Volume 35 Issue 3
May  2014
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Qi-Xin ZHANG, Jin-Hua LI, Dong-Po XIA, Yong ZHU, Xi WANG, Dao ZHANG. Influence of dominance rank and affiliation relationships on self-directed behavior in female Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana). Zoological Research, 2014, 35(3): 214-221. doi: 10.11813/j.issn.0254-5853.2014.3.214
Citation: Qi-Xin ZHANG, Jin-Hua LI, Dong-Po XIA, Yong ZHU, Xi WANG, Dao ZHANG. Influence of dominance rank and affiliation relationships on self-directed behavior in female Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana). Zoological Research, 2014, 35(3): 214-221. doi: 10.11813/j.issn.0254-5853.2014.3.214

Influence of dominance rank and affiliation relationships on self-directed behavior in female Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)

doi: 10.11813/j.issn.0254-5853.2014.3.214
  • Received Date: 2013-10-31
  • Rev Recd Date: 2014-04-01
  • Publish Date: 2014-05-08
  • Self-directed behavior (SDB) is characterized as an indicator of anxiety, frustration and stress in nonhuman primates. In this study, we collected self-directed behavior data from one group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China (September 2012–May 2013) using a combination of behavioral sampling methods including focal animal sampling, behavioral sampling, continuous sampling and instantaneous sampling. Our results showed that females engaged in significantly higher rates of self-directed behavior when they were in proximity to dominant individuals compared to subordinate ones. Conflict losers significantly increased their SDB rates after agonistic episodes, indicating that SDB might also serve as an index of anxiety in M. thibetana. We further found that females significantly increased their SDB rates when focal individual was proximity to weakly affiliation relationship higher rank members than to strongly affiliation relationship higher rank members. If conflicts were not reconciled, the postconflict SDB rates of losers were higher when they stayed with strongly affiliation opponents; if conflicts were reconciled, victims of strongly affiliation relationships opponents engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation, while victims of moderately affiliation relationships opponents did not engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation. We conclude that both of dominance rank and affiliation relationships might both influence the SDB rates of female Tibetan macaques significantly, suggesting that SDB is not only an index of anxiety in Tibetan macaques, but also can provide a new insight into evaluation of social relationships between individuals.
  • loading
  • [1]
    Altmann J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour, 49(3): 227-267.
    Arnold K & Whiten A. 2001. Post-conflict behaviour of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Behaviour, 138(5): 649-690.
    Aureli F. 1992. Post-conflict behaviour among wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 31(5): 329-337.
    Aureli F. 1997. Post-conflict anxiety in nonhuman primates: The mediating role of emotion in conflict resolution. Aggressive Behavior, 23(5): 315-328.
    Aureli F & Schaik CPV. 1991. Post-conflict Behaviour in Long-tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Ethology, 89(2): 101-114.
    Aureli F, Van Schaik CP, Van Hooff JA. 1989. Functional aspects of reconciliation among captive long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). American journal of primatology, 19(1): 39-51.
    Berman CM, Ionica CS, Dorner M, Li JH. 2006. Postconflict affiliation between former opponents in Macaca thibetana on Mt. Huangshan, China. International journal of primatology, 27(3): 827-854.
    Castles DL & Whiten A. 1998. Post-conflict Behaviour of Wild Olive Baboons. Ⅱ. Stress and Self‐directed Behaviour. Ethology, 104(2): 148-160.
    Castles DL, Whiten A, Aureli F. 1999. Social anxiety, relationships and self-directed behaviour among wild female olive baboons. Animal Behaviour, 58(6): 1207-1215.
    Cords M & Aureli F. 2000. Reconciliation and relationship qualities. Natural conflict resolution: 177-198.
    Crawley J, Ninan P, Pickar D, Chrousos G, Linnoila M, Skolnick P, Paul S. 1985. Neuropharmacological antagonism of the beta-carboline-induced" anxiety" response in rhesus monkeys. The Journal of Neuroscience, 5(2): 477-485.
    Daniel JR, Dos Santos AJ, Vicente L. 2008. Correlates of self-directed behaviors in captive Cercopithecus aethiops. International Journal of Primatology, 29(5): 1219-1226.
    Das M, Penke Z, Van Hooff JA. 1998. Postconflict affiliation and stress-related behavior of long-tailed macaque aggressors. International journal of primatology, 19(1): 53-71.
    De Vries H. 1995. An improved test of linearity in dominance hierarchies containing unknown or tied relationships. Animal Behaviour, 50(5): 1375-1389.
    Duncan I & Wood-Gush D. 1972. An analysis of displacement preening in the domestic fowl. Animal Behaviour, 20(1): 68-71.
    Fraser ON, Stahl D, Aureli F. 2010. The function and determinants of reconciliation in Pan troglodytes. International Journal of Primatology, 31(1): 39-57.
    Gammell MP, De Vries H, Jennings DJ, Carlin COM, Hayden TJ. 2003. David's score: a more appropriate dominance ranking method than Clutton-Brock et al.'s index. Animal Behaviour, 66(3): 601-605.
    Hansen S & Drake Af Hagelsrum LJ. 1984. Emergence of displacement activities in the male rat following thwarting of sexual behavior. Behavioral neuroscience, 98(5): 868-883.
    Henry JP. 1982. The relation of social to biological processes in disease. Social Science & Medicine, 16(4): 369-380.
    Kutsukake N & Castles DL. 2001. Reconciliation and variation in post-conflict stress in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata): testing the integrated hypothesis. Animal Cognition, 4(3-4): 259-268.
    Lantz JE. 1979. Extreme itching treated by a family systems approach. International Journal of Family Therapy, 1(3): 244-253.
    Li J. 1999. The Tibetan macaque society: a field study. Hefei: Anhui University Press. (in Chinese)
    Maestripieri D, Schino G, Aureli F, Troisi A. 1992. A modest proposal: displacement activities as an indicator of emotions in primates. Animal Behaviour, 44(5): 967-979.
    Manson JH & Perry S. 2000. Correlates of Self-Directed Behaviour in Wild White-Faced Capuchins. Ethology, 106(4): 301-317.
    Nederhof E & Schmidt MV. 2012. Mismatch or cumulative stress: toward an integrated hypothesis of programming effects. Physiology & Behavior, 106(5): 691-700.
    Ninan PT, Insel TM, Cohen RM, Cook JM, Skolnick P, Paul SM. 1982. Benzodiazepine receptor-mediated experimental" anxiety" in primates. Science, 218(4579): 1332-1334.
    Nishida T. 1968. The social group of wild chimpanzees in the Mahali Mountains. Primates, 9(3): 167-224.
    Pavani S, Maestripieri D, Schino G, Turillazzi PG, Scucchi S. 1991. Factors influencing scratching behaviour in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Folia Primatologica, 57(1): 34-38.
    Preuschoft S, Wang X, Aureli F, De Waal FB. 2002. Reconciliation in captive chimpanzees: a reevaluation with controlled methods. International Journal of Primatology, 23(1): 29-50.
    Radford AN. 2012. Post-allogrooming reductions in self-directed behaviour are affected by role and status in the green woodhoopoe. Biology letters, 8(1): 24-27.
    Redmond Jr D & Huang Y. 1979. II. New evidence for a locus coeruleus-norepinephrine connection with anxiety. Life Sciences, 25(26): 2149-2162.
    Roper T. 1984. Response of thirsty rats to absence of water: frustration, disinhibition or compensation? Animal Behaviour, 32(4): 1225-1235.
    Rowell C. 1961. Displacement grooming in the chaffinch. Animal Behaviour, 9(1): 38-63.
    Schino G, Perretta G, Taglioni AM, Monaco V, Troisi A. 1996. Primate displacement activities as an ethopharmacological model of anxiety. Anxiety, 2(4): 186-191.
    Schino G, Scucchi S, Maestripieri D, Turillazzi PG. 1988. Allogrooming as a tension‐reduction mechanism: a behavioral approach. American Journal of Primatology, 16(1): 43-50.
    Schino G, Troisi A, Perretta G, Monaco V. 1991. Measuring anxiety in nonhuman primates: effect of lorazepam on macaque scratching. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 38(4): 889-891.
    Uno H, Tarara R, Else JG, Suleman MA, Sapolsky RM. 1989. Hippocampal damage associated with prolonged and fatal stress in primates. The Journal of Neuroscience, 9(5): 1705-1711.
    Wang X, Li JH, Xia DP, Chen R, Zhu Y, Zhang M, Wang S. 2009. Comparisons on reproductive and aggressive behaviors in male Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) of two different operational sex ratio troops at Huangshan, China. Zoological Research, 30(1): 83-89. (in Chinese)
    Xia DP, Li JH, Garber PA, Matheson MD, Sun BH, Zhu Y. 2013. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques. American journal of primatology, 75(10): 1009-1020.
    Xia DP, Li JH, Garber PA, Sun LX, Zhu Y, Sun BH. 2012. Grooming reciprocity in female Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana. American journal of Primatology, 74(6): 569-579.
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (904) PDF downloads(1220) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint