1996 Vol. 17, No. 4
A New Toad Genus of Bufonidae--Torrentophryne From Transhimalaya Mountain of Yunnan of China With Its Biology
1996, 17(4): 353-359.
In 1973,we collected some adults of Bufonidae in forest stream of Pianma,Lushui in western Yunnan as Bufo burmanus (Yang Datong et al.,1978).And then the same kinds of adults,eggs and tadpoles were collected in Yangbi,Baoshan,Tengchong (Jiang determined in error those tadpoles as Staurois viridimaculatus,1983) in Yunnan Province,China.These tadpoles have a large abdominal sucker which is similar to those of Amolops,but denticle formulaⅡ／Ⅲ,without lateral and ventral glands,which obviously confirmed that those tadpoles belong to Bufonidae (Datong Yang,1991).Among them,the tadpoles from Taiping,Yangbi have clumpy labial papillae on corner of mouth;top of tubercle without spine on belly and back of body and limbs in adult;tadpoles from Pumanshao of Baoshan County with single row labial papilla on the corner of mouth,and with 2 or 3 additional papilla inside,and top of tubercle with spine on bell and back of body and limbs.They should be separated into two different species.We will make extensive and thorough studies in the behavior of breeding,ecology,early development,morphology,chromosome (karyotype and banding) and isoenzyme on this two species,to inquire into the taxonomic positions of them the relationship between the new group and some other species of Bufo that are from the same areas.
1996, 17(4): 360-370.
1996, 17(4): 361-369.
Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) is an endemic primate in China.Its geographic distribution extends from Western Sichuan through Guizhou,Northeastern Yunnun,Hunan,Northern Guangxi to Anhui,Zhejiang,Jiangxi,Fujian and Northern Guangdong.Based on the nearly 40 specimens examined,we think that the macaque could be divided into four subspecies,including two new subspecies.
1996, 17(4): 371-375.
Two new species of Pentatomidae from China are discribed in this paper.
1996, 17(4): 377-383.
The spermatozoon of teleost Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) consisted of head,mid-piece and tail.The nucleus,within which there were some gaps,of the head was allipse.There were electron-dense materials in the gaps.The mid-piece,consisting of centriolar complex and sleeve,was connected to the posterior of the nucleus.The centriolar complex was in the implantation fossa which was at the posterior end of the nucleus.There were mitochondria and some vesicles in the sleeve.The vesicles were of two types:one contains some electron-dense materials,the other was electron transparent.The membrane which was parallel to the inner membrane of the sleeve could be seen within the cytoplasm of the sleeve.The tail was thin and long.It was connected with basal body and stretches out of the sleeve.At the proximal end of the tail there were many vesicles outside the axoneme.The vesicles were electron transparent.The distal end of the tail,however,did not contain any vesicles.
1996, 17(4): 385-391.
The present paper reports the scanning electron microscopy observation on the ultrastructure of gnathosoma,podosoma and opisthosoma in the life cycle of Demodex caprae.The following were found:A cone-shaped palpal papillae was at dorsal side of palpal segment 2 in female;the lobe-like dorsal paramera and ventral paramera were on the base of aedeagus;the boat-shaped vulva was covered by a pair of valves meeting along the longitudignal line in virgin female;the genital was half opened after mating,and it was widely opened after laying egg.In addition,the ultrastructure of the supracoxal spines,the epistome,the hypostome,the chelicera,the coxal endite,the oral opening,the palpal claws and the proctodeum were described;the morphology of the ultrastructure observed were briefly compared with those of D.canis,D.folliculorum and D.brevis;the function of the epistome,the hypostome,the chelicera,the coxal endite,the palpal claws and the palpal papilla were discussed.
Modulation of Neuronal Activity of Cerebellar Interposed Nucleus By Stimulating Dorsal Raphe Nucleus in The Rat
1996, 17(4): 393-401.
The effects of stimulating dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) on activity of cerebellar interposed nucleus (IN) was investigated.Stimulation of DR elicited inhibitory,excitatory and biphasic (inhibition-excitation and excitation-inhibition) responses from IN cells.The majority of responsive cells showed an inhibitory response (76.0%) with a latency of less than 30 ms.The spontaneous discharge frequencies of the IN cells were 5 to 120 Hz,and the IN cells with higher discharge frequencies showed low responsive rates to the DR stimulation in comparison with those lower firing frequency cells.Injection of 5-HT [2/1C] receptor antagonist methysergide (iv) could block the depressive effect of DR stimulation on the IN cells (85.7%).These results suggest that raphe-cerebellar serotonergic afferent fibers may be involved in the cerebellar sensorimotor integration process by exerting their modulatory action on the deep cerebellar nuclear cells activities.
1996, 17(4): 403-409.
The calling song-crowing call,courtship sound,display call,terrifed call and alarm call-of golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) in zoo had been analysed with computer technique.The results showed the relationship between the characters of calling songs and the behaviours.The comparative analysis on the crowing calls of the male Chrysolophus pictus and Chrysolophus amherstiae in the breeding season had also been done in this paper.
1996, 17(4): 411-419.
It is very promising to develop Rana chensinensis David breeding in South China.Whether the changeable air temperature of the South has an effect on its embryo development is uncertain.We studied the effects of temperature change on early embryo development by moving fertilized eggs between incubators of different temperatures.The results showed:(1) Rapid temperature increase had a harmful influence on hatching and normal rates of the embryos,and the wider the temperature span was,the more harmful the impact was.Effects of moderate temperature increase on embryos were hinged upon the temperature span and starting point.High starting temperature was more harmful.In commercial production,rapid temperature increase should be within 2℃,moderate increase should be within 4℃.(2) In moderate temperature decrease,a span of 4℃ had no influence,but an 8℃ decrease was detrimental.If rapid temperature decrease span was 4℃,both hatching and normal rates were impaired.In commercial production,moderate temperature decrease should be within 8℃ and rapid decrease should be within 4℃.(3) When the change spans were the same,the quicker the change was,the more harmful the impact was.(4) The Gastrula Stage was the time when embryos were sensitive to temperature increase,and the Neural Canal Stage was not.Embryos were more sensitive to temperature increase than to decrease.(5) No serious harm would be imposed upon Rana chensinensis David embryos in development by the changeable climate of South China.
Concentrated extracts from tap water and their source water from Dianchi Lake and Songhuaba Reservoir were prepared through adsoption onto XAD-2 resin and tested for their mutagenicity with Ames Salmonella His[+] reversion system.The results are as follows:The extract of chlorinated tap water from Dianchi Lake source water showed mutagenic activity towards TA with or without S mix.The results are positive.The mutagenicity of extract of source water from Dianchi Lake is ambiguous.If taking upper confidetial limit for evaluation,it is positive.The other groups were negative in comparison with the control group.The bioassays were paralleled with chemical analysis,which were used in survey of chemical micro-pollutants in tap water and their sources.These results are concerned with the effects of genetoxicity of micro-pollutants in water on public health.
1996, 17(4): 429-436.
This paper introduced the theories of ecosystem organization:the development of food chain dynamics and main points of mutualism-cybernetics theories.Both of the theories are necessary for analyzing food web patterns because they focus on complementary scales of observation.The food chain dynamics theory depends upon Darwinan evolution and ecological interactions,and emphasizes trophic level patterns.It is useful to examine the direct and indirect effects of predator-prey interactions.The mutualism-cybernetics theory depends upon community selection,which may be more useful for studying species,trophic guild interactions and the indirect effects caused by nutrient cycling,competition and abiotic factors.
1996, 17(4): 437-441.
After eight years field survey,The Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti),an endangered species endemic to China,was estimated to be 1000-1500 individuals spread in 13 natural groups.All these groups were isolated due to fragmentation of its habitat,therefore,the genetic diversity in each of the groups or populations was low.This species was confined to the area between Jinshajiang (upper part of the Yangtze River) to the east and Lancangjiang (upper part of the Mekong River) to the west.The northernmost group was located in Xiaochangdu (29°20 N,98°37 E),and the southernmost group in Longmashan (26°14 N,99°15 E).The species was the non-human primate species found at the highest elevations,and this was the prime forces in the evolution of the monkey s uncommon morphological and behavioral adaptation.The dominant conspicuous tree canopy of its habitat was fir dotted with a few small larch patches,and most of the understorey was either rhododendron (when above 3700 m asl.) or bamboo (when lower than 3700 m asl.) scrub.The monkey spent 87% of its feeding time in fir tree,and its main food was the lichen (Bryoria nepalensis),an epiphyte on fir.About twenty-two percent of its time were spent on the ground or rock outcrops during the day time.Its home range might be over 100 km.Monkey groups sometimes went up to a few hundred meters above tree line (4700 m asl.) and cross wide alpine meadow patches on top of snow mountain.Further conservation action on this precious animal should be implemented as soon as possible,and this might be extremly important to protect the ecosystem in the watersheds of both the Yangtze River and the Mekong River.
Postnatal Growth and Development in The Intermediate Slow Loris (Nycticebus intermedius) in Captivity
1996, 17(4): 443-450.
Postnatal growth and development of 41 Nycticebus intermedius infants (24 males,15 females),which were born and reared by their mothers in captivity,were measured and observed.This paper presented the results.1.The growth equation of body weight was Y=19.8322e[0.2900t] from 1 to 73 days old,while it was Y=98.7593+1.0358t from 73 to 98 days old.Rowth equation of body length was Y=71.1963e[0.1084t] from 1 to 73 days old,while it was Y=96.4987e[0.0669t] from 73 to 98 days old.Growth equation of forelimb was Y=31.8504e[0.1903t] from 1 to 36 days old,while it was Y=5.5881+105.4733lnt from 36 to 98 days old.Growth equation of hindlimb was Y=41.3057e[0.1550t] from 1 to 53 days old,while it was Y=14.32+109.0626lnt from 53 to 98 days old.The time unit was 10 days.2.The hair color gradually became darker when infants got older.The skin of face (including ears,eye-rings,noses),hands and feet changed in color also when the infants got older.Hey are pink in infants and black in adults.3.The deciduous dentition (including dentes insivi,dentes canini,dentes premolares) erupted at birth and completed development by 15 days old.The permanent dentition initiated eruption during 90-97 days old and was fully eruption by 170-200 days old.4.Nycticebus intermedius became sexual mature at the age of 600-720 days.
The Studies on Species Diversity of Myomorpha Rodents in The Fragmental Tropical Rainforest in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan
1996, 17(4): 451-458.
This paper deals with the species diversity of myomorpha rodents captured by snap-traps in Dai Nationality Holly Hills with different size of area and enviromental status.The field work porceeded in Xishuangbanna from March to May,1994.The results are as follow:(1) There are 3,3,5 and 4 species of myomorpha rodents captured in four samples,respectively;(2) Myomorpha rodent species diversity indexes of four samples are 1.165,1.350,2.058 and 1.944,respectively;(3) The myomorpha rodent species diversity is obviously related to the variation of samples enviroments instead of their size;(4) The different enviromental status of four samples are the main factors which cause the species changes of myomorpha rodents lived in these areas;(5) Biomass of myomorpha rodent varies considerably in different samples.
1996, 17(4): 459-468.
Sun bear is found in Burma,Thailand,Vietnam,Sumatra,Borneo,North-east of India,Malaysia,and Yunnan and Sichuan of China and has been listed in 1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals as a vulnerable species.In this paper,a total of 1174 bases of mitochondrial DNA sequence (397 bases of cytochrome b gene,346 bases of 12S Rrna gene,98 bases of Trna genes,and 333 bases of D-loop region) from each of four sun bears from different collections have been sequenced.Comparing with the black rhino Trna genes,our results suggest that the loop regions of Trna genes evolve much fast than the stem regions.In the cytochrome b gene,12S Rrna gene and Trna gene regions,no sequence variation among the individuals was observed,which indicates that genetic variability in the sun bear is relatively low.In the D-loop region,there are 13 and 1 sites,respectively,characterized by transition and transversion among the 4 sun bears sequenced.The relationships among all the individuals were fully resolved based on mitochondrial D-loop sequences by using parsimony analysis.Our results suggest that the mitochondrial D-loop region is very useful for population genetic study of the sun bear.
This study is aimed to investigate the potential mutagenicity of tap water and their source water from water plants in Kunming with tadpole micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchages (SCEs) tests of cultured CHO cells.The results revealed:1) There is an obvious difference on frequency of tadpole micronucleus induced between each water plant tap water and its source water with the exception of Y-water plant tap water.2) The results of CA frequency showed no substantial difference between each water plant tap water and its source water and control group except of low concentration (0.03125 L/ml) group of W-water plant tap water.3)There is an extremly significant difference between the high concentration groups 0.0625 L/ml (Dianchi Lake source water and W-water plant tap water),and low concentration group (W-water plant tap water through comparison with control group) with SCE frequency.There is a significant difference in low concentration group of Dianchi Lake source water and high concentration group of E-,S-water plant tap water.
1996, 17(4): 477-482.
In is paper,14 restriction endonucleases,ApaⅠ,BamHⅠ,BglⅡ,EcoRⅠ,EcoRⅤ,HindⅢ,HpaⅠ,KpnⅠ,PstⅠ,PvuⅡ,SalⅠ,ScaⅠ,XbaⅠ,and XhoⅠ were used to analyse the mtDNA of 4 species of Accipitridae (Accipiter nisus,A.Virgatus,A.gentilis and Butastur indicus).The total size of Accipitridae mtDNA was estimated to be 16.5-16.7 kb,with a mean of 7% sequence divergence between the species.The result suggest that the divergenec time between them might be 35-40 Myr.
1996, 17(4): 483-488.
The conventional karyotype,C-banding and Ag-NORs of four rhacophorid tree frog species (Those are Polypedates nigropunctatus,P.omeimontis,P.mutus and Rhacophorus feae) from Yunnan Province have been studied using the bone marrow preparing chromosome.Results showed that the same diploid number (2n=26) and karyotypic formular they have,except for P.mutus that have 6+7 formular,but the number and sequence of the submetacentric chromosome,secondary construction (SC) or the satellite and Ag-NORs are different each other.In P.nigropunctatus Nos.3,12 are SM,Ag-NORs and SC localized on 10p[inter].Nos.2,3,4,6,9 are SM and the satellite,Ag-NORs are on 12q[ter] in P.omeimontis,without SM and on 6q[inter] of Ag-NORs in P.mutus,but in Rhacophorus feae the Nos.2,3,4 are SM,and two pairs Ag-NORs appeared on 12q[ter] and 13q[ter].Meantimes the satellite association was found.All these species in which the C-positive mainly are on the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and the C-negative reaction always appeared on SC or Ag-ONRs locations.Finally the possible mechanism of karyotypic change among them have been discussed.
1996, 17(4): 489-493.
The karyotypes of four Artemia strains from salt lakes in China were studied by air-dried technique.The basic number of chromosome are n=21 in all Artemia strains.He bisexual strains from Yuncheng salt lake and Hangjinqi salt lake are diploid,and the karyotype is:2n=16m+10sm+4st+10t+Z(st)W(m)/Z(st)Z(st),NF=74.There are diploid and tetraploid Artemia in partheno-genetic strains from Aibi lake and Balikun lake,there are also pentaploid Artemia in Balikun salt lake.The diploid karyotype of the two parthenogenetic strains is:2n=14m+4sm+4st+18t+Z(st)W(sm),NF=66.
1996, 17(4): 495-499.
Up to now,the studies on the centromere proteins are almost carried out in yeast and higher organisms in the world.In this paper we report our studies on centromere proteins in one kind of ciliates,which is much lower than yeast in the evolutionary position mainly with indirect immunofluorescent microscopy and western immunoblotting techniques using two ACA sera,ra-ACA-2,Maca-2,and mAb37A5 as probes.The control material in the study is human HepⅡ cell.With immunofluorescent stain with Chinese ACA antiserum,in the interphase nucleus of HepⅡ cells only very minute pots-precentromere could be observed.This means that the ACA antiserum can actually and specifically recognize the protein components of centromer/kinetochore.When Tetrahymena,was stained with the same technique,there were only patched within nuclei composed of minute fluorescent spots;no precentromere could be distinguished,although all the nuclei gave positive reaction.After immunobloted with Chinese ACA serum and SH serum,the positive band-pattern (from 14 Kd to 140 Kd) of Tetrahymena was highly similar to the band-pattern of human HepⅡ cells.The blotting results with Maca-2 antibody showed that HepⅡ cells gave two bands (80 Kd,stained deely and 120 Kd,stained slightly),Tetrahymena,gave three positive bands (80 Kd,120 Kd,and 150 Kd).The blotting results with ra-ACA-2 antiserum showed that Hep Ⅱ and Tetrahymena all gave 50 Kd,60 Kd and 80 Kd bands.In the immunoblotting with monoclonal antibody mAb37A5,HepⅡ cells gave two bands very similar to those of CHO cells.Tetrahymena gave only one band with molecular weight somewhat lower than 140 Kd.The results described above indicat the high similarity in the centromere/kinetochore protein components between HepⅡ cells and the Tetrahymena.must have emerged earlier in life evolutionary history.
1996, 17(4): 501-507.
In this paper we report our detection of centromere proteins in Euglena gracilis.With Immunofluorescent microscopy stained with Chinese ACA antiserum,in the interphase nucleus of HepⅡ cells (human throat cancer cells) only very minute pots—precentromere could be observed.When Euglena was stained with the same technique,there were only patched within nuclei composed of minute fluorescent spots;no precentromere could be distinguished,although all the nuclei gave positive reaction.Perhaps the distribution of centromere kinetochore proteins within the interphase nucleus of protists was different from that of higher organisms.After sequential selective extractions to prepare nuclerar matrix,the nuclei of Euglena still gave reactions to prepare nuclear matrix,the nuclei of Euglena still gave reaction to ACA serum under immunofluorescent microscope.This fact indicates that the centromere/kinetochore proteins of protists are also tightly combined with nuclear matrix,just as those of higher organisms do.This tight combination with nuclaer matrix was further proved with immnoblotting.The positive band-pattern of Euglena cells was still similar to that of HepⅡ after immunoblotting with Chinese ACA serum,although the band number was slightly fewer.The molecular weights of positive bands indicate that euglenoid has likely possessed the main components of centromere proteins; CENP-A,CENP-B,CENP-C and CENP-D etc.The blotting results with Maca-2 antibody showed that HepⅡ cells gave two bands (80 Kd,stained deely and 120 Kd,stained slightly) Euglena gave three bands 80 Kd,120 Kd,and 150 Kd.The blotting results with ra-ACA-2 antiserum were some what different,although it also recognized human CENP-B protein.All HepⅡ and Euglena gave 50 Kd,60 Kd and 80 Kd band.In the immunoblotting with monoclonal antibody mAb37A5,HepⅡ cells gave two bands very similar to those of CHO cells.Euglena showed two bands,one identical to the tetrahymena band,another being about 55 Kd.