2003 Vol. 24, No. 1

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Using the method of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)and three primers,we got the sequences of the first internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) and a small subunit of rRNA (SSrRNA),and then constructed phylogenetic trees of some genera/species in peritrichs.A comparison of the tree structures showed that SSrRNA was more reliable marker for analyzing the phylogenetic position of peritrichs within Ciliophora.The phylogenetic tree based on the SSrDNA sequence strongly supported the monophyly of the subclass Peritrichia,or its subclass rank is reasonable.In addition,there are some evidences showing that peritrichs are a higher group in Oligohymenophoreans.
The phylogenetic tree of arthropod lineages has been reconstituted by Giribet et al (2001),and in the tree hexapods (insects) are completely merged into the Crustacea to form a single group,Pancrustacea.This new hypothesis is entirely inconsistent with the conventional concepts on arthropod phylogeny,which attracts full attention to the entomologists and zoologists in the world.In this article I attempt to introduce the most important hypothesis on the phylogenetic relationships of the higher taxa of arthropods during the last century,and make a brief review for the progress,the present status and perspective in the research of arthropod phylogeny.
Data on daytime budget of saiga antelopes (Saiga tatarica) were collected in a colony of multifemale,onemale unit in a 30 ha enclosure in Wuwei,Gansu Province.The state-behaviors were scanned and instantaneous sampled with 5-min intervals in two seasons — the mating season [P1,December 2000,including pre-mating (a),mating (b) and post-mating ? periods],and the lactation (P2,May-July,2001).Data processing showed:1)After Plb females increased their time in feeding,and reduced that in lying-out;from P1a to P1c,time in standing successively reduced;within 2 weeks after giving birth,the females separated from the major group,and returned with lambs in the 3rd week.2)The adult male spent more time in moving in P1a than that in P1b,and increased time in lyingout after P1b.3)Sex difference of time budget,especially the feeding and lying-out time,appeared in and after P1b,and the difference could be traced to the differentiation of parental investments - females were the only investors to the offspring since pregnancy.These results implied that supplementary food should increase in the two seasons for the animals better reproduction.
We incubated eggs of Eumeces chinensis at different temperature forms (constant at 24,30 and 32 ℃,and naturally fluctuating between 22.0 ℃ and 36.2 ℃) to assess the influence of incubation temperature on hatching success and hatchling traits.The duration of incubation varied considerably among temperature treatments,but the hatching success and the sprint speed of hatchlings did not differ.Incubation temperature significantly affected the size/shape,weight and residual yolk dry mass of hatchlings:the young incubated at 24 ℃ and fluctuating temperatures were heavier in wet body mass and carcass dry mass but lighter in residual yolk dry mass (I.e.,higher use rate of yolk) than that at 30 and 32 ℃.The high temperature (32 ℃) showed a negative effect on the development of somatic growth.That the fluctuation of temperature increased the range of incubation temperature suitable for this species should be viewed as a result of adaptation to natural environment.
The phylogenetic relationships among and within genera Dama,Axis,Elaphurus,and Cervus in subfamily Cervinae remain controversial,particularly within genus Cervus.We analyzed the sequence of Cyt b gene of the genera,5 species of Cervus,and 6 subspecies of C.elaphus distributing in China.The results suggest that:Genus Axis might not be monophyletic and A.porcinus should be merged into Cervus.A close genetic relationship between Elaphurus and Cervus indicated that two taxa should be incorporated into the same genus,whereas the classification status of Dama dama still remained uncertain.Cervus,including Père David s deer and hog deer,comprised a monophyletic clade.Subspecies of China s C.elaphus,which derived from C.nippon,formed a monophyletic group.Among them,C.e.songaricus and C.e.sibiricus clustered together and diverged early.
This study was designed to assess the effects of the sources of the donor cells and the treatments to the cells on the development of nucleartransferred embryos in vitro.Fibroblast cells of bovines were or not treated with serum starvation or preactivation,and then nuclei were gained.Reconstructed embryos (RE) were produced by microinjecting the nuclei into the cytoplasm of enucleated oocytes,of which the cleavage rate (CR) was checked at 24 and 36 h,and the blastocyst rate (BR) on D8.The experiment resulted in:1)There was no difference in CR and BR of RE among three aged (6,18 and 36 months) animals and two breeds (Angus and Holstein) for four individuals in total.2)CR of RE at 36 h,which produced with full-confluent fibroblast cells of 36-month Holstein experienced for 10-13 d serumstarvation duration,was lower than those for 0 d (control),3-5 d and 6-9 d;BR of RE was only lower than that for 3-5 d.3) CR and BR of RE,which produced from cells of 36-month Holstein,had no difference between the control and the preactivation by 5 μmol/L ionomycin or 7% ethanol.
To investigate whether the unicellular eukaryote euglenoid possess lamin gene,according to known sequences of a series of lower metazoa,a pair of primers were designed to amplify the 3-terminal region of lamin gene.From total DNA of Astasia longa,two fragments were amplified and sequenced.Sequence comparison showed that the short one (650 bp) was the part of 5-terminal of the long one (797 bp).The 797 bp sequence contained a region harboring a motif,"CaaX+stop codon",which is the feature of 3-terminal of all known lamin genes.Our results suggested that the unicellular eukaryote euglenoid possessed a lamin-like gene.
Two new freshwater atyid shrimps,Caridina angustipes sp.nov.and C.clavipes sp.nov.from Hunan Province,China are described.C.angustipes sp.nov.is similar to C.baojingensis Guo,He et Bai,1992,but with longer rostrum,15-27 dorsal teeth,3-6 ventral teeth,and straighter inner margin of endopods in male 1st pleopods.C.clavipes sp.nov.is similar to C.angustipes,but with narrower distal and fewer spines on inner margin of endopds in male 1st pleopods,and shorter and thinner appendix masculina in male 2nd pleopods with only 1 spine on inner lateral margin and 4 spines in apex.The holotypes are deposited in Shanghai Fisheries University.Some representative paratypes are deposited in Foshan Science and Technology College.
Using radioimmunoassay technique,we determined concentration of 2 steroids of blood samples from 3 male Père Davids deer (Eluphurus davidianus) in rut,3 in pre-rut,and 4 in postrut during Jul.-Aug.2000.Results showed that serum testosterone concentration (STC) in the rut was significantly higher than that in the pre- and post-rut,however,serum cortisol concentration (SCC) kept stable,and did not change with STC.The change in STC consists with that documented for wild ungulates.
Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH),two subtracted cDNA libraries were constructed for mitten hand crab (Eriocheir japonica sinensis) ovaries in two periods of developments.Two-directional (forward and backward) SSH was performed on cDNAs of mitten hand crab ovaries in periods Ⅱ or Ⅲ.Two-directional subtracted cDNA fragments were cloned into PinPoint plasmid vectors,and the vectors were transformed into E.coli JM109.Finally,the forward and backward subtracted cDNA libraries (863 and 360 clones,respectively) were obtained.By PCR detection,the length of the inserted fragments of the forward and backward subtracted cDNA libraries was 360 and 160 base pairs on average,respectively.The results showed that the subtracted libraries constructed were suitable for further study on the genes related to the development of the mitten hand crab ovary.
Data on pairing age and age-related reproductive success were collected in Night Herons Nycticorax nycticorax at Tai Lake area in a period from April to June,2001.Of 206 pairs nesting at positions easy to observe,2 pairs were 2-yr old and 4-yr old,39 pairs were "2Y+2Y",34 pairs were "3Y+3Y",and 131 were "4Y++4Y+"(6 abandoned in midcourses).Of the reproductive birds 2- and 3-yr old parents were 35.4%.In 200 nests producing fledglings,there were no differences of the egg volume and brood size in the three age-class parents,but the egg weight,clutch size,hatch rate and the survival rate increased with parents age.
Rana kunyuensis,Lu et Li 2002 was newly founded in Mt.Kunyu,Shandong Province.Its postembryonic development was observed with microscopes in laboratory at 23.7-26.0 ℃.It took about 49 days to develop from operculum completion to metamorphosis completion,experiencing 19 stages.The labial teeth formula of tadpoles was mainly Ⅰ∶1-1/Ⅲ,and occasionally Ⅰ∶1-1/Ⅱ∶1-1,which were different from R.chensinensis,R.japonica,R.chaochiaoensis and R.huanrenensis,but similar to R.amurensis.The latter further confirmed that Lu and Lis finding.
The developmental potential of primate oocytes matured in vitro is poor due to the lack of knowledge on primate oocyte maturation.Improving the developmental capability of primate oocytes in culture has great significance in human IVF clinic as well as in basic research of this topic.Based on studies on the cytoplasmic maturation of macaque oocytes,we discussed the effect of several culture elements (estradiol and progesterone,energy substrates,amino acids),on in vitro maturation of primate oocytes,as well as the relations of the age and oestrous cycle of animals to oocyte developmental potential.Understanding the effects of above factors on oocyte maturation at molecular level is a big challenge for future work.
Application of animal cloning is limited with especially low efficiency and birth defect cloned offspring.This is because molecular mechanism underlying animal cloning is not well known.For better understanding of current progress in this field,we gathered reports on molecular ways affecting the success of animal cloning,such as nuclear-cytoplasm interaction,epigenetic reprogramming,mitochondrial fate,telomere changing and X chromosome inactivation,etc.It looks as if the application of some new techniques such as bio-CMOS chip would help resolving the problems.