1981 Vol. 2, No. 1

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There are many records about gibbons (Hylobates) named "alternatively armed" apes in the Chinese ancient literature.The arms are greatly elongated with the forearm and hand being the most elongated.Hylobates means "dweller in the trees",and the name is fully justified for these animals.the call of the gibbon is most typical.Every morning the troops of gibbons filled the forests and valleys with their songs.They are howler monkeys of the old world.We have made a review of all the previous records of the gibbons since the fourth century,and we have discovered that the Chinese gibbons had been distributed in famous three gorges (Wu gorge etc.) of the Yangtze and northwestern parts of Hunan province and then retreated to the Yunkai mountains and Shiwan mountains of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces.At the present,they are confined in distribution to Hainan Island and southern Yunnan province.Thus we may see that there exists quite a difference between their distribution of the present time and that in former times.
This paper deals with the distribution and habit of Yunnan snub-nosed monkey.According to our investigations,the distribution of Yunnan snub-nosed nokeys is limited in Yun-ling mountain ranges within the area of 98°40′-100°00′E,and 26°30′-31°00′N.They dwell in the dark forest of conifers with an elevation of 3350 to 4000 meters and seldom get down to the ground.Their food is considerably specialized and they take the leaves of China fir as their main food.This food habit is very rare among primates.
The karyotypes of four Amphibian species-Rana pleuraden Boulenger,R.catesbeiana (Shaw),R.japonica chaochiaoensis Liu,and Hyla annectans (Jerdon) were determined from metaphase of bone marrow or epithlinum cells from gut tissue prepared by the colchicine-hypotonic-air drying technique.The morphological criteria-relative length,arm-ratio and presence of secondary constriction permit the identification of each of the component parts.Three species of Genus Rana,like most other members of the Genus,have 26 chromosomes which divide into a group of five large pairs and a group of eight small pairs.Relative chromosomal lengths are similar in all three species.But the 10th chromosome of R.pleuraden have a secondary constriction in the long arm,while that of R.japonica chaochiaoensis are more than three.R.catesbeiana has only three.All the three species of Genus Rana have a large submetacentric chromosome,I.e.the 3rd chromosome.The above mentioned facts enable us to explain the homogenity of their evolution.The chromosomes of all the three species of genus Rana are meta- or submetacentric ones,without telo- or subtelocentric ones.Like other species of tree frog,Hyla annectans has 24 chromosomes which divide into a group of 5 large pairs and a group of 7 small pairs,a secondary constriction located in the long arm of the 9th chromosome.There is no evidence of an heteromorphic sex pair of chromosomes in these four species.
The fibrinolytic principle was obtained by twice DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column chromatography and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration from the venom of Agkistrodon halys Pallas.The experiment both in vitro and in vivo suggests that the fibrinolytic principle has actions on fibrin and fibrinogen and is able to hydrolyze factor Ⅷ and factor Ⅴ.The properties of the fibrinolytic principle of Agkistrodon halys Pallas venom are similar to those of plasmin,therefore,it is a plasmin-like substance.
An anticoagulant principle was obtained from the venom of Agkistrodon halys produced in zhejinang province by means of DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and CM-Sephadex C-25 column chromatography.The effect of the principle on blood coagulation both in vitro and in vivo was studied.In vitro,it remarkably prolonged plasma recalcification time and one-stage plasma prothrombin time,but did not prolong thrombin time and did not dissolve fibrin.It could inhibit formation of blood thromboplastin and tissue thromboplastin even at low concentrations.In rabbit by intravenous injection,the principle caused a marked and transient prolongation of whole blood coagulation time,plasma re-calcification time,one-stage plasma prothrombin time and thrombin time,and decreased suddenly in the rabbit fibrinogen level below 22% at 10 minutes after injection,but Ac-globulin dissolution time was not shortened.
Fractionation of venom of Bungarus fasciatus was performed on cellulose phosphate p11 by column chromatography.Peak Ⅷ (cardiotoxic principles) was further isolated on SE-Sephadex G-25 and divided into ⅧA and ⅧB.Purified cardiotoxic principle A and B were obtained by column chromatography of ⅧA and ⅧB on Sephadex G-50.A single band without enzyme activity was observed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.The contents and composition of amino-acid are similar to those tested by Shiau Lin et al.
In the present paper three species of the genus Neriene (Araneae,Linyphiidae) from China are diagnosed and described.The female of N.cavaleriei is described for the first time.
Lasiohelea aeschrodenta,sp.nov.