2007 Vol. 28, No. 3

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Abstract: The characteristics and behaviours of F1f (the female hybrid of Trachypithecus leucocephalus and Tfrancoisi) and its backcross offspring (Be1, Be2, Be3 and Be4) were extensively observed. The results showed that the hybrid F1f and its offspring had similar characteristics with Tfrancoisi. Besides the black hair was an overwhelmingly dominant character, the changing of their hair colour, the breeding behaviour of hybridized F1,and the growing process and behaviours of the hybrid F1f offspring resembled Tfrancoisi. However the feature of Tleucocephalus was nearly not present in the hybrid F1 and its offspring, excepting that in the development process the time for their hair colour change was longer and during their growth there existed imprinting phenomenon of Tleucocephalus. Therefore it can be inferred that the gene control of Tleucocephalus only played a supporting role and Tfrancoisi'〖KG-2.2mm〗s gene dominated in the hybrid F1f and their offspring. The percent of weak infants for backcross langurs reaching 50%, which was higher than that of the general 10%〖KG-1.2mm〗-〖KG-0.5mm〗20% of Tfrancoisi, suggested a sign of outbreeding depression. Based on our observation that the hybrid F1f was able to reproduce its offspring successfully we can make a conclusion that Tleucocephalus should be considered as a subspecies of Tfrancoisiinstead of an independent species.〖KH*2D〗
This paper presents species and distribution patterns of small mammals in the Pingheliang and Niubeiliang Nature Reserves on the south slope of the eastern part of Qinling Mountain. This work was conducted in September, 2005. A total of 689 individuals were captured on 2460 trap-days. Twenty-seven species of small mammals, representing three orders, six families and 19 genera, were recorded from 10 study sites. The average rate of capture was 28.01%. Ananalysis of ecological and vertical distribution of the mammals showed that the Shannon-Weiner diversity index in three communities was 2.9288-3.3639
and the Pielou evenness index was 0.7669-0.8602. Based on this survey and former studies in other nature reserves and areas surrounding Qinling Mountain, the small mammal fauna of Pinghe
liang Nature Reserve includes 48 species of three orders, 11 families and 33 genera. This presents a higher diversity and richness of small mammals on the south slope of the eastern part of Qinling Mountain than in other areas of the mountain. Parascaptor leucura, Sorex bedfordiae, Myospalax smithii and Niviventer excelsior caught in this investigation are the first records of these species on Qinling Mountain. A list of 55 small mammals from the south slope of Qinling Mountain is also given following a general review. The south slope of Qinling Mountain should be classified within the Southwest Region in the zoogeography of China.
The diet of the great evening bat, Ia io, was studied in Guizhou province of China in November 2005 and May, July and September 2006. The diet was examined by faecal analysis. Bird feathers were found to comprise most of the great evening bats' faeces in July, September and November. This discovery demonstrates that the great evening bat is a bird-eating bat. In November, bird remains were found comprising 82% (by volume) of the bat faeces, but were not found in May. The food component in May mainly consisted of Coleoptera (85%). In July and September, the proportions of bird feathers and Coleoptera found in the bat faeces were similar (44.6% and 48.7% in July, 51.1% and 43.4% in September, respectively). From May to November, the proportion of bird predation by the great evening bats gradually increased, and the proportion of Coleoptera eaten gradually decreased. Apart from Coleoptera, the great evening bats also preyed on other organisms, including Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Hymenoptera. Comparing the food components of bats by faecal analysis with the potential food availability measured in the foraging area, we suggest that the great evening bat is a selective predator.
From March to June, 2006, the habitat and nest-site selection of the Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) were investigated by direct observation and sampling in the field, at the Taihe Nature Reserve in Nanchong, Sichuan Province. Based on principal component analysis and contrastive analysis, the following was discovered: Common Pheasants' nests were located in areas with a low canopy coverage, near to water, higher herbage with greater coverage, and rich in white cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) hay. The main factors which affected the nest selection of Common Pheasants are: Gradient>Overall vegetation coverage>Average diameter of trunk>Canopy coverage>Degree of darkness>Distance to water>Distance to road>Average height of shrub>Proportion of hay around nest>Proportion of naked ground>Thickness of vegetation over the nest>Shrub coverage>Width of tussock that the nest is located in. The results indicated as follows: Common Pheasants are more likely to choose habitats with the following conditions: higher shrub coverage, proper gradient and arbor canopy, higher herbage with greater coverage, lower shrub coverage, bigger shrub height, smaller degree of concealment, greater distance to road and greater degree of darkness than the contrastive samples.
The characteristics of macrofauna communities in three mangrove assemblages[Avicennia marina+Acgiceras corniculatum (MC)community, A. corniculatum (C) community and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza+A. corniculatum (GC) community]were studied in Zhanjiang Mangrove Nature Reserves during 2005 and 2006. Of the three mangrove assemblages, the macrofauna species number, density, biomass, Richness index and Shannon-Wiener index were the highest, and the Simpson dominance index was medial at MC community. However the Pielou Evenness index of MC community was slightly lower than that at C community. At C community, the number of macrofauna species obviously reduced, especially infaunal, caving and adhering life forms, and the biomass and density were the lowest. Because of the even distribution of individuals of different species, the Simpson dominance index was the lowest and the evenness index was the highest. Although the Richness index at C community was slightly lower than that at MC community, the Shannon-Wiener index was near to that at MC community. At GC community, the number of macrofauna species, especially infaunal and caving life forms, continued to decrease comparing C community, but the biomass and density increased slightly. As the distribution of individuals of different species was uneven, the Simpson dominance index was the highest and the Pielou Evenness index was the lowest. Furthermore, the Richness index dropped to the lowest. The Shannon-Wiener index also dropped accordingly to the lowest. The dominant life forms of MC were infaunal and caving, while those of C and GC community were both caving. The ratio of the GS/GSB of macrofauna communities in the three mangrove assemblages were 0.48, 0.63 and 0.80, respectively. The community structures at the same mangrove assemblages were all quite similar, with those at GC community being most similar. However, there were obvious differences among the community structures at the three different mangrove assemblages. These results implied that the different mangrove assemblages had different affects on the macrofauna communities and shed light on the macrofauna adaptation capability to specific habitats.
Pseudodendrothrips mori is a serious pest to mulberry trees and its infestation affects the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of mulberry leaves consumed by silkworm. The spatial distribution of mulberry thrips within plant and orchard was assessed using Taylor's power law and Morisita's index of dispersion. The results showed that P. mori populations were localized in certain parts of the trees and fields. Distribution of thrips within plant showed that the larval instars were located on lower canopy (leaves 5-10 from top) of trees but adults preferred the upper canopy (leaves 1-5 from top). The thrips density did not vary significantly among the leaf direction inside the trees. The thrips tended to be more accumulated on the trees located in East, South and North than in Center and West of orchard. The distributions of P. mori adults and larvae on the leaves were aggregated.
miR-34 gene can regulate early development of mammalian. Using bioinformatics analysis of sequenced metazoan genomes, 54 miR-34 genes of 33 different animal species were found. Eighteen miR-34 genes were identified in the first time, suggesting miRNA are highly conservative and widespread in Eukaryotes. Of these mir-34 gene homologues identified in metazoan, 80% locate in the intergenic region, the others are in the intron or 3′UTR of protein-coding gene. miR-34 gene is conserved in various animals, and the mature sequences and precursors of mir-34 gene in metazoan analyzed share 68% and 38.89% sequence identity, respectively. However there is only a mir-34 gene in invertebrate and three mir-34 genes, mir-34a, mir-34b and mir-34c are present in almost all vertebrate. The phylogenetic analysis reveals that the miR-34 gene family of vertebrate originated from local and tandem duplications followed by mutation of individual base after divergence from invertebrate.
The orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, is an important marine aquaculture fish and has been cultured in China and Southeast Asian countries. However, large-scale aquaculture of the grouper has been hindered by the rarity of natural males, because it is a protogynous hermaphroditic fish and sex inversion rarely occurs in captive stocks. In teleost fishes, the pituitary plays significant roles in many physiological functions, such as growth and reproduction. In this study, the SMART cDNA plasmid libraries of the pituitaries from orange-spotted groupers, at the early stage of ovary development and the late stage of sex inversion, were constructed. Two hundred and thirty-two and 258 ESTs were obtained from the two pituitary plasmid libraries respectively. Among the two groups of ESTs, the genes homologous to hormones were the most numerous in both groups, accounting for 40.5% and 34.9% of all ESTs respectively. Compared with the level of expression of hormones in the pituitary at the early stage of ovary development, the expression levels of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), somatolactin (SL) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) were reduced, and the gonadotropin common α subunit (GTHα), folliclestimulating hormone β subunit (FSHβ) and luteinizing hormone β subunit (LHβ) were increased at the late stage of sex inversion.
Samples of Gekko gecko were collected from 12 areas of Guangxi China, Vietnam and Laos. Four hundred and twenty four base pairs of G. gecko mitochondrial Cytb gene were sequenced and seven haplotypes were found. Gekko vittatus and Teratoscincus keyserlingii acting as outgroups, the phylogenetic trees of the G. gecko constructed using NJ and MP methods showed that the average genetic distances were: 0.20%-1.20% between four haplotypes of black G. gecko from Guangxi China; 0.50% between Vietnamese and Laotian red G. gecko; 1.70% between Ningming and Vietnamese red G. gecko; 2.20% between Guangxi and Laotian red G. gecko; 8.60%-9.50% between black G. gecko from Guangxi and all red G. gecko. The genetic difference of black and red G. gecko reached the
species or subspecies differentiation.
This paper investigates phylogenetic relationships within the Muscicapinae based on analysis of cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial gene sequences (1 176 bp). Sixteen species representing six of eight putative Muscicapinae genera were analysed, and Dicrurus hottentottus and Lanius isabellinus were selected as outgroups. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed using the Bayesian (BI), maximumlikelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods. The results suggest that Terpsiphone, Rhipidura and Culicicapa are distant relatives of the other genera of Muscicapinae, and Rhipidura is a close relative of Culicicapa. Muscicapa is a monophyletic taxon, but the phylogenetic relationships of Muscicapa, Niltava and Ficedula are still uncertain. Our results suggest that Muscicapa thalassina should be placed in Niltava. These results resolve the phylogenetic relationships among some genera of Muscicapinae and provide some molecular phylogenetic evidence for taxonomic research of Muscicapinae.
Visual functions undergo an age-related degradation. However, the neural mechanisms underlying these changes are not yet clear. This study was designed to investigate the influence of age and sex on the anatomy of the rat's visual cortex. Dendritic tree extent and spine density were examined in young adult rats (2-3 months) and aged male and female rats (22-24 months) using a modified Golgi-Cox staining method. A sex difference in dendritic branching of the pyramidal cells was found among young adults. However, this difference disappeared during aging, due to a reduction in branching with age for males but not for females. Moreover, the pyramidal cells of young males also have a greater spine density. Although there was a reduction in spine density with age for both sexes, this reduction was more pronounced for males, resulting in a disappearance of sex difference with age. Thus these results suggest that aging could lead to the degeneration of dendrites, which might contribute to the degradation of age-related visual functions. Also the results indicate that age-related degeneration of dendrites is more severe for males than for females.
Localisation of FOS, 17β-oestradiol (E2) and oestrogen receptors (ER) was investigated in testes at different stages of the spermatogenetic cycle of Rana chensinensis, using immunocytochemistry. The results showed that E2 and ER are expressed in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatozoa, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells from stage Ⅰ to stage Ⅴ of spermatogenesis. A strong positive co-expression of E2 and ER was observed in spermatids in stage Ⅱ and stage Ⅲ. The staining intensity of E2 and ER in stage Ⅲ spermatozoa was significantly higher than in stages Ⅳ and Ⅴ (P<0.01). Expression of E2 and ER in Sertoli cells appears in stage Ⅰ and decreases in intensity from stage Ⅱ to stage Ⅳ, but increases in stage Ⅴ. Expression of E2 and ER in Leydig cells was higher in stage Ⅲ than in other stages. FOS was localised in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells but not spermatozoa. Expression of FOS showed stagespecific characteristics.
Human embryonic stem cells (hES), derived from the inner cell mass of the pre-implantation embryo, may serve as a valuable experimental tool for early human neurogenesis, due to their capacity for multipotency and self-renewal. They may also provide an unlimited cell source for cell replacement therapy. Neural progenitors differentiated from hES cells have considerable therapeutic potential for use in drug screening studies, or cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, because of their ability to generate defined neuronal cell types. However, for clinical application, generating a highly purified and homologous population of neural progenitors from hES cells without contamination remains a challenge. In this study, we identified an adherent culture system for efficiently differentiating neural progenitors from hES cells, cultured on homogenous feeder layers. These neural progenitors can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. During prolonged propagation, similar to in vivo embryonic neural progenitors, the differentiation potential of the neural progenitors shifts from neuronal to glial fate. We demonstrated that the proneural transcription factor neurogenein2 (Ngn2), and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Olig2, are critical to the transition from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. Therefore, neural progenitors derived from hES cells can mimic the developmental pattern of the central nervous system and provide options for regeneration medicine.
A nemacheiline loach Yunnanilus longibarbatus sp. nov. (Holotype: KIZ 2003050255, 52.6 mm SL) has been recognized based on collections from a Hongshui River Drainage in Gaoling Township, Du-An county, Guangxi, China, in May 2003. Yunnanilus longibarbatus is a new member of the Yunnanilus nigromaculatus group and is closely related to Y. nigromaculatus (Regan), Y. obtusirostris Yang, Y. longidorsalis Li et al and Y. bajingensis Li. Yunnanilus longidorsalis can be distinguished from the other species using the following characters: branched dorsal fin rays 11 vs. 8-9; maxillary barbel only reaching mid-eye vs. posterior edge of eye; and dorsal-fin origin closer to snout tip than caudalfin base vs. vice versa. Yunnanilus longibarbatus and Y. obtusirostris have neither a processus dentiformis on the upper jaw nor a median notch on the lower jaw, making them different from Y. nigromaculatus and Y. bajingensis. Yunnanilus longibarbatus is most closely related to Y. obtusirostris through sharing many features, such as: fin-ray count; jaw structure; position of dorsal-fin; shape of caudal-fin; coverage of scales; absence of cephalic lateral line system; and presence of a lateral stripe on the body. Yunnanilus longibarbatus can be distinguished from Y. obtusirostris using the following characters: maxillary barbel reaching to the posterior edge of the opercle, making it the longest barbel in the genus Yunnanilus; presence of a non-prominent dark spot on the lower 1/3 unbranched dorsal-fin rays; lateral stripe width smaller than eye diameter vs. almost equal; lateral stripe on anterior body dissolved into blotches in large-sized specimens vs. not dissolved; has dots on dorsal head vs. absent; caudal-peduncle slender, with length 5.3-6.1 times the standardlength vs. 7.4-9.0 and length 1.3-1.8 times its depth vs. 0.8-1.1.
The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1819) was first recorded at Black Dragon Spring, Dianchi Basin, Baiyi Township, Songming County, Kunming City, Yunnan Province, China, in October 2004. The water from the spring flows into the Songhuaba Reservoir, the major drinking water resource for Kunming City, and part of the Dianchi Lake basin. This is the first record of this invasive snail in the Dianchi Lake Basin. Pomacea canaliculata originates from Central and South America, and in Asia the snail has spread through deliberate and accidental introductions to the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Korea, Japan and South China. It has become a major pest in rice-growing areas, resulting in huge damage to crops. Strict prevention and control measures have to be implemented to prevent the spread of the snail in Yunnan, together with public awareness campaigns to inform the ublic of the dangers of this invasive snail.
The fish Sinocyclocheilus grahami is one of the indicative and endemic species in the Dianchi Lake eco-system. As a result of pollution and invasion of exotic fishes, the fish had disappeared from Dianchi Lake since 1986 and only a few small populations survive in springs and streams around the lake. Due to the endangered status and special scientific value, S. grahami was listed as the second class protective animal of China in 1989. The importance of S. grahami and the indigenous biodiversity of Dianchi Lake were recognized by the Global Environment Foundation (GEF) /World Bank and Yunnan Development & Reform Committee. Therefore a special grant was set up to restore and conserve the indigenous biodiversity of Dianchi Lake. The artificial breeding of S. grahami is a part of the targeted activities. Two successful breeding experiments were achieved using five females plus six males up to early March 2007. Approximately 1 600 eggs were collected, of which 1 320 eggs fertilized using the dry-fertilizing method. The mean fertilization rate was 73%. Approximately 480 fish fry was hatched and the mean hatching rate was 36%. After 10 days of cultivation, 95% fingerlings survived and their body lengths were up to 8-12 mm. The importance of the artificial breeding success of S. grahami could be summarized as following: effectively protecting the fish from extinction; releasing the fish fry back to appropriate water body of the lake could help to restore the indigenous biodiversity of Dianchi Lake; facilitating the shift of local fish cultivation from the present non-indigenous to the future indigenous fishery.
This paper deals with an overview of primatological literature in China. The total number of publications was 2 052 from 1870-2001. Two peaks in the number of publications occurred during 1950-1965 and 1978-2001, respectively. In 2 052 publications, most of them were published by the science-research sector, ccounting for 54.2% of total publications. The percentage of publications from the science-research sector has been increasing over time, however, the contribution from the foreign sector has produced a contrary trend. Over 9% of total publications were indexed by SCI. The highest percentage of publications indexed by SCI took place during 1966-1977. In all publications indexed by SCI, those from the science-research sector dominated other sectors (59.1% of total publications). However, the foreign sector led with 30.1% of its own publications being in SCI. Studies of primatology were divided into nine areas. The percentage and change in percentage of publications in areas of primatology were counted. During 1978-2001 ecology and behaviour, neurobiology, reproduction and captive feeding were rapidly developing; fossil primates, morphology and anatomy decreasing; and taxonomy and distribution, cellular and molecular evolution became relatively poor. Increasing attention was paid to conservation biology. Prevention and control of diseases was fairly well studied in periods II (1950-1965) and IV (1978-2001). The number of authors was highest during period IV, however, the mean number of publications per author in period IV was not asigh s in period I (1870-1949). Generally speaking, Chinese authors dominated the authors included in SCI. However in period I, the sole author indexed by SCI was a foreign scholar, and foreign scholars comprised 60% of indexed authors in period III (1966-1977).