2003 Vol. 24, No. 6

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From April to August of 2002,we researched the reproductive behaviors of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) in the Haibei Research Station of Alpine Meadow Ecosystem by mark-recapture method and microsatellite technology.Blood samples (each 100 μL) of the marked plateau pikas were collected from suborbital vein.Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were amplified with these blood samples.Results showed that all loci were polymorphic.We identified the kinship of marked individuals by analyzing the polymorphic microsatellite loci combining with the animals behavior,and we found that there existed monogamy,polygamy and promiscuity in the mating system and a hierarchism at the family of the plateau pika.The reproductive success of dominance males was higher than that of subordinate ones.Those indicated that microsatellite technology has an obvious superiority in the field research and is a useful method in the research of plateau pikas ociety dynamic,kinship and behavior evolution.
To detect the effects of size class,population density and food availability on cannibalism,newborns of larval salamanders (Hynobius amjiensis) were basin-raised in combinations of the ecological factors.Compared with the results of Fu et al (2003),this study evaluated the effect of group size structure on patterns of intra-specific cannibalism.The results showed that:1)Percent of larvae eaten were significantly influenced by size class,density and food availability.Smaller individuals were susceptible to attack by larger individuals.The highest cannibalism of three size-class larvae appeared in the combination of low-density and high-food availability.2)Group size structure significantly affected intra-specific cannibalism.Overall levels of larvae bitten were lower in groups of different-size individuals than in groups of similar-size individuals,but those of larvae eaten were higher in the formers than in the latters.These supported the theoretical prediction that body size determined the cannibalism of a population.
A total of 88 variable osteological characters,31 external characters and 1 behavior character were found among the nine species of family Viverridae in China which belong to eight genus respectively.Ten cladograms were generated with tree lengths (TL) 106-136,consistency indices (CI) 0.581-0.660 and retention indices (RI) 0.610-0.714 using outgroup substitution method when the species Vulpes vulpes and Martes flavigula were combined as the outgroup or either of them as the sole outgroup alternatively.After using consensus techniques,we obtained four similar cladograms which were TL 41-136,CI 0.581-0.732 and RI 0.610-0.818.Evidendce is presented to support the following hypotheses:1)Prionodon pardicolor,Viverra zibetha and Veverricula indica form a monophyletic group.Its consistent with the traditinal taxonomy arrangement in which the three species belong to Viverrinae.2)Paradoxurus hermaphroditus,Paguma larvata and Arctictis binturong form a monophyletic group.Its consistent with the traditinal taxonomy arrangement in which the three species belong to Paradoxurinae.3)The clade of Herpestes javanicus and H.urva is the sister group of other species of Viverridae in China.The bootstrap tests support this outcome by 100%.Our result suggest that the mongoose should be arrange as a subfamily Herpestinae.4)Chrotogale owstoni is a highly specialized species owing to having several peculiar character status such as three incisive foramen.Its taxonomic position would be resolved as more species of the family Viverridae are included in future studies.
Eight high quality male blue foxes from Finland were chosen for semen collection by digital manipulation and diluted with the extender Ⅰ.The diluted sperm were divided into four fractions and the same volume of the extender Ⅱ containing glycerol was added to reach the final glycerol concentration of 2%,4%,6%,8% (v/v) ,respectively.After equilibrated for 2 h at 5 ℃.Semen samples were packed in 0.5 mL plastic straws and frozen on a rack 5 cm above liquid nitrogen and thawed at 70 ℃ for 9 s.Before and after freezing-thawing,not only the effects of different concentrations of glycerol on changes of spermatozoa characteristics but also the alterations of ultrastructure of spermatozoa by Transmission Electron Microscope were studied.The results showed,the motility and plasma membrane integrity of spermatozoa together with the percentage of intact acrosomes were related to the dose of glycerol.All these characteristics reached the highest in the fraction that the final glycerol concentration was 4% (41.8%,43.6%,48.4%) and the lowest appeared in the fraction of 2% (24.5%,27.6%,31.7%).Along with the extension of incubation,characteristics of spermatozoa in both fractions of 2% and 4% were significant differences while the differences between 2%,6% and 8% were insignificant.After 6 hours,the motility of each fraction was not more than 10% while the highest viability and the percentage of intact acrosomes were 11.8% and 12.7% respectively.The optimum concentration of glycerol was 4% in the extenders of freezing spermatozoa for blue fox.The living time of spermatozoa subjected to the process of freezing and thawing was short.The plasma membrane was expanded extremely or broken and the acrosome was vesiculated or dispersed while plasma membrane and acrosome seldom lost.
The soluble and membrane-bound protein in the photoreceptor of the Cherax quadricarinatus,which were extracted by common method of protein-extraction,respectively,were separated and identified with SDS-PAGE and western blotting.After dark adaptation and the illumination by sun-light and four kinds of different wavelength lights (red,green,blue,yellow),the content of the G-protein in the photoreceptor of C.quadricarinatus was analyzed with SDS-PAGE.The result of SDS-PAGE indicated:the numbers and the molecule mass of the protein bands in soluble and membrane fractions of the photoreceptor under different light conditions were basically similar,there was an apparent protein band at 42 Kd.The results of western blotting showed that anti-Gqα antibodies recognized the 42 Kd protein not only in the photoreceptor membrane but also in soluble fractions of the retina,the G-protein in the photoreceptor of C.quadricarinatus is a Gq-class G-protein.The content of two forms of Gqα,soluble Gqα and membrane-bound Gqα,changed depending on the light condition.The contents of the soluble Gqα were in turn,sun-light (7.71%)> yellow-light(7.32%)>red-light (7.06%)> dark adaptation(6.94%)> blue-light (6.46%)>green-light (5.74%);There was significantly different between red-light and yellow-light,very significantly different among others,except between dark-adapted and red-light.The content of the membrane-bound Gqα was contrary to the soluble Gqα.The contents of the membrane-bound Gqα were in turn,green-light (13.94%)> blue-light (10.56%)> dark-adapted (10.25%)> red-light (10.14%)> yellow-light (9.76%)> sun-light (9.44%);There was also significantly different between red-light and yellow-light,very significantly different among others,except between dark-adapted and red-light.These results indicate that the activation of the Gq-protein in the photoreceptor of C.quadricarinatus depends on the lights of different wavelength.The light sensitivity of the photoreceptor was different under different wavelength lights.
Using phase contrast microscopy and electronic transmission microscopy,five types of hemocytes were determined in the larvae of Ostrinia furnaclis,namely granularcytes,plasmatocytes,oenocytoids,prohemocytes and spherule cells.Total hemocyte counts (THC) and differential hemocyte counts (DHC) were compared in the larval hemolymph.From the late stage of 3rd instar till the 5th day of 5th instar,THC increased shortly before and after ecdysis and thereafter decreased to a basal level.During the 1st day to the 5th day of 5th instar,the amount of plasmatocytes increased before the 3rd day and decreased after that,but granularcytes were the reverse.In in vitro test both plastomatocytes and granularcytes showed spreading and adhesive behavior but their spreading ability were different.When Sephadex A-25 beads were injected into the 5th-instar larvae they were soon encapsulated and some of them were melanized.Hemocytes were also able to encapsulate the latex beads in in vitro test.No difference of the capsule structure could be seen.
Blood compositions and ovarian development in Carassius auratus gibelio were examined after treating by feeding (control group),4-week starvation,and 2-week starvation followed by 2-week refeeding,respectively.Results were as following:1)The red blood cell count,hemoglobin,blood glucose,triglycride and cholesterol contents were decreased significantly.The white blood cell counts,the size of red blood cell and the total serum protein contents were similar to the level of control group during starvation period.After being refed for 2 weeks the blood glucose content of the starvation-treated fish was still significantly lower than the control group.2)Starvation delayed the ovarian development,and decreased the gonadal somatic index and egg diameters.After being refed for 2 weeks the ovarian development of the starvation-treated fish was still lagged behind that of control group,and gonadal somatic index and egg diameter were lower than that of control group.Analysis showed that the blood composition of starvation-treated fish could recover to the level of control fish after refeeding,and starvation delayed the ovarian development.
Comparative approach was applied to Rana pleuraden (♂16,♀14) and R.chaochiaoensis (♂17,♀17) collected from Aug.1997 to Sept.2000.Their external morphology,muscle and osteological characters were observed and compared.It is expected to find the clues that two sympatric species in the same genus diverge in morphology.The results show that there is different skin color pattern between two species;the squamosal of R.pleuraden is more developed than R.chaochiaoensis;adult male of R.pleuraden is with vocal sac and R.chaochiaoensis without it;there are notable differences in musculus triceps brachii,musculus triceps femoris and musculus tibialis between two species;skeletons of R.chaochiaoensis in limbs are longer and thinner than R.chaochiaoensis and its tuber ischiadicum and acetabulum of pelvic girdle are stronger as well;enlarged bones in braincase are different between two species;musculus rectus abdminis of R.pleuraden is with 4 inscription and R.chaochiaoensis with 5,and so on.Morphologic differences between two frogs are consistent and suitable with their habitat and their living manner.
To investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E (V[E]) on serum complement C3 and C4,and the change of the complement under acid-stress in juvenile soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis),total 72 animals of one control group ? and five experimented groups (Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ and Ⅴ) were fed with V[E] supplementation at the dosages of 0,50,250,500,1000 and 5000 mg/kg diets,respectively.After feeding 4 weeks,half turtles per group were treated with acid stress for 24 h,and then the levels of their serum complement C3 and C4 were analyzed by transmission colorimetric method.The results showed that C3 levels in Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ were significantly higher than that of C,and C4 levels in Ⅰ and Ⅱ were distinctly higher than that of C;C3 and C4 levels of both C and Ⅰ in stressed turtles had significant decreases compared with non-stressed ones,while the other four groups had no significant changes.Those suggest that V[E] seems to have an upper and lower threshold for improving levels of serum complement C3 and C4 in juvenile turtles,and acid stress decreases the levels,while the high dosage V[E] can withstand this decline.
A survey on bird resources of Xisha archipelago was carried out in March-April of 2003,and one breeding colony of Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor) was found on Dong (East) island of Xisha archipelago,which is the first breeding record of this bird so far reported in China.Seven nests,13 juveniles and 2 non-breeders (adult male) were found in the wild.Among 7 nests,5 nests were damaged during the nesting period.Also some behaviors with negative effect were observed between Great Frigatebird and Redfooted Booby (Sula sula) such as robbing of food and stealing nest material.Our investigations showed that the population size and the distribution area of the Great Frigatebird had been decreased remarkably.
Distribution of 5-HT,GnRH and their receptors within ovaries of Crassostrea gigas was studied using the immunocytochemistry and double staining technique.The results revealed that 1)5-HT and GnRH receptors existed in the oocytes of different development stages of the ovary;2)the reactive substances of 5-HT and GnRH receptors were distributed along the membrane of oocytes and showed dark brown,but nucleus showed immunonegative reaction;3)5-HT,GnRH and their receptors co-existed in the cytoplasm and membrane of oocytes of different development stages.The above results indicate that the oocytes of Crassostrea gigas can not only produce 5-HT and GnRH,but also express their receptors.5-HT and GnRH may exert regulation action on the oocytes by autosecretion.
Among the effective techniques for exploring the phylogeny of arthropods,the comparison of the whole of mt genomes can provide useful information from two aspects for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships among arthropod groups,one is gene arrangement,and the other is DNA sequence.The number of complete mitochondrial genomes of arthropod species studied has been increased to 44.In this article we attempt to summarize the basic features of mt genome,the gene order,the occurrence of mt gene rearrangements and the mechanism of gene rearrangement of arthropods,etc.,and make a brief review for the recent progress and perspective in the researches of arthropod phylogeny based on mt genome.
The paper reviews the study on evolution of endothermy in animal,including the concepts,characteristics and the selective factors.There are eight main hypotheses about the selective factors on evolution of endothermy in animals,including Thermal Niche Expansion Model,Homeothermy and Metabolic Efficiency Model,Decreasing Body Size Model,Postural Change Model,Increasing Brain Size Model,Aerobic Capacity Model,Parental Care Model and Assimilation Capacity Model.The last three are the most important hypotheses.The Aerobic Capacity Model suggests that selection acted mainly to increase maximal aerobic capacity that supports physical activity,and elevated resting metabolic rate evolved as a correlated response.Intraspecific studies on vertebrates support that maximal metabolic rate is correlated to resting metabolic rate,but the interspecific data only give limited support.The Parental Care Model hypothesizes that endothermy is arisen as a consequence of selection for parental care because endothermy enables a parent to control incubation temperature.The Assimilation Capacity Model suggests that the endothermy evolution in birds and mammals is driven by two factors:1) a selection for intense post-hatching parent behavior,particularly feeding offspring,and 2) the high cost of maintaining the increased capacity of the visceral organs necessary to support high rates of total daily energy expenditures.