1997 Vol. 18, No. 3

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Thirty-three kinds of blood proteins and isoenzymes encoded by 37 genetic loci in Wenshan and Diqing yellow cattle from Yunnan Province were analyzed by horizontal starch gel electrophoresis,of which 6 genetic loci display polymorphic pattern.In the representive populations of Wenshan yellow cattle,the percentage of polymorphic loci(P) is 0.1389,the mean heterozygosity (H) is 0.0610.As for Diqing yellow cattle population,P=0.1667,HS=0.0711.We generated Neis genetic distance matrix for 10 cattle breeds based on our results as well as the data reported previously.The relationships among the 10 cattle breeds were analyzed by "UPGMA","CONTML" and "NEIGHBOR"methods (PHYLIP 3.5C).Our results showed that Wenshan yellow cattle seemed to be mainly Bos indicus origin and Diqing yellow cattle mainly contained Bos taurus blood.In addition,our results also implied that Yunnan yellow cattle might be of a mixture of different populations.Some populations were domesticated by local people and the others came from outside.This resulted in a high level of genetic diversity.
The β-component of antibacterial peptide purified from the haemolymph of silkworm Bombyx mori.pupae induced by E.coli.can kill the cancer cells cultured in vitro selectively,but has no effect on the B-leukocytes of normal human.The ultrastructure of the U937 cells treated with the antibacterial peptides was observed with an the electron microscope.It was found that the cancer cells plasma membrane and nuclear envelope were broken,mitochondrion was swollen and intracellular substances were leaked out,and the cells died soon.
Three new species of genus Stephanitis Stal collected from Western China,Stephanitis (Stephanitis) qilianensis Bu sp.nov.,Stephanitis (Stephanitis) hsiaoi Bu sp.nov.,and Stephanitis (Stephanitis) angustata Bu sp.nov.were described in this paper.The type specimens are deposited in the Department of Biology,Nankai University,Tianjin,China.
Acrossocheilus jishouensis,sp.nov.
The paper reports one new species and one new record of genus Topomyia collected from bamboo holes in Xishuanbanna of Yunnan.This new species is similar to To.yanbareroides and To.spathalirostris.But this new species distimere of male expanded like drum-hammer at apex,and with some small hooked hair;its larvae,seta 5-c of head outer of 4-c,maxillae with a tuft of hair at apex.These characters are very easy to distinguish from others species.Type species:holotype,1 male;allotype,1 female;paratypes,1 male,1 female,4 larva akines,4 pupa akines,all collected from bamboo holes in Jinhong of Yunnan Province,Ⅸ 1995 by Dong.All the types are deposited in the Institute of Malaria Prevention and Treatment of Yunnan Province.
This thesis studied the process of fertilization of the abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) with transmission electron microscope (TEM).The jelly coat of abalone egg activated spermatozoa and induced acrosome reaction.The vitelline membrane promoted the acrosome reaction reach the climax.After the sperm entered the egg,the egg cortical reaction took place and the fertilization membrane was formed.Afterwards,the eggs meiosis began.Besides,we found polyspermy of the abalone.
The gastrocnemius muscles of rabbits on both sides were studied.Frozen transverse sections were stained with actomysin ATPase.Muscle fibers were identified as type SO,type FOG and type FG.The proportion of fiber types in each subvolume was calculated with microscopic photographs and the mean cross-sectional areas of three fiber types were measured with a image analysing system.The following were found:(1)the proportion of SO fiber type in the medial gastrocnemius was 16.7%;(2)the proportion of SO fiber type increased progressively from 11.3% of the medial subvolume of the lateral gastrocnemius to 20.8% of the lateral subvolume;(3)the proportion of FOG fiber type increased progressively from 23.2% of medial subvolume to 30.9% of lateral subvolume;(4)the proportion of type FG fiber decreased successively from 65.5% of medial subvolume to 48.3% of lateral subvolume;(5)the three fiber types were in a mosaic pattern;(6)the diameter of type SO fiber in each subvolume was the smallest (57.4-58.2 μm),the diameter of type FOG fiber larger (60.1-61.1 μm),and the diameter of type FG fiber the largest (63.6-64.5 μm).
A census to bird species diversity was conducted in fragmented rainforest patches at Xishuangbanna,Yunnan Province,China from October to November,1993,and from March to May,1994.The sample localities were Mane Holy Hill (3 ha) and Chengzi Holy Hill (4 ha) at Menglun,Mengla county,and Manyangguang Holy Hill (20 ha) at Xiaojie,Jinghong County.The control locality was a part of Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve at Menglun (census area was about 100 ha).104 species,which belonged to 27 families (4 subfamilies),8 orders,were recorded in above localities.In the reserve,89 species were observed.At Manyangguang Holy Hill,30 species were found.Both at Mane and Chengzi Holy Hills 38 species were recorded.The Shannon index was highest at the reserve,while it was lowest at Manyangguang.At Mane the Shannon index was slightly higher than at Chengzi,but a t-test showed they were not significantly different.The change in trend of evenness was similar to that of Shannon index.11 species were common at all four localities.The species found at all three holy hills were also those 11 species.The number of species recorded at both the reserve and Chengzi were the highest (36 species),while the number of species recorded at both Manyangguang and Chengzi was the lowest (13 species).A dendrogram constructed by using the Jaccard index showed that similarity between Chengzi and the reserve was the highest (0.3956),while similarity between Mane and Manyangguang was the second highest (0.3878).This is probably because habitats around Mane and Manyangguang were similar to each other.Both sites were surrounded by farm land and rubber plantation.There was a large secondary forest at one side of Chengzi.This showed that the more similar the surrounding habitats,the more common the species at the two localities were.A dendrogram constructed by using the Sorenson quantitative index also showed that similarity of Mane to Manyangguang were the highest,Chengzi had a higher similarity to them than to the reserve.The reason for this was that the size of all three holy hills were small and the species number were low.However,Mane(3 ha) was more similar to Manyangguang (20 ha) than to Chengzi (4 ha).This showed the surrounding habitat also was one of factors affecting the Sorenson quantitative index,at least in small rainforest patches.A dendrogram constructed by using the Morisita-Horn index showed that there was highest similarity between Mane and reserve.Chengzi had a higher similarity to them.Manyangguang had the lowest similarity to all other localities.The change in trends of similarity was similar to that of their distance to larger primitive rainforest.Bird species number and Shannon index had the similar change trend as the plant species number and Shannon index.The 5 factors,pathch size,the distance to large primitive forest,plant community and diversity,human disturbance,and the habitats surrounding the patches,had influence on bird abundance and diversity in small rainforest patches.
Using the sample method,the seasonal changes of habitats and diets of Elliots Pheasant were studied with the help of radio-tracking in Wuyanling Natural Reserve of Zhejiang Province from October 1992 to May 1993.The main result of this study indicated that the habitats of the pheasant changed with seasons.The brush with some Fagaceae plants scattered in and the coniferous forest of Cunninghamia lanceolate and Pinus taiwanesis were its main habitats in Autumn.But it preferred to select the coniferous,ever-green broad-leaf forests and mixed forests as its winter habitats and it mainly habited in coniferous forest during breeding season.The nuts of Quercus were its main food in Autumn and it mainly fed grass items in winter and small invertebrates during breeding season,especially during late breeding season.The seasonal change of the distribution of its main food resulted in the change of the utilization of habitats by Elliots Pheasant.The Pheasant preferred the patch-like habitats in forest near streams with rich food.
The paper presents results of study on the breeding ecology of Black Grouse at Sai-Han-Ba mechanic forestry field,Weichang County,Hebei Province from 1990 to 1994.The usual breeding period of Black Grouse is between April and July.In the duration of the breeding period,the cock Black Grouse exhibits the behavior of the courtship display and has the enlargement of the red eyebrow as well as occupies the fixed lek.The average number of the cock Black Grouse at a lek is 7.5 individuals (range 3-14 ind).The courtship display peaks appeared twice a day time (4:00-7:00 and 16:30-19:00),but usally the former peak is more acute than the latter one.We had observed three kinds of the courtship displaying behavior and four kinds of displaying vocalization of the males,the former is body posture display,lutter-jumping and flutter-fly.Whereas the latter is calling,spacing,threat,and displaying vocalization.The mating behaviour was finished when the females entered the lek for 30-45 minutes.The nest is on the ground and the construction is very simple as well as built on hide sites.The materials of the nest is composed of some grasses,tiny branches and feathers etc.Each clutch has six to ten (average 8.9).The eggs average 35.33 g in weight,49.63×35.14 mm in size.We had recoreded the phenomenon of the supplement egg.The duration of incubation is about 28 days and only the female is responsible for incubating the egg.
The concept of geographical niche was introduced in this paper.It represents the geographical distribution scale and population size of species.Geographical niche breadth and overlap index were measured for the mosquitoes of 19 sites (in 16 provinces) in China,and the overlap groups were classified for the 9 species of mosquitoes by the systematic clustering and principal components analysis (PCA).
In order to investigate the regulation of GABA on development of GABA receptors in embryonic mice cerebral cortex,GABA and giands were used to treat the embryonic mouse cerebral cortex cells (EMCC) in culture and embryonic mice.GABA receptors were measured by radio giand binding method.The results showed that:1) GABA could increase in the number of GABA[A] and GABA[B] receptors of EMCC of 15-17 day embryonic mouse in culture and postnatal day 1(PN 1) mouse cerebral cortex in vivo,and this effect could be mimicked by muscimol and baclofen,and blocked by bicuculline.2) Treated with GABA from embryonic day 7 to 13,the number of GABA[A] and GABA[B] receptors of PN 1 mice cerebral cortex remained unchanged.3) Treated with GABA from embryonic day 14 to 19,the number of GABA[A] receptor of PN 1 mice cerebral cortex increased,but that of GABA[B] receptor remained unchanged.4) Treated with GABA from embryonic day 7 to 19,the number of GABA[A] and GABA[B] receptors of PN 1 mice cerebral cortex increased significantly.The results suggested that GABA could promote the expression of GABA receptors in special stage of embryonic development,and this action was mediated by GABA receptors.
In the study,the stomach and intestine of Leiocassis longirostris and Silurus meridionalis were observed.The mocous surface of the stomach and intestine were observed with the scanning electron microscope.The activities of protease and diastase of the stomach and intestine were measured.The weight ratio of the stomach,intestine and liver to body weight and the length ratio of intestine length to body length expectively indicat that they are typical carnivoroas fish.The expanding and contracting ability of stomach of Silurus meridionalis is greater than that of Leiocassis longirostris.However,the diet in Silurus meridionalis stomach connt be grinded into pieces,and lacks the hydrochloric acid.The distitution density of the digestive gland in the mocous of stomach and intestine of Leiocassis longirostris is higher,and there are more fine hair on the mocous of intestine compared with Silurus meridionalis.These indicat that the ability of secreting gastric and intestine juices of Lerocassis longirostris juices is greater than that of Silurus meridionalis.The activities of protease and diastase in stomach and intestine of Leiocassis longirostris is higher,and the digestive ratios of stomach and intestin of Leiocassis lognirostris in exteral experiment for fish meat powder,pig meat powder,soya-bean powder and rapeseed powder are higher compared with Silurus meridionalis.Thus,the ability of catching food of Silurus meridionalis is strong and a relatively large volume food may be swallowed at one time by Silurus meridionalis.However,the digestive ability of Leiocassis longirostris is greater than that of Silurus meridionalis for a same food at the same condition.Thses indicat that Leiocassis longirostris is easily tamed for a rearing fish with feed in ponds or cages.
Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes with a specific activity of >40 fold and PAGE pure was isolated from the liver,kidney,bone and intestine of the newborn calf (First,each tissue homogentes was extracted in buffer butanol.Then,the aqueous phase was separated by filtration on Sephadex G-100,DEAE-cellulose column chromatography).The pure product was studied with respect to its enzymetic activity,electrophoretic mobilities (Rf value),heat inhibition,urea inhibition,organ-specific inhibitor treatment,to establish the identities of each isoenzyme.The results demonstrated the following:1.Isoenzymes Rf value:liver isoenzyme>bone isoenzyme>small intestine isoenzyme.2.Only the bone enzyme was completely inactivated when heated at 56℃ 10 min.Intestial isoenzyme was heat-stable.3.Urea was a strict inhibitor of bone isoenzyme and intestial isoenzyme was urea-stable.
The connectivity between a region surrounding the thalamic auditory nuclei,the nucleus ovoidalis (Ov),and nucleus ventromedialis hypothalami (VMN) was explored in the ring doves by using a tracer,Biotinylated Dextran Amine (BDA) and immunohistochemistry.The results revealed that the Ov surround,which we term the nucleus ovoidalis shell (Ov shell),contained met-enkephalin immunoreactive (ENK-ir) neurons sent a projection directly into the VMN following an injection of BDA into the posterior Ov (Ovp).Since the pathways from Ov Shell to VMN and the terminal fields in entire VMN showed densely distributed ENK-ir,present data suggested that the immunoreactive perikarya within Ov shell might contribute to enkephalinergic-neuropil within VMN.
The karyotypes of Hynobius amjiensis,H.chinensis,H.leechii (Huanren Co.,Liaoning) and Sallamandrella keyserlingii (Baihe Co.,Jilin) were investigated.Three species of Hynobius had 2n=56 with 4 groups of large,middle,small biarmed chromosomes and uniarmed small chromosomes.S.keyserlingii had 2n=62 with 3 groups of large,middle and small chromosomes.The conspicuous differences of karyotypes between Huanren and Qianshan districts of H.leechii were discussed associated with their taxonomical problems.The karyotypes of 3 species in Hynobius were compared and analysed,and the characteres of karyotypes of Chinese Hynobius were discussed.The karyotypes of different districts of S.keyserlingii were compared and the karyotype of S.keyserlingii was compared with those of Hynobius.