Volume 43 Issue 3
May  2022
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Jing Chai, Chen-Qi Lu, Mu-Rong Yi, Nian-Hua Dai, Xiao-Dong Weng, Ming-Xiao Di, Yong Peng, Yong Tang, Qing-Hua Shan, Kai Wang, Huan-Zhang Liu, Hai-Peng Zhao, Jie-Qiong Jin, Ru-Jun Cao, Ping Lu, Lai-Chun Luo, Robert W. Murphy, Ya-Ping Zhang, Jing Che. Discovery of a wild, genetically pure Chinese giant salamander creates new conservation opportunities. Zoological Research, 2022, 43(3): 469-480. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2022.101
Citation: Jing Chai, Chen-Qi Lu, Mu-Rong Yi, Nian-Hua Dai, Xiao-Dong Weng, Ming-Xiao Di, Yong Peng, Yong Tang, Qing-Hua Shan, Kai Wang, Huan-Zhang Liu, Hai-Peng Zhao, Jie-Qiong Jin, Ru-Jun Cao, Ping Lu, Lai-Chun Luo, Robert W. Murphy, Ya-Ping Zhang, Jing Che. Discovery of a wild, genetically pure Chinese giant salamander creates new conservation opportunities. Zoological Research, 2022, 43(3): 469-480. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2022.101

Discovery of a wild, genetically pure Chinese giant salamander creates new conservation opportunities

doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2022.101
#Authors contributed equally to this work
Funds:  This work was equally supported by the STS Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB31000000). The Animal Branch of the Germplasm Bank of Wild Species, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Large Research Infrastructure Funding), and Jiangxi Academy of Sciences (2021YSBG50008) partially supported it
More Information
  • Effective conservation of threatened biota relies on accurate assessments and scientific guidance. As an unfortunate example, Chinese giant salamanders (Andrias, CGS) remain critically endangered in nature. Misguided conservation efforts, e.g., commercial propagation and releasing of millions of likely non-indigenous or interspecific hybrids, have further compromised conservation initiatives. Limited information on wild populations of CGS poses a significant conservation challenge. Following 18-month long field monitoring, we now report the discovery of a wild population of CGS in a closed nature reserve in Jiangxi Province, China. Genomic assessments reveal its genetic distinctiveness and do not detect genetic admixture with other species. Based on morphological and molecular evidences, we describe this CGS as a new species Andrias jiangxiensis sp. nov. This is the only known species of CGS today with a genetically pure, reproducing, in situ population. This discovery emphasizes the important role that closed nature reserves play in protecting species, and the necessity of integrating long-term field monitoring and genetic assessments. It sets a new pathway for discovering and conserving endangered species, especially for those biotas that are similarly being extirpated by anthropogenic translocations and overexploitation.
  • #Authors contributed equally to this work
  • loading
  • [1]
    Alexander DH, Novembre J, Lange K. 2009. Fast model-based estimation of ancestry in unrelated individuals. Genome Research, 19(9): 1655−1664. doi: 10.1101/gr.094052.109
    [2]
    Blanchard E. 1871. On a new gigantic salamander (Sieboldia Davidiana, Blanch.) from western China. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 8(45): 212−214.
    [3]
    Bòulenger EG. 1924. On a new giant salamander, living in the society's gardens. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 94(1): 173−174. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1924.tb01494.x
    [4]
    Cauwelier E, Gilbey J, Jones CS, Noble LR, Verspoor E. 2012. Asymmetrical viability in backcrosses between highly divergent populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): implications for conservation. Conservation Genetics, 13(6): 1665−1669. doi: 10.1007/s10592-012-0400-8
    [5]
    Cheng YL, Zhang ZW. 2015. Analysis of the current situation of Chinese giant salamander industry in Shaanxi province. Scientific Fish Farming, 31(9): 3−4. (in Chinese)
    [6]
    CITES. 2021(2021-06-22). Convention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora. Appendices I, II and III. http://www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.php.
    [7]
    Crandall KA, Bininda-Emonds ORP, Mace GM, Wayne RK, Crandall KA, Bininda-Emonds ORP, et al. 2000. Considering evolutionary processes in conservation biology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 15(7): 290−295.
    [8]
    Cunningham AA, Turvey ST, Zhou F, Meredith HMR, Guan W, Liu XL, et al. 2016. Development of the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus farming industry in Shaanxi Province, China: conservation threats and opportunities. Oryx, 50(2): 265−273. doi: 10.1017/S0030605314000842
    [9]
    Forcina G, Tang Q, Cros E, Guerrini M, Rheindt FE, Barbanera F. 2021. Genome-wide markers redeem the lost identity of a heavily managed gamebird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B:Biological Sciences, 288(1947): 20210285. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2021.0285
    [10]
    Foster RL, Mcmillan AM, Breisch AR, Roblee KJ, Schranz D. 2008. Analysis and comparison of three capture methods for the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Herpetological Review, 39(2): 181−186.
    [11]
    Fraser DJ, Bernatchez L. 2001. Adaptive evolutionary conservation: towards a unified concept for defining conservation units. Molecular Ecology, 10(12): 2741−2752. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-294X.2001.t01-1-01411.x
    [12]
    Gibeaux R, Acker R, Kitaoka M, Georgiou G, van Kruijsbergen I, Ford B, et al. 2018. Paternal chromosome loss and metabolic crisis contribute to hybrid inviability in Xenopus. Nature, 553(7688): 337–341.
    [13]
    Hammerson G, Phillips C. 2004. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e. T59077A11879843.https://dx. doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T59077A11879843.en.
    [14]
    Hohenlohe PA, Funk WC, Rajora OP. 2021. Population genomics for wildlife conservation and management. Molecular Ecology, 30(1): 62−82. doi: 10.1111/mec.15720
    [15]
    IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. 2nd ed. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN, 32.
    [16]
    Kaneko Y, Matsui M. 2004. Andrias japonicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e. T1273A3376261.https://dx. doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T1273A3376261.en.
    [17]
    Liang G, Geng BR, Zhao EM. 2004. Andrias davidianus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e. T1272A3375181. http://dx. doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T1272A3375181.en.
    [18]
    Liang ZQ, Chen WT, Wang DQ, Zhang SH, Wang CR, He SP, et al. 2019. Phylogeographic patterns and conservation implications of the endangered Chinese giant salamander. Ecology and Evolution, 9(7): 3879−3890. doi: 10.1002/ece3.5014
    [19]
    Liu YN, Weng Q. 2014. Fauna in decline: plight of the pangolin. Science, 345(6199): 884.
    [20]
    Lu CQ, Chai J, Murphy RW, Che J. 2020a. Giant salamanders: farmed yet endangered. Science, 367(6481): 989.
    [21]
    Lu Y, Sandoval A, Voss S, Lai Z, Kneitz S, Boswell W, et al. 2020b. Oncogenic allelic interaction in Xiphophorus highlights hybrid incompatibility. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(47): 29786−29794. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2010133117
    [22]
    Mace GM, Collar NJ, Gaston KJ, Hilton-Taylor C, Akçakaya HR, Leader-Williams N, et al. 2008. Quantification of extinction risk: IUCN's system for classifying threatened species. Conservation Biology, 22(6): 1424−1442. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01044.x
    [23]
    Martin SH, Dasmahapatra KK, Nadeau NJ, Salazar C, Walters JR, Simpson F, et al. 2013. Genome-wide evidence for speciation with gene flow in Heliconius butterflies. Genome Research, 23(11): 1817−1828. doi: 10.1101/gr.159426.113
    [24]
    May RM. 1990. Taxonomy as destiny. Nature, 347(6289): 129−130. doi: 10.1038/347129a0
    [25]
    Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People's Republic of China. 2017. Nature reserves catalog of China (2017). http://www.mee.gov.cn/ywgz/zrstbh/zrbhdjg/201905/P020190514616282907461.pdf. (in Chinese)
    [26]
    Momigliano P, Florin AB, Merilä J. 2021. Biases in demographic modeling affect our understanding of recent divergence. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 38(7): 2967−2985.
    [27]
    Nater A, Mattle-Greminger MP, Nurcahyo A, Nowak MG, de Manuel M, Desai T, et al. 2017. Morphometric, behavioral, and genomic evidence for a new orangutan species. Current Biology, 27(22): 3487−3498.e10. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.09.047
    [28]
    National Forestry and Grassland Administration of China. 2021(2021-02-08). Official release of the updated List of Wild Animals under Special State Protection in China. http://www.forestry.gov.cn/main/586/20210208/095403793167571.html. (in Chinese)
    [29]
    Okada S, Utsunomiya T, Okada T, Felix ZI, Ito F. 2008. Characteristics of Japanese giant salamander (Andrias japonicus) populations in two small tributary streams in Hiroshima prefecture, western Honshu, Japan. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 3(2): 192−202.
    [30]
    Powell DL, García-Olazábal M, Keegan M, Reilly P, Du K, Díaz-Loyo AP, et al. 2020. Natural hybridization reveals incompatible alleles that cause melanoma in swordtail fish. Science, 368(6492): 731−736. doi: 10.1126/science.aba5216
    [31]
    Schilling MP, Gompert Z, Li FW, Windham MD, Wolf PG. 2018. Admixture, evolution, and variation in reproductive isolation in the Boechera puberula clade. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 18(1): 61. doi: 10.1186/s12862-018-1173-6
    [32]
    Shaffer HB, Gidiş M, McCartney-Melstad E, Neal KM, Oyamaguchi HM, Tellez M, et al. 2015. Conservation genetics and genomics of amphibians and reptiles. Annual Review of Animal Biosciences, 3: 113−138. doi: 10.1146/annurev-animal-022114-110920
    [33]
    Shu GC, Liu P, Zhao T, Li C, Hou YM, Zhao CL, et al. 2021. Disordered translocation is hastening local extinction of the Chinese giant salamander. Asian Herpetological Research, 12(3): 271−279.
    [34]
    Stamatakis A. 2014. RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics, 30(9): 1312−1313. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btu033
    [35]
    Sun XW, Liu DY, Zhang XF, Li WB, Liu H, Hong WG, et al. 2013. SLAF-seq: an efficient method of large-scale de novo SNP discovery and genotyping using high-throughput sequencing. PLoS One, 8(3): e58700. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058700
    [36]
    Tapley B, Chen S, Turvey ST, Redbond J, Okada S, Cunningham AA. 2017. A sustainable future for Chinese giant salamanders: Chinese giant salamander field survey manual. Technical Report, Zoological Society of London.https://www.amphibians.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/CGS-field-manual-final.pdf.
    [37]
    Turvey ST, Chen S, Tapley B, Wei G, Xie F, Yan F, et al. 2018. Imminent extinction in the wild of the world's largest amphibian. Current Biology, 28(10): R592−R594. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.04.005
    [38]
    Turvey ST, Marr MM, Barnes I, Brace S, Tapley B, Murphy RW, et al. 2019. Historical museum collections clarify the evolutionary history of cryptic species radiation in the world's largest amphibians. Ecology and Evolution, 9(18): 10070−10084. doi: 10.1002/ece3.5257
    [39]
    Wang J, Parham JF, Shi HT. 2021. China's turtles need protection in the wild. Science, 371(6528): 473.
    [40]
    Wang J, Zhang HX, Xie F, Wei G, Jiang JP. 2017. Genetic bottlenecks of the wild Chinese giant salamander in karst caves. Asian Herpetological Research, 8(3): 174−183.
    [41]
    Wang XM, Zhang KJ, Wang ZH, Ding YZ, Wu W, Huang S. 2004. The decline of the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus and implications for its conservation. Oryx, 38(2): 197−202. doi: 10.1017/S0030605304000341
    [42]
    Yan F, Lü JC, Zhang BL, Yuan ZY, Zhao HP, Huang S, et al. 2018. The Chinese giant salamander exemplifies the hidden extinction of cryptic species. Current Biology, 28(10): R590−R592. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.04.004
    [43]
    Yang AS, Liu GJ. 1978. Bulletin on artificial propagation of giant salamanders. Hunan Fishery Science and Technology, (4): 29. (in Chinese)
    [44]
    Yang JA, Lee SH, Goddard ME, Visscher PM. 2011. GCTA: a tool for genome-wide complex trait analysis. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 88(1): 76−82. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.11.011
    [45]
    Zhang KJ, Wang XM, Wu W, Wang ZH, Huang S. 2002. Advances in conservation biology of Chinese giant salamander. Biodiversity Science, 10(3): 291−297. (in Chinese) doi: 10.17520/biods.2002040
  • ZR-2022-101 Supplementary Materials.zip
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(7)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (2382) PDF downloads(349) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return