2008 Vol. 29, No. 1

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Botia zebra was first described by Wu (1939) but changed to Leptobotia zebra by Chen (1980) based on
the presence of the simple suborbital spine. In the present study, sequences of mtDNA cytochrome b gene were analyzed
to investigate the systematic position of this species. The molecular data showed that the average genetic distance
between samples of Leptobotia zebra and other Leptobotia species was 0.177, while only 0.057 between Leptobotia zebra
and Sinibotia pulcher. Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that samples of Leptobotia zebra did not cluster with
Leptobotia species, they grouped with Sinibotia pulcher forming a sister-group. Further morphological observations were
performed on the holotype of Leptobotia zebra and other specimens including formalin-fixed museum specimens and
newly collected alcohol-fixed ones. This species was found to bear similar diagnostic characteristics with Sinibotia, such
as no scales on the cheek, a pair of button-like papillae on the chin region, and the diagnostic characteristics of Leptobotia
as well, such as a simple suborbital spine. Based on both molecular and morphological data, this paper proposes that
Leptobotia zebra is a species of the genus Sinibotia, and its valid name should be Sinibotia zebra. Morphological
character evolution of genera in the family Botiidae was also discussed.
This study aimed to use a microarray-based method for scoring a number of genomic DNA in parallel for one SNP marker on a glass slide for the genetic monitoring of inbred mice. We applied the method to identify inbred laboratory mice strains to validate the reliability and stability of this genotyping panel. The amplified PCR products from four inbred strains were spotted and immobilized onto amino-modified glass slides to generate a microarray, which was then interrogated by hybridization with dual-color probes to determine the SNP genotype of each sample. The results indicated that this microarray-based method could effectively determine the genotype of the six selected SNPs with a high degree of accuracy. This SNP genotyping method is feasible for monitoring genetic contamination in colonies of limited genetic diversity. Moreover, an enlarged version of the panel could be used to analyse a large number of strai
The 2184 bp full-length brain P450 aromatase (termed P450aromB) cDNA encoding a protein of 498 amino acid residues was isolated from the brain of the half-smooth tongue-sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) by using homologous cloning to clarify the role in sex differentiation. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the tongue sole P450aromB belonged to brain P450arom subfamilies. The putative P450aromB amino acid residues shared 48.3%- 66.1% sequence affinity with other fish brain P450arom, and shared 34.2%-49.9% sequence affinity with ovarian P450arom of other fish. The RT-PCR analysis revealed that P450aromB mRNA was expressed at a high proportion in the brain and gills but less in the gonads and skin, but not in other tissues. However, the P450aromB decreased in the brain of sex-reversed males, treatment by Methyltestosterone or at high temperatures. These results suggested that the P450aromB is involved in the course of gonad development and sex determination in tongue soles.
Eighteen microsatellite markers were analysed with a paternity testing application using 26 mitogynogenetic Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) progeny and their six assumed female-parents. The amplified products of PCR were analyzed by 8% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Electrophoresis patterns showed that only one pair of primers had a monomorphic pattern, and the others were polymorphic. Cumulate exclusion probability of polymorphic loci was 0.9985 and cumulate power of discrimination was 0.9999. An effective method was applied to track the gynogenetic maternal parents of 26 progeny. The genotypes of six progeny were not completely identical to their mothers on some loci. The construction of pedigree was perfected by looking at microsatellite loci from paternity tests which are essential to the deeper analysis of gynogenetic Japanese flounder.
Ninety two blood samples of Chinese Shar-pei (CSP) dog, including 21 bone-mouth type, 29 bone-meat-mouth type and 42 meat-mouth type, were analysed by using 20 microsatellite loci. The results showed that a total of 272 alleles were found, averaging 13.6 alleles per locus. The allele frequencies of each type of CSP dog were calculated, showing some genetic differentiation among the three types of CSP. The average heterozygosity of the whole populaiton was 0.8259, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) of the whole CSP populaiton was between 0.5352 and 0.9226, indicating that the microsatellite loci are highly polymorphic. The dendrogram constructed from genetic distance showed that there was some divergence between the three CSP dog populations, which would support the theoretical basis for further subclassificaion to solve the disorganized situation of this breed and provide scientific guidance for better protectioin of this breed.
Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups:normal、model、Vitamin E、Selenium and a combination group. Rats were fed with an improved high fat diet, but a different diet, with the addition of Vitamin E (250 mg/kg diet),Selenite (0.5 mg/kg diet) or both combined, was used in the intervention groups. All subjects were terminated at the end of the fifth week. Pathological changes in rat livers were observed. TG, TC, ALT, AST, MDA, SOD in serum and expression of UCP2 mRNA and protein in liver tissue were detected. We also studied the effects of Vitamin E and Selenium on UCP2 and other correlation factors on the rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver. The results show the levels of TG, TC in the combination group decreased significantly, but the level of SOD activity increased. Expression of UCP2 mRNA and protein in rat liver tissue decreased. The conclusion we reached was that a combination of Vitamin E and Selenium lowers the levels of ROS, LPO and UCP2 expression, with beneficial results.
Vitellogenin(Vtg)was purified from whole body homogenate (WBH) of estradiol-17β (E2) treated male Tanichthys albonubes by gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300). The results showed that the Vtg appeared to exist as homotrimer of approximately 440 kD through native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Vtg was characterized as a phospholipoglycoprotein by native-PAGE and staining of gels for CBB R-250, for carbohydrates with periodic acid-schiff reagent, for phosphorus with methyl green and for lipids with sudan black B. Body weight decreased (P<0.01)and the development of sperm was delayed after E2 treatment when compared with the control group of male fish. The results indicated that E2 can induce male fish to produce large quantities of Vtg and have a negative effect on its growth and gonad development. It also indicated that Vtg of the male T. albonubes could be as a valid biomarker for environmental estrogens.
Differences in exploratory, rearing and locomotion activity of ICR, BALB/c and C57BL/6 strain were investigated by a 16-hole board task and an open field with an automated infrared detecting system. ICR mice had the highest response rate while C57BL/6 mice had the lowest. It took less time for ICR mice to get used to a new environment and its performance in memory testing was also superior to C57BL/6 mice. The results confirmed the feasibility of using a hole-board test to assess memory. Comparisons between the trend of rearing and hole-poking activity demonstrated that the rearing behavior of mice, to a certain degree, reflected its exploratory and cognitive ability. Our results provided firm support for the notion that selection of a mouse strain is essential when conducting studies on higher cognitive behavior in mice.
Morphological changes of neurons and S100-,GFAP-immunoreactive cells in the motor cortex of young adult and older cats were comparatively investigated, and the correlation of these changes and motor function degradation during senescence was discussed. Nissl staining was applied to show cortical layers and neurons. Immunohistochemical method was employed to exhibit S100-immunoreactive (S100-IR) and GFAP-immunoreactive (GFAP-IR) cells. Under an Olympus microscope, Moitcam 5000 Digital Image Acquisition and Analysis System was used to statistically count the number of total cortical neurons, GFAP-IR cells and S100-IR cells in each cortical layer, and the cell-body diameter of GFAP-IR cells and S100-IR cells were randomly sampled and measured. The density of total neurons in layer V and VI of the motor cortex showed a significant decrease in older cats (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the density and the cell-body diameter of GFAP-IR and S100-IR cells in the motor cortex of old cats were significantly increased when compared to that in young adults (P < 0.01). In addition,the S100 and GFAP immunoreactivity in the motor cortex of older cats was stronger than in younger ones. The density of total neurons in layer V and VI of the motor cortex was significantly reduced during aging, which might lead to a decreased motion mediation capacity of the motor cortex in older individuals. Moreover, with age, astrocytes in the motor cortex were significantly activated and increased, which is of great significance in maintaining normal neuronal activities, signalling between neurons and therefore slowing down age-dependent motor function degradation.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of Hypericum perforatum on growth and brain monoamine
neurotransmitters in chronic-stressed rats. Fifteen individuals were divided into three groups including control, stressed
and treated with H. perforatum group. The rats in both stressed and the H. perforatum groups were stressed for 7 days,
and the rats in the latter group were fed with H. perforatum for 10 days after stress. The brain tissues of the rats in all
three groups were collected to analyse the content of homovanillic acid (HVA), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA)
and5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) after the experiment was finished. The indexes above were determined by the method of
high pressure liquid chromatogram (HPLC). The results showed that the daily growth mass in the stressed group
significantly decreased compared with the control group, while the ones of H. perforatum group were higher than those of
the stressed group. The HVA levels of the Hippocampus,striatum and prefrontal lobe in the stressed group had no
significant differences compared with the control group, though there was an increase tendency in the stressed group. The
stress had no significant effect on the levels of NE, DA and 5-HT. The DA levels of striatum in the H. perforatum group
were significantly higher than those in the stressed group, while DA levels of prefrontal lobe were significantly decreased
compared with the stressed group. These results suggest that H. perforatum can alleviate the growth decrease caused by
stress, and can partly regulate the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain of stressed rats.
In Aug 2005, scientists of the Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ) took a survey of the fish in Tuoniang River, Funing County, Yunnan, collecting 38 species of fish. Three species, Huigobio chenhsienensiss Fang, Discogobio laticeps Chu, Cui & Zhou and Beaufortia cyclica Chen, are new records in Yunnan Province. According to the historical record and the Tuoniang River fish specimens preserved in the collection room of KIZ, the author tried to assess the Value of Faunal Presence (VFP) of fish in the Tuoniang River at the respective levels of Order, Family and Genus. Analyzing the VFP is one key to revealing the geographic characteristics of some faunas. The VFP analyses indicated that some worldwide-distributed families and genera had a small quota in the Tuoniang River. On the contrary, the VFP of some endemic families and genera turned out to be relatively high. Cranoglanididae is an endemic family in South China-Vietnam, with a VFP of 100%. Parator and Erythroculter have one species, with a VFP of 100%. Parator is endemic to China; it is distributed in the Pearl River, while Erythroculter is endemic to South Asia. These endemically distributed families and genera can better represent
The aim of this paper was to investigate the sensitivity of steppe polecats to starvation risk by comparing their selection to constant and variable food patches under different starvation conditions through the two-choice test in the laboratory. The results showed that food ingestion and frequency of the polecat in constant food patches were higher than that in the variable food patches and time of the polecat was the same between two patches during the training period. Only the frequency of the polecat in constant food patches was higher than that in variable food patches when the polecat was starved for 1 day. Its foraging pattern between the two patches was the same as that during the training period when the polecat was starved for 2 days. Meanwhile, the food ingestion amount in the two patches was not affected by starvation, but the time and frequency of the polecat using the two patches significantly decreased when starvation increased. There was no difference between the polecat’s selections at the constant or variable food patches and the food variation had no influence on the feeding behavior of the polecats. The polecats were not sensitive to variable food under starvation conditions. This was due to the fact that the polecats had low levels of energy metabolism and they conserved energy by decreasing their activity to increase their survival under starvation conditions.
One hundred and fifteen specimens of Pseudecheneis from the Irrawaddy and Salween drainages were divided into ten groups according to localities. When analyzed by the methods of multivariate morphometrics, twenty-five frame and 14 general characteristics were measured. According to the results of principal components analyzed twice, specimens clustered together by scatter plots of scores were gradually picked up and could be divided into five types. The first type only occurred in the middle and lower Longchuan Jiang, a branch of Irrawaddy. It is distinguished from other types by its slender and elongated caudal peduncle and can be identified as P. stenura. The other four types were un-described species. The second type was distributed in the upper Longchuan Jiang, a branch of the Irrawaddy and they had an extremely elongated body. The third type appears in the Wandian He, a branch of the Salween. And the length of its pectoral fin was longer than others which was the main distinguishing characteristic from the other types. Combined with the anatomical and phylogenic results and molecular biological studies, this type is considered an un-described species. The fourth and fifth types occur respectively in the Nanding He, a branch of the Salween and the Daying Jiang, a branch of the Irrawaddy. They differ from each other by the color pattern on the dorsal surface. Furthermore, some specimens from Qushi of Tengchong County and specimens from the Daying Jiang are not differentiated by morphometrics or external characteristics. They belong to a different geographic population of the same species. Different species, or specimens from Qushi of Tengchong County can be considered a new species. All suppositions should be confirmed by further studies in the future.
Seventy-three specimens (♀39, ♂34) of Ranna chaochiaoensis whose snout-vent length was more than 40 mm were collected during April to December of 2006 from a northeast suburb of Kunming. Their snout-vent length, body weight, liver and body fat, weight of ovary and spermary, weight and diameter of oviduct, and diameter of egg measurements were taken. The results were analyzed by ANOVA with the length of the snout-vent (or weight of body) as the covariate factor, showed that there were significant differences in the diameter of the oviduct and egg; weight of liver, body fat, ovary and oviduct in females and weight of spermary in males. The results of the correlation test showed that weight of ovaries had a significant positive correlation with the weight of the liver and oviduct, diameter of oviduct and eggs in females but not with the weight of body fat, which meant that the development of ovary weight corresponded with the development of these organs. The development of ovaries and spermary weight had significant positive correlation in each month, which meant that the development of male sex glands synchronized with that of females. According to the results of dissections, analysis and field observation in the Kunming area, the reproductive time of R. chaochiaoensis finished in October, with an annual reproductive peak. Body fat could supply energy during the development process of sex glands in females. During the developmental process of ovaries, the liver did not supply energy; however, it supplied energy during the process of amplexus and spawning. Compared with females, in males the effect of supplying energy from the liver and body fat was evident during the development process of the sex glands, which meant that little energy was expended. So the reproductive investment of males was less than that of females. Some individual females put off hibernation so they could feed and increase their energy through winter. However, it would cause mortality in adults as the temperature drops dramatically. Newborn tadpoles of R. chaochiaoensis would also face a desolate environment during winter and lack resources during their development and metamorphosis. It would be beneficial for the continuance of the population to protect the environment where R. chaochiaoensis lives during the rothole linked with their life cycle, such as the peak of spawning, hibernation and the dry season when tadpoles develop.
The echolocation calls of Coelops frithi were recorded during free flight using an ultrasonic detector U30, and were analyzed using the software Batsound 3.0. Our results showed that C. frithi emitted high frequency (145.4±10.9 kHz), broad bandwidth (62.6±9.2 kHz), and short (1.67±0.4 ms) frequency-modulated (FM) calls with 2 harmonics, which suggested polymorphic echolocation calls in Hipposideridae because other hipposiderid species emitted constant frequency (CF) calls. The analysis of the cranial measurements of C. frithi indicated that it was a nasal emitter like other hipposiderids, which suggested the single emitting form in this family. We considered that C. frithi emitted FM calls mainly due to the selection pressure of evolution and the adaptability between wing morphology and echolocation calls.
Color polymorphism is important in understanding the heredity, variation and evolution of species. Lanius schach is an example of a bird with color polymorphism. Here, we analyzed the deviation of the body measurements and distribution of different color morphs of Lanius schach by combining the specimen data in the South China Institute of Endangered Animals and the field data in Guangdong Province from April 2005 to January 2007. The results were: 1) A possible new color morph, called white-remiged black morph, which is different from brown morph and black morph by having white flight feathers, was identified and only recorded in Haifeng, Guangdong. 2) There was no obvious deviation in body measurements (P> 0.05) for brown morphs and black morphs. 3) Brown morphs are more widely distributed and denser than black morphs, which are mostly distributed near seaside areas and never found in mountainous areas. Therefore we concluded that the new color morph suggested seashore regions to be important for the differentiation of black morphs and continued differentiation.
Greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx) is an abundant species of fruit-eating bats widely distributed in the Guangzhou area. From May 2004 to April 2006, the feeding habits of Cynopterus sphinx were studied using field surveys, gleaning and feces analysis. Analysis of 26 feces and leftovers of Cynopterus sphinx showed that Cynopterus sphinx had eaten fruits from 21 plant species belonging to 13 families and leaves of 3 species belonging to 3 families. The main food of Cynopterus sphinx are fruits of Moraceae ficus, Syzygium jambos, Livistona subglobosa and Livistona subglobosa. The feeding habits of Cynopterus sphinx changed seasonally, as it mainly ate various kinds of fruits in summer and autumn, but seeds of Livistona subglobosa in winter and spring. The reproduction fastigium of Cynopterus sphinx in Guangzhou area is from May to October.
The morphology of antennae of Aphidoletes aphidimyza was observed with a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that both male and female were fourteen segmented, the male was approximately 2000μ m and the female was 1050 μm. Six types of sensillae on the antenna were observed, viz. chaetica (Ch), trichoidea (Tr), basiconica (Ba), cavity (Ca), styloid (St) and circumfila (Ci) on the antennae of A. aphidimyza. Sensillae Ch had a long external-process, with a base surrounded by membranous sockets and a length of about 67.5 μm. Sensillae Tr were distally curved and inserted into a depression, 61.0 μm long. Sensillae Ba were peg-like and 4.7 μm long on the antennae. Sensillae Ca were pit-like in appearance and the diameter of the pit was 1.2 μm. Sensilla St was found on the second sub-segment flagellum of the male antennae. The length of the sensilla was about 21 μm and the diameter was 1.5 μm. The circumfila, which are a unique type of sensilla found only on cecidomyiid antennae, formed loops around each of the antennal sub-segments, and were attached to the surface by a series of stalks. Sensilla St was only present on male antenna. The number of Ba and Tr was almost the same in both sexes. There were more Sensilla Ca on the male antenna than on the female, while there was more Ch on the female.