1992 Vol. 13, No. 1

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The present paper deals with two species belonging to parasitic copepoda of the family Ergasilidae.Two species of Neoergasilus have been observed for the first time by the scanning electron microscopy.It is discovered that the ultrastructure of swimming legs and the morphology of thorax-plate are different from each other:leg 1 exopod first segment outer spine,biforked in N.longispinosus,comb-like in N.japonicus;leg 2 and 3 endopod third segment spine,dichela-like in N.longispinosus,monoramose in N.japonicus;leg 2 to leg 4 exopod first segment outer spine,long in N.longispinosus,short in N.japonicus.These differences stated above are called the expression of differentiation between two species and those differences in whole biological kingdom are called the expression of biodiversity.
During our expeditions to Hunan (1975) and Yunnan (1987),we found two different forms of Megophrys.After a comparison of the collected specimens with the known species of the genus,it is shown that the two forms are superficially most closer to M.lateralis than other species of the same genus.Further studies reveal,however,that both are apparently distinct from the latter by their external morphology and characters of the skull.Therefore,we believe that these two found in Hunan and Yunnan represent two new species of Megophrys,namely M.glandulosa and M.mangshanensis.The type specimens are kept in Chengdu Institute of Biology.
The present paper deals with the followings:Family Mideopsidae Koenike,the first record in China.Genus Mideopsis Neuman,the first record in China.
On March 18,1991,the authors collected 2 loach specimens from an underground cave near the famous Stone Forest of Yunnan.It is identified to be a new species,named Triplophysa shilinensis Chen et Yang,sp.nov.,alluding to the type locality Stone Forest (The words "Shi Lin=石林" in Chinese mean Stone Forest).New species and its phylogenetic relationship are described and discussed in the following:Triplophysa shilinensis Chen et Yang,sp.nov.
This paper deals with two new species and a new record species from China of which the male was firstly described.Type specimens are kept in the Insect Collections of Beijing Agricultural University.
During our Avifauna studies in Sichuan,Hunan and Hubei Provinces,we have discovered a new subspecies of the Bar-winged Wren Babbler which we proposed to name as.
This paper deals with the validation and theoretical analyses of a simple method for calculating the intrinsic rate of increase,rm,of aphids and mites.This method does not require a detailed fecundity table data.The value of rm can be estimated by the simple equation:rm=0.74 ln (Md)/d,where d is the time from birth to first reproduction;Md is the number of female offspring produced per original female in 2 d.This method was developed by Wyatt and White.We reached the following conclusions from our study:When the parameter,Md is less than 1,this equation is not appropriate for estimating rm of populations;When the parameter,Md is larger than 1 and about 70% or more of the reproductive contribution to the rm is achieved in 2d,the equation is appropriate for calculatng the rm of aphids and mites.As Md decreases,the required reproductive contribution to the rm in 2 d corresponding to the constant 0.74 will increase.However,whether 70% or more of reproductive contribution to rm is achieved in 2 d still is a problem for whole taxa of aphids and mites.Therefore,further study on reproductive distribution will be required for practical application of this method.
The paper deals with the relationship between the body temperatures of Phrynocephalus przewalskii (Sthauch) and Eremias multiocellata (Guenther) and the environmental temperatures,their selections of environmental temperatures and their resistance against low and high temperatures.The body temperatures of przewalskii and Multiocellata were negatively interrelated to environmental temperatures (P<0.001).Under the same temperatures.The body temperatures of przewalskii were 3 ℃ higher than that of multiocellata.The environmental temperatures selected by the former were 38-40 ℃,whereas the latter required only 35-37 ℃.The hot and dead temperatures of przewalskii were higher than those of multiocellata.The threshhold of the hot and dead temperatures in przewalskii varied from 44 ℃ to 48 ℃ and its highest dead temperature (TL[50]) was up to 48℃,and that in multiocellata was 42-46 ℃ and its highest hot temperature (TL[50]) was 46 ℃.The ability that two species can resist against low temperatures was equal.The cold and dead temperatures varied from 0 ℃ to -3 ℃.The cold and dead temperatures (TL[50]) of przewalskii were -2.3 ℃,but those of multiocellata were -2.5 ℃.These significant differences between the two species are concerned with the characteristics of each,habitats and sizes of the bodies.
The life history of Eulaelaps stabularis includes five stages:ovum,larva,protonymph,deutonymph and adult.However,oviposition is very rare with no vitality,so the mites are ovoviviparous and produce larva or protonymph.The constantly accumulating effective temperature and the developmental zero of the stages are as follows:larva,11.53 day-degree and 6.27 ℃;protonymph,38.87 day-degree and 9.36 ℃,deutonymph,48.14 day-degree and 7.92 ℃.The proper temperature point may lie in between 20-25 ℃.The mating behaviour can occur when they become adults.The mating process of both sexes and larviposition mode was viewed carefully.The parthenogenesis has never been dicovered.Even if they do not desire food for a period but can live a long life.
The breeding ecology of the Mongolian Skylark (Melanocorypha mongolica mongolica) was studied at Huangchengzi,Kangbao county,Hebie Province in 1984-1986.
During our study of the wild and the captivity of grown-up Lady amhersts pheasant,we assaied nutritional compositions of some organs,tissues and eggs.By means of this method,we discerned that the protein of thigh muscles of captivity was 11% higher than that of the wild,but the breast muscles of the former was 26% lower than that of the latter.The amino acid content in the breast muscle,thigh muscle and blood of the captivity were all higher than those of the wild:They had 25.24% & 22.60%,23.22% & 21.83%,22.41% & 17.73% respectively,But the liver was exceptional,the former had 24.26% and the latr tehad 26.02%.As for the carbohydrate contents the captivity had more than the wild,for example,breast muscle:0.262% & 0.186%,thigh muscle:0.238% & 0.191%,Liver:4.747% & 0.785%.We also analysed 12 kinds of elements and 4 kinds of vitamins on the pheasant.
This paper repcrts the studies of the snakes venom in China,including the venom amount extracted,the output in different months,the best time for extracting,and the feed,which all are related to snake venom output and its quality.The results show that the snake venom extracted at the interval of 21-30 days gives higher output and stronger enzymic activities.Snakes in hunger give higher quality and higher venom amount.The best frequency for feeding is 1-2 times at the interval of 21-30 days after the venom is extracted.However,feeding frequency would affect the output and quality.Snake venom is most poisonous between March and April of between October and November,but its degree of poison decreases between June and September.
Lung fibroblast line of Indian muntjac (KIZ-7901) was transformed with MNNG (N-Methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine).The transformed Indian muntjac cells (KIZ-8401) possessed the new karyotype with chromosome number of 8 in male and polyploid.The morphology and cell cycle as well as mitotic index in MNNG-transformed muntjac cells were different from diploid cell line of Indian muntjac (KIZ-7901).Moreover,the MNNG-transformed muntjac cells possessed colony-forming capacity in vitro.
The research employing the techniques of Salmonella/microsome reversion assay and SCE analysis evaluates systematically the mutagenic potential of fourbrand household liquid detergents and three kinds of indegredients,LABS,Dispersol D and Alkanolamide,based on the effects of these surfactants on the STY test strains with the HisD3052 and HisG46 mutations and on the SCE formation of mouse bone marrow cells.These results indicate that,in the absence of metabolic activators,these four-brand detergents,and LABS and Dispersol D all can significantly reverse the mutation HisD3052 and HisG46 to histidine independence,compared with negative control.Akanolamide also can elicit the frameshift mutation HisD3052,a positive response,but a negative effect appears in the case of the missense mutation.Otherwise,although,when implemented with exogenous source of metabolic activation,detergent TL dose not exhibit positive response in STY bioassay for mutagenic activity,the other three kinds of detergents and their three main components,Dispersol D,Alkanolamide and LABS can induce a significant reproducible increase in number of the reversant colonies compared with negative control.Nevertheless,it is below certain doses of test materials,or an equivalent exposing to human beings during their house routine that all these test chemicals reproduce a negative response either with or without metabolic activation.The results of SCE analysis demonstrate that four-brand detergents,compared with the solvent control,can induce the SCE formation of mouse bone marrow cells.Their cytotoxicity is observed-that the rates of bone marrow cell proliferation decrease after oral administration of high-dose detergents,and highest doses of all these chemicals tested do give an indication of toxicity as evidenced by the presence of pin-point abnormal colonies on the plates,or the reduction in the spontaneous reversion rate.In addition,the possible relationship between different mutagenic responses is disscussed.
A network was shown in the nucleus of special dinoflagellate,Oxyrrhis marina,by serial selective extrations,diethylene glycol distearate (DGD) embedment sectioning and embedment--free electron microscopy.This reticular structure could resist against the extractions of CSK buffer and the buffer which always removes microtubules and microfilaments from the cells.It could also resist against the digestion of Dnase and the treatment of hot trichloroacetic acid (5%,90-91℃,15 min).Therefore,it must be a non-DNA fibrous protein structure.Its reticular form,the thickness of the filaments (2.8-24 nm),connection with intermediate filaments in cytoplasm and the containing of a small amount of RNA which is necessary in keeping its spatial organization etc,are very similar to those of the nucleoskeleton of typical eukaryotes.However,the lamina of Oxyrrhis marina is not a well-distributed layer as the lamina in typical eukaryotic cells,but a discontinuous imcomplete layer.The nucleoskeleton was first demonstrated in the nucleus of a special dinoflagellate,Oxyrrhis marina.