No.98-099,2-Ⅹ-1998;7 workers,No.98-123,3-Ⅹ-1998;Longde,1 900 m,Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,coll.CHANG You-de. 4 Formica dachaidanensis sp.nov.Chang et He (Figs.22,60) This species is similar to F.candida F.Smith,but the former hairs on posterior margin of 1-2 or 1-3 gastral tergites and pubescence on gaster lacking;mandibles,antenna scape and legs reddish brown. Holotype worker,No.99-207,15-Ⅵ-1999,Dachaidan,3 020 m,Qinghai Province,coll.CHANG You-de.Paratype 1 worker,No.99-248,same as holotype. 5 Formica liogaster sp.nov.Chang et He (Figs.11,12,59) This species is similar to F.candida F.Smith,but the former 1-3 gastral tergites with no hair and pubescence;mesonotum straight in profile,superior border significantly higher than pronotum. Holotype worker,No.99-152,22-Ⅵ-1999,Haiyuan,1 720 m,Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,coll.CHANG You-de.Paratypes 8 workers,No.99-196,same as holotype. 6 Formica breviscapa sp.nov.Chang et He (Figs.23,24,63) This species is similar to F.japonica Motschulsky,but the former alitrunk declivity steep;epinotum in profile with 100-105 angle between the base and declivity;antennal scape shot,index of scape length with head length 81-106;alitrunk with several short and blunt erect hairs. Holotype worker,No.98-009,6-Ⅵ-1998,Helan Mountains,2 280 m,Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,coll.CHANG You-de.Paratypes 3 workers,No.98-039,same as holotype;14 workers,No.98-077,2-Ⅹ-1998,Longde,1 900 m,Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,coll.CHANG You-de. 7 Formica aseta sp.nov.Chang et He (Figs.20,21,62) This species is similar to F.japonica Motschulsky,but the former hairs on gaster very sparse and hairs on posterior margin of gastral tergites lacking;antennal scape short,index of scape length with head length 106-119;alitrunk petiole node reddish brown,gaster brown,but slightly reddish. Holotype worker,No.98-607,9-Ⅷ-1998,Pengyang,1 700 m,Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,coll.CHANG You-de.Paratypes 4 workers,No.98-054,same as holotype;10 workers,No.98-338,27-Ⅷ-1998,Jishishan,2 100 m,Gansu Province,Coll.CHANG You-de. 8 Formica villiscapa sp.nov.Chang et He (Figs.27,28,65) This species is similar to F.pratensis Retzius,but the former whole body including antennal scape and first segment of funculus with dense acute short erect hairs. Holotype worker,No.99-100,20-Ⅵ-1999,Hezuo,3 100 m,Gansu Province,coll.CHANG You-de.Paratypes 4 workers,No.98-184;11 workers,No.99-103;5 workers,No.99-210,same as holoptype. 9 Formica delinghaensis sp.nov.Chang et He (Figs.31,32,55) This species is similar to F.wongi Wu,but the former antennal scapa short,index of scape length with head length 89-100;body bright. Holotype worker,No.99-252,15-Ⅵ-1999,Delingha,2 750 m,Qinghai Province,coll.CHANG You-de.Paratype 1 worker,No.99-221,same as holoptype.
Three new species of the ant genus Cataglyphis Foerster collected from Northwest China were described in the present paper. 1 Cataglyphis glabilabia sp.nov.Chang et He (Figs.1,2) This new species is similar to Cataglyphis aenescens (Nylander),but the former long hairs on clypeus anterior margin lacking;hairs on gula lacking;mandible teeth very blunt or absent. Holotype worker,No.99-621,10-Ⅵ-1999,Mingqing, 1 310 m,Gansu Province,coll.CHANG You-de.Paratypes 4 workers,No.99-187,same colony as holoptype. 2 Cataglyphis flavitibia sp.nov.Chang et He (Figs.3,4) This new species is similar to Cataglyphis aenescens (Nylander),but the former mandibles,antenna,up part of femurs bright yellow;hairs on gula lacking;polymorphism of worker caste undistinct;colony size small,less than 50 individuals. Holotype worker,No.99-261,15-Ⅵ-1999,Dachaidan, 3 020 m,Qinghai Province,coll.CHANG You-de.Paratypes 20 workers,No.99-117;7 workers,No.99-151;3 workers,No.99-170;4 workers,No.99-263,same as holotype. 3 Cataglyphis helanensis sp.nov.Chang et He (Figs.7,8) This new species is similar to Cataglyphis aenescens (Nylander),but the former first gastral tergite with very sparse erect hairs;body with very coarse and dense longitudinal striate;clypeus punctuated;body dark black. Holotype worker,No.99-260,5-Ⅵ-1999,Helan Mountains,2 150 m,Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,coll.CHANG You-de.Paratypes 5 workers,No.99-050;3 workers,No.99-040;6 workers,No.99-504;1 worker,No.99-027,same as holoptype. All specimens were deposited in Ningxia Agricultural College.
Amphibian resources are rich in China,and Chinese amphibian resources are the important part of Chinese biological resources.It is a potential treasure to exploit and utilize amphibian resources.We have made some progress in the exploitation and utilization of Chinese amphibian resources.It has a long history to use amphibian as Chinese medicines and foods but we have lagged behind the world in some aspects.In particular,we have done a little of work on the study of active substances distributed in amphibian skins.As such,there are lots of work will be done for the exploitation and utilization of Chinese amphibian resources.In this paper,we discussed present situation in China and the world on the exploitation and utilization of amphibian resources.Basing on the analysis of present situation and existing problems,we put forward some suggestions to exploit and utilize amphibian resources,especially use them as medicines.
Traditional feces analysis method can be applied to the research of population size,home range,food composition,parasites and diseases in wild animals.Due to the invasive tissue and blood sampling in the wild animals is no long practicable in the field,fecal samples are easy to collect,easy to keep after simple treatment and noninvasive to the wild animals,the modern fecal analysis makes many studies possible with the development of the molecular biology technology.This paper reviewed the fecal analysis and its application in the fields of studying home range,food compositions,digestive dynamics,disease and parasite,population survey,population genetics,minimum viable population,food chain and food web,energy flow and material flow of wild animals.
s tarch gel electrophoresis was used to analyze genetic structure of three populations of Oxya chinensis from Shanxi Province,China.Four allozyme polymorphic loci (MDH-1,MDH-2,LDH,ME) were found.The data suggest that two populations of O.chinensis about 41 kilometers apart are genetically similar,but differentiated from the third population with a geographic distance of 357 kilometers.However,the heterozygosity levels of those two genetically similar populations were much different.The Neis genetic distance between two geographically close populations is 0.068,which is much smaller than those of geographically distant populations (0.23 in average).The observed overlap of geographical distance and genetic distance implies that for O.chinensis population divergence may correlate with geographic isolation.
Through adjusting doses of regents,experimental conditions and procedure,we extracted DNA from single rotifer using WizardTM genomic DNA purification kit,and sequenced partial COⅠ sequence of Brachionus calyciflorus using the extracted DNA as a template.The obtained sequence shares high similarity with COⅠ sequence of B.plicatilis,showing that it is really a COⅠ sequence of rotifer species,which verified the reliability of our method.
The characteristics of Hooded Cranes (Grus monacha) feeding sites in the east tide flat of Chongming Island were studied.The corm of Scirpus mariqueter is the main foods of the Hooded Crane in wintering in Chongming Island.There are fairly significant difference (P<0.01) on the foraging degree of the Hooded Crane,and significant differences (P<0.05) on the foods depth and weight of the bird between the site at the edges of the tidal channel and that far away the tidal channel.There are fairly significance (P<0.001) differences on the foraging degree,foods depth,number and weight of the bird among three sample lines.The effect of tidewater causes no significant difference on the foraging degree among the inner,middle and outer zones of Bulrush vegetation,but the foods depth and weight have fairly significance differences (P<0.001) among those zones.The mean feeding depth of the Hooded Crane can be used as an index in prediction its foraging sites.The tidal scour causes foods buried in the different depth,which has a great influence on the Hooded Crane feeding in the eastern tide flat of Chongming Island.
The mating calls of six forms belonging to four genera Megophrys,Oreloalax,Scutiger and Leptolalax were recorded in Wawu Mountain National Forest Park,Sichuan Province of China,using cassette tape recorder (Aiwa) and Sony tape with an external microphone.All recordings were analyzed with an IBM PC based "SIGNAL" software analysis system (Engineering Design,USA).The range of analyzed frequency was set as 0-10 kHz.Acoustic analysis shows that the dominant frequency of L.oshanensis,M.minor,M.sp.,S.(S.) chintingensis,O.omeimontis,and O.schmidti is 4521.9,3456.4,2293.8,1076.5,1071.0 and 1849.4 Hz on average respectively;the note duration is 46.2,90.8,99.6,72.2,78.8 and 110.3 millisecond on average respectively;the note interval is 140.4,253.0,681.4,1517.7,461.3 and 619.5 millisecond on average respectively.One-Way ANOVA analysis indicates that there are significant differences among the analyzed six forms on the dominant frequency,the note duration,and the note interval (P<0.01).Multiple comparisons using Least-Significant Difference (LSD) show that the difference of the dominant frequency between S.(S.) chintingensis and O.omeimontis is not significant (P=0.917>0.05);on the note duration,only L.oshanensis is significantly different from M.minor,M.sp.,O.omeimontis and O.schmidti (P<0.01);on the note interval,L.oshanensis is not significantly different from M.minor,the same with M.sp.versus O.schmidti and O.omeimontis versus O.schmidti (P>0.05).Correlation analysis indicates that there are no significant correlation among the three acoustic characters of dominant frequency,note duration and note interval,and two environmental factors of the elevation and air temperature (P>0.05) except that the note interval is significantly linear correlated with the elevation (r=0.943,P=0.005<0.01).In the light of above,it is suggested that acoustic characteristics of calls are useful in distinguishing forms;the change of the note interval with the elevation may be a kind of strategy of reproduction.