1998 Vol. 19, No. 3

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367 bps of cytochrome b were sequenced with PCR.Subspecific origin and genetic diversity of red deer in china were studied according to differences of cytochrome b DNA sequences.The DNA differences of 4 subspecies were within subspecific diversity,but two populations of Tianshan red deer may be regarded as two subspecies.The divergence occurred about 0.54-0.76 Mya ago among 4 subspecies and Tianshan red deer diverged first from the other subspecies.It may be thought that red deer and sika deer diverged later and had closer relationships because of lower interspecific genetic difference between them.
Anopheles minimus is one of main vectors of malaria in southeast Asia.Recent studies have been focused on morphology,ecology,and contagion of plasmodiums.In this paper,random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs) were used to estimate genetic relationships of 29 Anopheles minimus from 5 geographic populations in Yunnan,China.Among 29 individuals,four were males.For twelve arbitrary primers analyzed,two of them gengrates monophic loci.Out of a total of 57 RAPD bands scored,37 were varied.Molecular phylogenetic tree derived from genetic distance suggested that the RAPDs were more related to geographic condition than to sexual distinction,There were genetic divergences among different geographic populations.Furthermore,it was implied that RAPD was one of prospering genetic markers for studying taxonomy and evolution of Anopheles minimus.
To sexually matured feral catfish,Mystus macropterus (Bleeker),injection of domperidone (DOM),a dopamine antagonist,failed to stimulate an increase in serum gonadotropin (GTH) level and failed to induce ovulation.Injection of LHRH-A alone had an effect on stimulating an increase in serum GTH levels,but resulted in a low ovulation rate.Injection of DOM plus LHRH-A resulted in significantly higher serum GTH levels than injection of LHRH-A alone,and resulted in a significantly higher ovulatory response.To sexually matured feral catfish,Leiocassis longirostris Gunther,injection of LHRH-A plus DOM had the same effect as LHRH-A plus silver carp pituitary suspension (SCPS),which had been used to induce ovulation of the bagrid catfishes for years,in inducing ovulation.Linpe method (LHRH-A plus DOM,given in single or two injections) avoided the truble of collecting and storing the pituitary and should be popularized in the artificial propagation of the bagrids in aquaculture.
The total content of sGnRH in brain and the regional distributions of sGnRH in discrete brain areas and pituitary were significantly changed with age and gonadal condition.In juvenile fish,the sGnRH was functional inadeguecy,represented by much less total sGnRH content in brain and with no significant distribution variations compared with those of yearling fish.The total content and the regional distributions of sGnRH in discrete brain areas in 3[+] year old sexually mature fish were similar to those in yearling sexually mature fish,but the sGnRH content in olfactory bulbs was higher and in pituitary was much lower than that in yearling fish.In yearling fish of different ovarian development,the total content of sGnRH was lower in early stage,highly increased in middle and mature stage,and decreased in regressed stage,showing significant seasonal variations.The contents of sGnRH in discrete brain areas also showed seasonal variations.
According to the previous studies,snake (Rhabdohpis tigrina) thymus is also a neuroendocrine organ.The existence of APUD cells in the immune organs and their properties were observed in 11 species of different vertebrate groups from fish to mammal with special staining techniques and immunocytochemical methods in this paper.The results showed that there were some argyrophil,argentaffin,lead-haemutoxylin positive and 5-HT,Gas or SS-immunostaining cells in thymus of frogs (Rana nigromaculata,Kaloula borealis),toads (Bufo bufo gargarizans,Xenopus laevis),chicken (Gallus gallus domestica) and Peking duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica).This is the same as in the snake,but in the other immune organs.According to the immunostaining result,there was a difference in type and number of positive cell between the species.The result indicated that thymus had neuroendocrine function and was a neuroendocrine organ from the evolutionary point.
The composition of groups,the structure and seasonal variation of soil fauna in Chongqing Airport grassland in 1995-1996 were investigated.The relation between soil fauna and birds was preliminarily analyzed.The results showed that Aacarina was the dominant group,and the common-seen groups were soil macrofauna and mesofauna,which were birds main prey.Soil microfauna whose activity was weak,and its likely to live in soil and humus.Soil macrofauna whose activity was strong,its likely to live on ground and moved as the environment changed.The measure of soil microfauna diversity and stability were better than those of soil macrofauna.Both the groups,the individuals and the community diversity of soil fauna in autumn and winter were more than those in spring and summer.This provided food resources for the birds in Chongqing Airport grassland.Thus effect that soil fauna variation has an influence on the birds action.Comparing the seasonal variation of species and individuals of soil fauna,we found a hysteretic phenomenon on time to the seasonal variation of species and number of individuals of birds.
This paper deals with bionomic strategies,interspecific competition strategies of coffee stem-borers,Xylotrechus quardripes Chevr.And Acalolepta cervinus (Hope).Moreover,combined these strategies,which regarded as the living strategies of coffee stem borers,with the theory of Integrated Pest Management (IPM),the features of coffee eco-system,and the attacking characteristic and occurrence regulation of coffee stem borers,a series of prevention and control strategies of these two beetles were formulated.These prevention and control strategies were proved to have good control effects in the practice of pest management.
From November 1993 to October 1994,the diet of Temmincks Tragopan (Tragopan temminckii) was studied in Xianrenshan area of Guizhou Province with field observations,trace checking,dropping analysis and crop examinations.Radiotelemetry was used for tracing three Temmincks Tagopans.The results of diet analysis were as follows:Temmincks Tragopan performed 5 types of feeding patterns,e.g.pecking,digging,jump-feeding,chase-feeding and feeding on trees with pecking as the main pattern.They moved to rugged areas in snowy weather;and prefered to feeding along the trails in valleys when its raining or foggy.This behaviour is closely related to the food supplies.The pheasant was found to have 87 food items throughout the year.The food items of Spring,Summer,Autumn and Winter were 59,28,24 and 44,respectively.The diet was significantly different between seasons.In the same season,the diet varied with areas and individuals.Generally,Temminck Tragopans fed on a variety of herbs and ferns in winter and spring.In summer and autumn,they fed on fruits of several species of bushes and trees,as well as herb seeds.The fruit of Alangium chinense and Macrocarpium chinensis were the main food in autumn.Different from Cabots Tragopan,Temmincks Tragopan feed on a number of different kinds of food without relying on one of them.This is probably one of the important reasons that Temmincks Tragopan has larger distribution area and is more common than Cabots Tragopan.
Lips and associated structures are of great taxonomic significance in the subfamily Labeoninae on the generic rank.The present paper deals with the comparative studies on the morphology of lips and associated structures among the labeonine fishes with a prebuccal cavity in China.The results indicated that the differences in morphology of the rostral cap and lower lip and the differences in the connection between the rostral cap and the lower lip,or between the rostral cap and the upper jaw,or between the lower lip and the lower jaw,or between the upper jaw and the lower lip,represented the major variations of lips and associated structures and could serve as the diagnostic characters.Four typical mouth patterns were identified among these fishes.On the basis of morphological characters of lips and associated structures,the mouth pattern similarities and the evolutionary relationships among the generic groups of these fishes were analyzed and the taxonomic position of the indigenous Chinese groups,Discocheilus and Sinocrossocheilus,were discussed.
A new species of Rhinogobius collected in the brooklet of Ling Jiang River system (Hengxi town,Zhejiang Province) in 1997 was described in this paper.It is very similar to the Rhinogobius davidi (Sauvage et Dabry) in the external form,but defers in many characters.The description of the present species is as follows.
In this paper,2 new species of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith found in Yunnan Province of China,P.cyphonota sp.n.and P.bakana sp.n.,were described.P.cyphonota sp.n.belongs to the subgenus Cyrtomyrma Forel.P.bakana sp.n.belongs to the subgenus Myrmhopla Forel.P.bakana sp.n.was found in the tropical rain forest of Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve.