1999 Vol. 20, No. 3

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The ultrasturcture of the spermatozoon of Hyla chinensis was studied in this paper and its significance on the phylogenesis was roughly inquired.The spermatozoon consisted of a head and a tail.In the head there was a stick-like nucleus with highly condensed chromatin in it.A coneshaped acrosome lied anterior to the nucleus.There was a subacrosomal cone and some small vesicles within the subacrosomal space.The tail of the spermatozoon was thin and long.It consisted of an axoneme,a dense fiber and mitochondria,but without an undulating membrane.Based on the fine structure of the spermatozoa of Bufonidae,Hylidae and Ranidae which had been studied so far,it was suggested that during the evolution of anuran amphibian the structure of the sperm tended to simplify.The complexity of the sperm structure of Hylidae was situated between Bufonidae and Ranidae,but was more similar to that of Bufonidae.Within Hylidae,the structure of the spermatozoon of Hyla chinensis was simpler than that of other species which had been studied in Hylidae.It was suggested that the reduction of the undulating membrane and the reduction (or the fusion) of the accessory fibers in the spermatozoon tail could be considered as advanced features of Hyla chinensis.
The histology and ultrastructure of male reproductive system of mussels Mytilus edulis were studied with light microscope and transmission electron microscope.The male reproductive system is composed of branch testis and vas deferens.The testis consist of great number of branchy seminiferous tubules and capsules.The tubule showed by the transverse section is made up of germinative epithelia (spermatogonium) and tubule liner,and the germinative epithelia constantly produce spermatocyte,spermatid and sperm.The spermatogonium has an oval shape,in which there are dispersed chromatin,mitochondria and many free ribosomes.In primary spermatocyte and secondary spermatocyte the chromatin densified to some blocks.In the early spermatid,many small dense particulates which produced from rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicles,aggregated to form a large proacrosomal vesicles.The acrosomal vesicle futher develop into "Λ"shape acrosome which composed of apical cap,acrosomal central tubule and lamellar structure.At the same time,the nucleus and flagellum were produced (there are 5 mitochondria in base of the flagellum) and the sperm matured.
In 1980 and 1984,two surveys of Amphi bia were carried out at Mt.Gongga,western part of Sichuan Province.One species of Scutiger (Aelurophryne) was collected from Tanggu,Jiulong County,at the western side of Mt.Gongga.Morphological characters of this species were compared with 4 related species (muliensis,tuberculatus,glandulatus and mammatus).Muscular proteins of 4 species (tuberculatus,glandulatus,mammatus,and sp.Jinlong) are analysed by isoelectric focusing in thin layer of polyacrylamide gel.The result indicates that the species in Jiulong differs from other related species of Scutiger (Aelurophryne) in morphological characteres and electrophoretic evidence.Therefore,the species in Jiulong is considered to be a new species,I.e.Scutiger (Aelurophryne) jiulongensis Fei,Ye and Jiang,sp.nov. The type specimens are preserved in Chengdu Institute of Biology. Scutiger (Aelurophryne)jiulongensis Fei,Ye and Jiang,sp.nov. Holotype:No.CIB80I0387,adult male,SVL 71.6 mm;type locality:Tanggu (101°32′E,29°10′N),Jiulong County,Sichuan Province,altitude 3 210 m:collected on June 1,1980 by HUANG Yong-zhao and WANG Chao-fang. Paratypes:38♂♂(Nos.CIB80I0370-80I0386,80I0388,80I0396-80I0406,841353-841361),eggs (Nos.CIB80I0389,841351,841352) and tadpoles (No.CIB80I0390) of different stages from the same locality as the holotype;altitute 3 210-3 750 m;collected on June 1-2,1980,by HUANG Yong-zhao,and June 6-7,1984,by FEI Liang and YE Chang-yuan. Diagnosis:This new species is closely related to Scutiger (Aelurophryne) tuberculatus Liu and Fei,but differs from the latter in:1) warts on dorsum larger,low;2) chest glands of male separated from each other and spines on the glands large,having 32-102(63.2±19.20,n=72) spines in 10 mm2;3) axillary glands small and the spines on the glands smaller than that on chest glands;4) of tadpoles,body large and firmfleshed;posterior 1/2 of tail wider than anterior 1/2;tail length less than 11/2(143.7%) times snout-vent length.Whereas in tuberculatus:warts on dorsum are large,elevated,rounded or oblong;space between chest glands is narrow or in contact with eath other and spines on the glands very fine and crowed,having 270-640 (421.2±97.93,n=53) spines in 10 mm2;axillary glands are large and spines on the glands are the same in size with that on chest glangs;of tadpoles,body is slender;the posterior 1/2 narrower than anterior 1/2;tail length more than 11/2times (156.3%) snout-vent length.
This paper deals with the classification,distribution and the phylogenetic relationships among the species of the genus Phrynocephalus in Tibet Plateau with the paleogeographic changes in cenozoic.According to the analysis of 11 morphological and 1 ecological characters,it is evident that there are three species and two subspecies (including a newly described one) of the genus Phrynocephalus distributed in Tibet Plateau:Phrynocephalus theobaldi theobaldi,P.erythrurus and P.zetangensis as well as P.theobaldi orientalis nov.ssp.The differences between the two subspecies are:1)the hind limbs adpressing to head for P.t.orientalis not extending to mouth but for P.t.theobaldi it touches mouth;2)the average rows of scales on face for P.t.theobaldi is 4 and the average rows of scales on face for P.t.orientalis is 3;3)the length of tail of P.t.orientalis shorter than the length of snout-vent and for P.t.theobaldi it is longer than the length of snout-vent.P.theobaldi is distributed between the north side of imalaya Mountains and south side of GangDise—NyainQenTanGlha Mountains;P.erythrurus spreaded between south-west side of KunLun Mountains and north side of Gang Dise—NyainQenTanGlha Mountains and P.zetangensis was only found at Zetang.The analysis of phylogeny using P.forsythii as outgroup showed that the species group of Phrynocephalus distributed in Tibet Plateau derived from a common ancestor stock.During Miocene the ancestor of species group of P.theobaldi might be derived from the common ancestor by geographical vicariance due to the uplift of KunLun Mountains resulting in the elevational difference.During the time between late Miocene and earlier Pliocene P.erythrurus and P.zetangensis might be derived from its ancestor by dispersal so that they are sister species group.
In the present paper one new species of Ligophorus Euzet & Suriano,1977 (Monogenea,Ancyrocephalidae) are described.Type specimens are deposited in the Department of Biology,Hainan Normal University. Ligophorus hamulosus Pan & Zhang,sp.nov.(Figs.1-4) Type specimens No.:HHK9605-15.Host:Liza macrolepis.Location:Gills.Locality:Haikou (20′06°N,110′38°E),Hainan Island.Date:Nov.5,1996. Body of medium size,0.560-0.702×0.127-0.146 mm.Pharynx 0.015-0.018×0.015-0.020 mm.Opisthohaptor 0.075-0.118×0.068-0.070 mm in size.Marginal hooklets 0.012-0.015 mm in length.Ventral central large anchors 0.027-0.029 mm in total length,basal portion 0.020-0.023 mm,point about 0.003 mm,inner root 0.009-0.013 mm,outer root 0.004-0.050 mm.Ventral connective plate 0.007-0.009×0.033-0.038 mm.Dorsal central large anchors 0.020-0.023 mm in total length,basal portion 0.015-0.018 mm,point about 0.003 mm,inner root 0.009-0.013 mm,outer root 0.004-0.005 mmDorsal connective plate 0.004-0.005×0.038-0.040 mm in size. Copulatory organ 0.025-0.043 mm in total length.Copulatory tube thin,C-shaped curved,0.055-0.063 mm in length according to its curvature,diameter of middle part about 0.002 mm.Supporting apparatus 0.020-0.030 mm in length.Vagina being funnel like and thin,0.020-0.023 mm in length.Eggs 0.065-0.098×0.050-0.078 mm in size. Description is based on 10 specimens. This worm is similar to Ligophorus imitans Euzet & Suriano,1977,but differs from the latter by 1)the shape and the structure of the central anchors,2)the different size and the chitinous measurement between the ventral and the dorsal central large anchors and 3)the structure of the copulatory apparatus.
In the present paper,the origin of the family Perlidae and the distribution characters of the tribe and the subfamily were summarized and analyzed.Based on the distribution of the genera in the world,the eight distribution types of the genera were divided.In addition,the distribution characters of the Perlidae in China were also probed preliminarily.So far two subfamilies,four tribe and twenty genera have been found in China.Ten of them,of which three genera are endemic to China,are the Oriental genera;one Palaearctic genus;three OrientalPalaearctic genera;one Oriental-Nearctic genus;four OrientalPalaearctic-Nearctic genera and one OrientalPalaearctic-Nearctic-Afrotropical genus.Moreover,the main distribution character of Chinese Perlidae is that most of the species distribute Central China region,South China region and Southwest China region.The Central China region centralizes the distribution and the break of the perlid species,and made the dispersal for the others regions.
Data on male-infant social behavior of Macaca thibetana were collected in a period from January to September 1997,covering the whole birth season and the early mating season.One-minute point sampling was used for male-infant caretaking (in lap+in proximity),and five-minute event sampling for male-infant-male interactions (triads).The observation resulted in:1)The infant of 4.5-18 weeks was caretaken by adult males for 7.9% of its time in early 20 weeks after birth (9.6% for males vs.5.6% for females).2)The caretaking tended towards male infants,but no differences existed among the same sex of infants.3)The intensity of caretaking increased with the rank of caretakers.4)The percent of infants caretaken time was positively related to the number of triads involved by the infant.Because the mating opportunity of males is rankdependent,results 2 and 3 imply that sexual/kin selection was involved in the evolution of male-infant caretaking (IMC) in a fuzzy way.
Odor preference and behavioral interactions of unrelated and unfamiliar adult ratlike hamsters (Cricetulus triton) were studied during the nonbreeding season in the laboratory.In Y-maze,focal hamsters preferred odors of conspecific bedding materials to those of control cotton;focal males responses did not show a sexual difference between males and females odors,while focal females preferred males odors to females .Focal hamsters spent more time in either arm of Y-maze with hamster demonstrator than another control arm;focal males spent more time in one of arms with same-sex hamster demonstrator than another with the opposite-sex individual,while focal females did not displayed such a difference.The staged dyadic encounters were conducted in a neutral arena;paired encounters between both same sexes and opposite sexes contained frequent agonistic acts and few amiable acts;the victors had more attack and flank gland marking than the losers,this indicated flank gland marking was positively related to gonistic behavior and dominant status.
Changes in soil animal communities during leaf litter decomposition were studied with litter bag method over a two year period (from May 1993 to April 1995) in Cyclobalanopsis glauca forest.The community organization was compared among different stages of the leaf litter decomposition.For the soil animals,the successional changes in the community structure were expressed by the diversity index,succession index and similarity index.Soil animals showed changes in the community throughout the period. In the study,the most dominant taxa in density was Acarina,and the second was Collembola,both accounting for 92.7% of total individuals.Diptera,Hymenoptera,Araneae,Homoptera,Pauropoda,Protura and Lepidoptera took less place.The colonization of the taxa more correlating with the mass loss of the leaf litter were Araneae,Collembola,Diptera,Oribatida and Acarina in order.Colembola,Diptera,Homopter,Araneae and Lepidoptera were earlier colonizers and colonized for 6 to 8 months during the 2 year decomposition period,while Acarina and Oribatida occurred in the whole decomposition and colonized for 8 to 12 months. The succession of the communities was related to the changes in food resource during decomposition.Araneae,Collembola and Diptera showed significant positive correlation with the mass loss,Acarina and Oribatida normal positive correlation,Protura and Pauropoda negative correlation,and Homoptera,Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera litter correlation. The feeding of the animals were compared in relation to the changes of the food resource.
The organic substance in test sample were extracted by XAD-2,and the extracts of water sample in seven localities from lake water sample of Fuxian Lake were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS).Over hundred organic pollutants were discovered in every water sample.The extracts were examined for mutagenic potential by the sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) test in cultured human lymphocyte.According to our results,the water sample of Ruhukou only at higher concentration group (0.0625 L/mL) induced a significant increase for SCE.
In this paper,the effect of acute heat stress on the level of natriuretic peptide (ANP),angiotensin (AⅡ) and humoral Na[+]/K[+] in mice was investigated.The results showed that there was no significant change of the ANP level in plasma with treatment of heat stress.On the contrary the level of plasma AⅡ and lung index markedly increased,and the Na[+]/K[+] decreased.In recovery stage,the ANP level rapidly increased to 250% of the control,at the same AⅡ content in plasma decreased to 47% of the control,Na[+]/K[+] continuously decreased,the lung index decreased to normal level.These results indicated that ANP and AⅡ were involved in the progress of heat stress and play a key role in regulating metabolism of water and salt,by which body damage is protected and homeostasis were thus maintained.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a promising technique used in cytogenetic researches at the molecular level.In this paper,the current and potential uses of this technique in fishes are reviewed,with regards to such fields as gene localization,sex identification,chromosome variation,and interspecies hybridization.FISH has been successively applied into localization of rRNA gene in many kinds of fishes,which not only enriched the cytogenetic studies of fishes but also provided deep implication for chromosome evolution of fishes.Histones gene and some disease-related genes have also been localized in several fish species.Sex-specific FISH probes (including sex-related probes and sex-chromosome-related probes) have been obtained and put into sex identification of several fish species.Species-specific FISH probes have been used to examine chromosome elimination and interspecific hybrids in several kinds of fishes.In the same way,telomere repetitive sequences have been localized in several fish species and used to examine chromosome rearrangement.Centromere-specific probes and telomere-specific probes will be helpful in chromosome identification and sorting of fishes whose chromosomes are too small to be easily analyzed with traditional techniques.