Volume 44 Issue 1
Jan.  2023
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Article Contents
Francisco M. Nadal-Nicolás, Caridad Galindo-Romero, Fernando Lucas-Ruiz, Nicholas Marsh-Amstrong, Wei Li, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Marta Agudo-Barriuso. Pan-retinal ganglion cell markers in mice, rats, and rhesus macaques. Zoological Research, 2023, 44(1): 226-248. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2022.308
Citation: Francisco M. Nadal-Nicolás, Caridad Galindo-Romero, Fernando Lucas-Ruiz, Nicholas Marsh-Amstrong, Wei Li, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Marta Agudo-Barriuso. Pan-retinal ganglion cell markers in mice, rats, and rhesus macaques. Zoological Research, 2023, 44(1): 226-248. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2022.308

Pan-retinal ganglion cell markers in mice, rats, and rhesus macaques

doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2022.308
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
F.M.N.N., C.G.R., and M.A.B. conceived and designed the study, analyzed the data, and prepared the figures. F.L.R. analyzed the data and prepared the figures. N.M.A., L.W., N.S., and M.V.S. participated in manuscript revision. M.A.B. wrote the first manuscript draft. L.W., M.V.S., and M.A.B. funded the study. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
#Authors contributed equally to this work
Funds:  This study was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (PID2019-106498GB-I0), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional “Una manera de hacer Europa” (PI19/00071), Fundación Séneca, Agencia de Ciencia y Tecnología Región de Murcia (19881/GERM/15), Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (PID 2019-106498 GB-I00), and Intramural Research Program of the National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH/NEI RO1 EY029087)
More Information
  • Corresponding author: E-mail: manuel.vidal@um.esmartabar@um.es
  • Received Date: 2022-09-23
  • Accepted Date: 2022-12-13
  • Published Online: 2022-12-16
  • Publish Date: 2023-01-18
  • Univocal identification of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is an essential prerequisite for studying their degeneration and neuroprotection. Before the advent of phenotypic markers, RGCs were normally identified using retrograde tracing of retinorecipient areas. This is an invasive technique, and its use is precluded in higher mammals such as monkeys. In the past decade, several RGC markers have been described. Here, we reviewed and analyzed the specificity of nine markers used to identify all or most RGCs, i.e., pan-RGC markers, in rats, mice, and macaques. The best markers in the three species in terms of specificity, proportion of RGCs labeled, and indicators of viability were BRN3A, expressed by vision-forming RGCs, and RBPMS, expressed by vision- and non-vision-forming RGCs. NEUN, often used to identify RGCs, was expressed by non-RGCs in the ganglion cell layer, and therefore was not RGC-specific. γ-SYN, TUJ1, and NF-L labeled the RGC axons, which impaired the detection of their somas in the central retina but would be good for studying RGC morphology. In rats, TUJ1 and NF-L were also expressed by non-RGCs. BM88, ERRβ, and PGP9.5 are rarely used as markers, but they identified most RGCs in the rats and macaques and ERRβ in mice. However, PGP9.5 was also expressed by non-RGCs in rats and macaques and BM88 and ERRβ were not suitable markers of viability.
  • The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
    F.M.N.N., C.G.R., and M.A.B. conceived and designed the study, analyzed the data, and prepared the figures. F.L.R. analyzed the data and prepared the figures. N.M.A., L.W., N.S., and M.V.S. participated in manuscript revision. M.A.B. wrote the first manuscript draft. L.W., M.V.S., and M.A.B. funded the study. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
    #Authors contributed equally to this work
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