Volume 37 Issue 4
Jul.  2016
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Ming LI, Shinn-Yi CHOU. Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues. Zoological Research, 2016, 37(4): 229-236. doi: 10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2016.4.229
Citation: Ming LI, Shinn-Yi CHOU. Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues. Zoological Research, 2016, 37(4): 229-236. doi: 10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2016.4.229

Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues

doi: 10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2016.4.229
Funds:  The preparation of this review was partially supported by a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health (5R01MH097718-02), U.S.A.
More Information
  • Corresponding author: Ming LI
  • Received Date: 2015-11-10
  • Rev Recd Date: 2016-01-20
  • Publish Date: 2016-07-18
  • The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, motivation and cognitive abilities that underlie postpartum mental disorders, such as postpartum depression. Despite the high incidence of this disorder, and the detrimental consequences for both mother and child, its etiology and related neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, partially due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In recent decades, there have been a number of attempts to model postpartum depression disorder in rats. In the present review, we first describe clinical symptoms of postpartum depression and discuss known risk factors, including both genetic and environmental factors. Thereafter, we discuss various rat models that have been developed to capture various aspects of this disorder and knowledge gained from such attempts. In doing so, we focus on the theories behind each attempt and the methods used to achieve their goals. Finally, we point out several understudied areas in this field and make suggestions for future directions.
  • loading
  • [1]
    Andersson L, Sundström-Poromaa I, Wulff M, Åström M, Bixo M. 2006. Depression and anxiety during pregnancy and six months postpartum: a follow-up study. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 85(8): 937-944.
    Beck CT. 2006. Postpartum depression: it isn't just the blues. The American Journal of Nursing, 106(5): 40-50; quiz 50-41.
    Bifulco A, Brown GW, Moran P, Ball C, Campbell C. 1998. Predicting depression in women: the role of past and present vulnerability. Psychological Medicine, 28(1): 39-50.
    Bifulco A, Figueiredo B, Guedeney N, Gorman LL, Hayes S, Muzik M, Glatigny-Dallay E, Valoriani V, Kammerer MH, Henshaw CA. 2004. Maternal attachment style and depression associated with childbirth: preliminary results from a European and US cross-cultural study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 184(Suppl 46): s31-s37.
    Bloch M, Schmidt PJ, Danaceau M, Murphy J, Nieman L, Rubinow DR. 2000. Effects of gonadal steroids in women with a history of postpartum depression. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(6): 924-930.
    Boccia ML, Razzoli M, Vadlamudi SP, Trumbull W, Caleffie C, Pedersen CA. 2007. Repeated long separations from pups produce depression-like behavior in rat mothers. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32(1): 65-71.
    Brummelte S, Galea LAM. 2010. Chronic corticosterone during pregnancy and postpartum affects maternal care, cell proliferation and depressive-like behavior in the dam. Hormones and Behavior, 58(5): 769-779.
    Brummelte S, Pawluski JL, Galea LAM. 2006. High post-partum levels of corticosterone given to dams influence postnatal hippocampal cell proliferation and behavior of offspring: A model of post-partum stress and possible depression. Hormones and Behavior, 50(3): 370-382.
    Cools R, Roberts AC, Robbins TW. 2008. Serotoninergic regulation of emotional and behavioural control processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(1): 31-40.
    Couto TC, Brancaglion MY, Alvim-Soares A, Moreira L, Garcia FD, Nicolato R, Aguiar RA, Leite HV, Correa H, 2015. Postpartum depression: A systematic review of the genetics involved. World journal of psychiatry, 5: 103-111.
    Englisch S, Knopf U, Scharnholz B, Kuwilsky A, Deuschle M, Zink M. 2009. Duloxetine for major depressive episodes in the course of psychotic disorders: an observational clinical trial. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 23(8): 875-882.
    Forty L, Jones L, Macgregor S, Caesar S, Cooper C, Hough A, Dean L, Dave S, Farmer A, McGuffin P, Brewster S, Craddock N, Jones I. 2006. Familiality of postpartum depression in unipolar disorder: results of a family study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(9): 1549-1553.
    Galea LAM, Wide JK, Barr AM. 2001. Estradiol alleviates depressive-like symptoms in a novel animal model of post-partum depression. Behavioural Brain Research, 122(1): 1-9.
    Gavin NI, Gaynes BN, Lohr KN, Meltzer-Brody S, Gartlehner G, Swinson T. 2005. Perinatal depression: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 106(5): 1071-1083.
    Giurgescu C, Misra DP, Sealy-Jefferson S, Caldwell CH, Templin TN, Slaughter-Acey JC, Osypuk TL. 2015. The impact of neighborhood quality, perceived stress, and social support on depressive symptoms during pregnancy in African American women. Social Science & Medicine, 130: 172-180.
    Graeff FG, Guimaraes FS, De Andrade TGCS, Deakin JFW. 1996. Role of 5-HT in stress, anxiety, and depression. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 54(1): 129-141.
    Henry JD, Rendell PG. 2007. A review of the impact of pregnancy on memory function. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 29(8): 793-803.
    Hill RA, Klug M, Kiss Von Soly S, Binder MD, Hannan AJ, van den Buuse M. 2014. Sex-specific disruptions in spatial memory and anhedonia in a "two hit" rat model correspond with alterations in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and signaling. Hippocampus, 24(10): 1197-1211.
    Hillerer KM, Neumann ID, Slattery DA. 2012. From stress to postpartum mood and anxiety disorders: how chronic peripartum stress can impair maternal adaptations. Neuroendocrinology, 95(1): 22-38.
    Hillerer KM, Reber SO, Neumann ID, Slattery DA. 2011. Exposure to chronic pregnancy stress reverses peripartum-associated adaptations: implications for postpartum anxiety and mood disorders. Endocrinology, 152(10): 3930-3940.
    Jones I, Heron J, Blackmore ER, Craddock N. 2008. Incidence of hospitalization for postpartum psychotic and bipolar episodes. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(3): 356.
    Kendler KS, Thornton LM, Gardner CO. 2001. Genetic risk, number of previous depressive episodes, and stressful life events in predicting onset of major depression. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(4): 582-586.
    Kurata A, Morinobu S, Fuchikami M, Yamamoto S, Yamawaki S. 2009. Maternal postpartum learned helplessness (LH) affects maternal care by dams and responses to the LH test in adolescent offspring. Hormones and Behavior, 56(1): 112-120.
    Lemaire V, Billard JM, Dutar P, George O, Piazza PV, Epelbaum J, Le Moal M, Mayo W. 2006. Motherhood-induced memory improvement persists across lifespan in rats but is abolished by a gestational stress. European Journal of Neuroscience, 23(12): 3368-3374.
    Lin YM, Ko HC, Chang FM, Yeh TL, Sun HS. 2009. Population-specific functional variant of the TPH2 gene 2755C>A polymorphism contributes risk association to major depression and anxiety in Chinese peripartum women. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 12(6): 401-408.
    Lonstein JS. 2005. Reduced anxiety in postpartum rats requires recent physical interactions with pups, but is independent of suckling and peripheral sources of hormones. Hormones and Behavior, 47(3): 241-255.
    Lonstein JS. 2007. Regulation of anxiety during the postpartum period. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 28(2-3): 115-141.
    Mahon PB, Payne JL, MacKinnon DF, Mondimore FM, Goes FS, Schweizer B, Jancic D, Consortium NGIBD, Bi GSC, Coryell WH, Holmans PA, Shi J, Knowles JA, Scheftner WA, Weissman MM, Levinson DF, DePaulo JR Jr, Zandi PP, Potash JB. 2009. Genome-wide linkage and follow-up association study of postpartum mood symptoms. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(11): 1229-1237.
    Maier SF, Watkins LR. 2005. Stressor controllability and learned helplessness: the roles of the dorsal raphe nucleus, serotonin, and corticotropin-releasing factor. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29(4-5): 829-841.
    Malberg JE, Duman RS. 2003. Cell proliferation in adult hippocampus is decreased by inescapable stress: reversal by fluoxetine treatment. Neuropsychopharmacology, 28(9): 1562-1571.
    Navarre BM, Laggart JD, Craft RM. 2010. Anhedonia in postpartum rats. Physiology & Behavior, 99(1): 59-66.
    Nemeroff CB. 2008. Understanding the pathophysiology of postpartum depression: implications for the development of novel treatments. Neuron, 59(2): 185-186.
    Nephew BC, Bridges RS. 2011. Effects of chronic social stress during lactation on maternal behavior and growth in rats. Stress, 14(6): 677-684.
    Nephew BC, Byrnes EM, Bridges RS. 2010. Vasopressin mediates enhanced offspring protection in multiparous rats. Neuropharmacology, 58(1): 102-106.
    O'Hara MW, McCabe JE. 2013. Postpartum depression: current status and future directions. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9(1): 379-407.
    Parker KJ, Schatzberg AF, Lyons DM. 2003. Neuroendocrine aspects of hypercortisolism in major depression. Hormones and Behavior, 43(1): 60-66.
    Pearlstein T. 2013. Use of psychotropic medication during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Women's Health, 9(6): 605-615.
    Pearlstein T, Howard M, Salisbury A, Zlotnick C. 2009. Postpartum depression. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 200(4): 357-364.
    Schiller CE, O'Hara MW, Rubinow DR, Johnson AK. 2013. Estradiol modulates anhedonia and behavioral despair in rats and negative affect in a subgroup of women at high risk for postpartum depression. Physiology & Behavior, 119: 137-144.
    Shirayama Y, Chen AC, Nakagawa S, Russell DS, Duman RS. 2002. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor produces antidepressant effects in behavioral models of depression. The Journal of Neuroscience, 22(8): 3251-3261.
    Slattery DA, Cryan JF. 2012. Using the rat forced swim test to assess antidepressant-like activity in rodents. Nature Protocols, 7(6): 1009-1014.
    Smith JW, Seckl JR, Evans AT, Costall B, Smythe JW. 2004. Gestational stress induces post-partum depression-like behaviour and alters maternal care in rats. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(2): 227-244.
    Valentine G, Dow A, Banasr M, Pittman B, Duman R. 2008. Differential effects of chronic antidepressant treatment on shuttle box escape deficits induced by uncontrollable stress. Psychopharmacology, 200(4): 585-596.
    Williams JL. 1984. Influence of postpartum shock controllability on subsequent maternal behavior in rats. Animal Learning & Behavior, 12(2): 209-216.
    Yim IS, Stapleton LRT, Guardino CM, Hahn-Holbrook J, Schetter CD. 2015. Biological and psychosocial predictors of postpartum depression: systematic review and call for integration. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 11(1): 99-137.
    Yonkers KA, Blackwell KA, Glover J, Forray A. 2014. Antidepressant use in pregnant and postpartum women. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 10(1): 369-392.
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (1948) PDF downloads(1735) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint