Volume 44 Issue 3
May  2023
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Jia-Chen Zhu, Hui Xiao, Pu Tang, Xiao-Fei Li, Xuan-Kun Li, Chao-Dong Zhu, Qiong Wu, Jin-Hua Xiao, Cornelis van Achterberg, Da-Wei Huang, Xue-Xin Chen. Evolutionary timescale of chalcidoid wasps inferred from over one hundred mitochondrial genomes. Zoological Research, 2023, 44(3): 467-482. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2022.379
Citation: Jia-Chen Zhu, Hui Xiao, Pu Tang, Xiao-Fei Li, Xuan-Kun Li, Chao-Dong Zhu, Qiong Wu, Jin-Hua Xiao, Cornelis van Achterberg, Da-Wei Huang, Xue-Xin Chen. Evolutionary timescale of chalcidoid wasps inferred from over one hundred mitochondrial genomes. Zoological Research, 2023, 44(3): 467-482. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2022.379

Evolutionary timescale of chalcidoid wasps inferred from over one hundred mitochondrial genomes

doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2022.379
No specific ethics permits were required for this study. The chalcidoids species used in this study are not endangered and are not included in the “List of Protected Animals in China”. No specific permissions were required for sampling activities.
Supplementary data to this article can be found online.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
J.C.Z. designed the study, collected the samples, analyzed the data, prepared the figures, and wrote the original draft. H.X. identified the species and revised the manuscript. P.T. revised the manuscript and submitted the manuscript. X.F.L. conducted experiments. X.K.L. revised the manuscript. C.D.Z., Q.W., J.H.X., and D.W.H. identified the species. C.V.A. revised the manuscript. X.X.C. applied for the funding, revised the manuscript, and supervised the study. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
#Authors contributed equally to this work
Funds:  This work was supported by the Key International Joint Research Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31920103005), General Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (32070467), Provincial Key R&D Program of Zhejiang, China (2021C02045), Key Project of Laboratory of Lingnan Modern Agriculture (NT2021003), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and Special Research Fund for Distinguished Scholars of Zhejiang Province, China (2018R51004)
More Information
  • Corresponding author: E-mail: xxchen@zju.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 2022-12-26
  • Accepted Date: 2023-03-29
  • Published Online: 2023-03-29
  • Publish Date: 2023-05-18
  • Chalcidoidea is one of the most biologically diverse groups among Hymenoptera. Members are characterized by extraordinary parasitic lifestyles and extensive host ranges, among which several species attack plants or serve as pollinators. However, higher-level chalcidoid relationships remain controversial. Here, we performed mitochondrial phylogenomic analyses for major clades (18 out of 25 families) of Chalcidoidea based on 139 mitochondrial genomes. The compositional heterogeneity and conflicting backbone relationships in Chalcidoidea were assessed using various datasets and tree inferences. Our phylogenetic results supported the monophyly of 16 families and polyphyly of Aphelinidae and Pteromalidae. Our preferred topology recovered the relationship (Mymaridae+(Signiphoridae+Leucospidae)+(Chalcididae+((Perilampidae+Eucharitidae)+ remaining Chalcidoidea)))). The monophyly of Agaonidae and Sycophaginae was rejected, while the gall-associated ((Megastigmidae+Ormyridae)+(Ormocerinae+Eurytomidae)) relationship was supported in most results. A six-gene inversion may be a synapomorphy for most families, whereas other derived gene orders may introduce confusion in phylogenetic signals at deeper nodes. Dating estimates suggested that Chalcidoidea arose near the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary and that two dynamic shifts in diversification occurred during the evolution of Chalcidoidea. We hypothesized that the potential codiversification between chalcidoids and their hosts may be crucial for accelerating the diversification of Chalcidoidea. Ancestral state reconstruction analyses supported the hypothesis that gall-inducers were mainly derived from parasitoids of gall-inducers, while other gall-inducers were derived from phytophagous groups. Taken together, these findings advance our understanding of mitochondrial genome evolution in the major interfamilial phylogeny of Chalcidoidea.
  • No specific ethics permits were required for this study. The chalcidoids species used in this study are not endangered and are not included in the “List of Protected Animals in China”. No specific permissions were required for sampling activities.
    Supplementary data to this article can be found online.
    The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
    J.C.Z. designed the study, collected the samples, analyzed the data, prepared the figures, and wrote the original draft. H.X. identified the species and revised the manuscript. P.T. revised the manuscript and submitted the manuscript. X.F.L. conducted experiments. X.K.L. revised the manuscript. C.D.Z., Q.W., J.H.X., and D.W.H. identified the species. C.V.A. revised the manuscript. X.X.C. applied for the funding, revised the manuscript, and supervised the study. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
    #Authors contributed equally to this work
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