2002 Vol. 23, No. 5

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Phylogenetic relationships of 11 bumblebee species,including 5 subgenera:Bombus (5 species),Thoracobombus (3 species),Mendacibombus (1 species),Fervidobombus (1 species) and Pyrobombus (1 species),were analyzed based on the 357 bp mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences.There are 65 singleton polymorphic sites and 71 parsimony informative polymorphic sites in this DNA segment,and 45 polymorphic sites within the total 119 translated amino acids segment.Both NJ tree and MP tree show that Mendacibombus (B.avinovielllus) is basal to others,followed by Fervidobombus (B.pensylvanicus);Pyrobombus (B.impatiens) and Bombus are sister subgenera;the subgenus of Bombus is monophyletic,in which B.ignitus diverged first.
Diapause hormone (DH) is a neurohormone which is secreted from suboesophageal ganglion and responsible for induction of embryonic diapause in Bombyx mori.Here,using bioassay,we present evidence that Has-SGNPⅠ,which clearly exhibited diapause egg inducing activity as does Bom-DH,is likely to be DH.We reported the molecular characterization of the Helicoverpa assulta diapause hormone analog by polymerase chain reaction.A 665 bp fragment containing the entire DH-like gene was isolated and characterized.DH-like gene comprised two exons interspersed by a single intron,and the consensus sequence for splicing junction is identified at the exon/intron boundary.The result shows that DH-like gene is localized in the genome of Helicoverpa assulta.
The effect of age and exogenous hormonal stimulation on development of beef (Murray Grey×Brahman) follicles and oocytes were investigated during ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicular aspiration (TVFA).Results showed:mean number of follicles (≥2 mm) and number of follicles >10 mm in diameter were higher in heifers and pluriparous than those in older beefs (P<0.01);mean number of oocytes and COC were higher in the heifers and pluriparous than those in the older beefs (P<0.05).Among heifers,pluriparous and older beefs,percentage of Ⅰ and Ⅱ grade oocytes were successively decrease,and percentage of Ⅲ and Ⅳ grade ones were opposite (P<0.05).Ⅱ grade oocytes were more than others in the heifers and pluriparous,and Ⅲ grade oocytes were more than others in the older beefs.After pluriparous or older beefs stimulated by FSH,mean number of follicles was not different among different groups (P>0.05),but number of follicles >6 mm in diameter was increased and 2-5 mm in diameter was accordingly decreased (P<0.05),percentage of Ⅱ grade oocytes was increased,and percentage of denuded and degenerated oocytes was deceased.Mean number of follicles,oocytes and COC in the heifers and pluriparous were lower at the aspiration of estrus day than that at the other aspirations.In conclusion,oocytes can be obtained from live beefs,age can affect development of beef follicles and oocytes that could base on different physiological state,and appropriate exogenous hormonal stimulation can improve follicular development.
By mensurating thyrotropin-releasing-hormone (TRH) content in hypothalamus and median eminence (ME),T[4],T[3] and norepinephrine (NE) concentration in serum,and T[4]5 deiodinase activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT),regulative mechanism of BAT thermogenesis was investigated in adult male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus),which randomly divided into three groups that control group kept in room temperature of (24±2)℃,and acute and chronic cold exposed groups kept in (4±1)℃ for 1 day and 3 weeks respectively.When animals were put into acute cold condition,their TRH content in hypothalamus decreased while that in ME arose,and T[3] and NE concentration in serum and T[4]5 deiodinase activity in BAT increased while T[4] concentration in serum decreased compared with those in control group.Animals having been exposed to cold for 3 weeks,their TRH content in hypothalamus restored to the normal level,while TRH content in ME,T[3] level in serum and T[4]5 deiodinase activity in BAT were higher and T[4] level in serum was lower than those in acute cold exposure group,and NE concentration in serum was still higher than that of control animals although it showed a decrease tendency as compared with acute cold exposed animals.It suggested that the cold exposure might activate the procedure of synthesis and secretion of hormones in hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and the sympathetic nerve system in Mongolian gerbil,which brought on the occurrence of heat production for responding to changes of environmental temperature.
By means of population accumulative culture and with a green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa at four food levels (3.0×10[6],6.0×10[6],9.0×10[6] and 12.0×10[6] cells/mL),the effects of food concentration on the body and egg volume,and population growth in freshwater rotifers Brachionus angularis were studied at (25±1) ℃.The rotifers belong to Guangzhou,Wuhu and Yingshang strains collected from the water systems of Zhujiang River,Changjiang River and Huaihe River respectively.The results showed that the body and egg volume,and population growth were affected significantly by food concentration,strain and the interaction of both.At the same food level,the rotifer of Guangzhou strain had the largest population growth rate,and that of Wuhu strain had the largest body volume and egg volume.At the same strain,the population grew fastest while the food concentration was 9.0×10[6] cells/mL.The relationships between the food concentration and population growth rate were all curvilinear in three strains.However,the optimum food concentration for the population growth was different among them.The strain had a more important effect on the rotifer body volume than the food concentration did.
From May 1998 to April 2001,time budget of semifreeranging Amur tigers was conducted in Heilongjiang Amur Tiger Park by focal animal sampling method.The results showed that:moving (37.53%) and resting (32.45%) occurred more,and standing (6.24%),eating (10.13%),social (8.36%) and other (5.29%,including drinking,eliminating,grooming and so on) behaviors did less;activity rhythm was no differences in different seasons,but moving and social behaviors happened more in summer and winter than did in spring and autumn;moving,eating,standing and social behaviors had two activity peak periods,one in a.m.and the other in p.m.respectively,and resting had one activity peak period at noon.The above results were compared with those of captive and wild Amur tigers,and some strategies were suggested for improving the survival ability of semifree-ranging Amur tigers.
Data of rodents census shows that their community and density in dwellings of countryside in Dongting Plain have changed remarkably with the improvement of farmhouses from 80s to 1996-2001.The community composes of Rattus norvegicus,Mus musculus and Rattus flavipectus.Trap successes of rodents are much higher in dwellings with clay floor than with concrete floor,which is a key factor in affecting rodent community and density.The main species trapped in rooms with clay floor is R.norvegicus.However,that with concrete floor is mainly M.musculus.The trap successes of rodents in the farmhouses with brick structure are lower than with wood and clay structure.The dominant species in the former is M.musculus while in the latter is R.norvegicus.The results also indicates that the population density of rodent in this area has been decreasing since 80s ,especially the population of R.norvegicus.
The ultrastructure of spermatogenesis of Bullacta exarata was studied by using of transmission electron microscopy.The results show that there is a series of considerable changes in morphology and structure during the spermatogenesis.These changes include gradual nuclear elongation,chromatin condensation,formation of acrosome,development and fusion of mitochondria,cytoplasmic sloughing and flagellar formation.Acrosome is formed from proacrosomal vesicle fused with vesicles secreted by Golgi apparatus.Axoneme is formed from centriole.Spermatid differentiation can be divided into three stages.During the differentiation,the morphology and structure of nucleus and chromation are different from other Mollusks.The nucleus of early spermatid is oval-shaped and comprises heterogeneous aggregations of flocculent granular chromatin.In the middle stage,it is kidney shaped and its chromatin condenses to finely fibrils-shaped.As the spermatid matures,the nucleus elongates in the anterior-posterior axis,and the chromatin condenses to long fibrils and then condenses to high and even electron-density till the formation of spermatozoon nucleus.At the same time,the nucleus transforms from cylindric shape to long cylindric shape.Significance of nucleus and cell organelle as taxonomic character in the spermatogenesis of B.exarata is roughly discussed.
By using optical and transmission electron microscopy,the orientation pattern of ciliature cytoskeleton during resting period in Euplotes encysticus was demonstrated,and the location of α- and β-tubulin in cells under two different physiological states was compared by immunofluorescence.In the resting cyst,nearly all of ciliary shafts were degenerated;kinetosomes of adoral zone of membranelles and ventral cirri were contracted into cytoplasm;part of kinetosomes of frontoventral cirri were disintegrated and disappeared;microtubule layers were preserved beneath the pellicle.It was showed by immunofluorescence that the kinetosomes of dorsal cilia were fully preserved according to the original pattern;after encystment,a slight portion of microtubulin scattered in cytoplasm.On the basis of these experimental results,three destinies of the microtubulin in Euplotes encysticus have been proposed:1)be located and gradually digested within autophagic vacuole,2)be located in cortex and cytoplasm in a form of "microtubulin storehouse",or 3)be preserved in remained kinetosomes.Moreover,the cortical cirri-base-associated fiber found in the past research was not marked in this experiment,which implied that the fiber system does not belong to microtubule system.
In this paper,a new genus and seven new species of Tetrigoidea from the southern part of Guangxi are described.Type specimens are preserved in the Institute of Zoology,Shaanxi Normal University. 1 Zhengitettix transpicula sp.nov.(Figs.1-4) This new species is allied to Zhengitettix hainanensis Liang,but differs in:1) width of sulcus of frontal ridge as wide as the width of antenna basal segment;2)ocelli placed the middle of anterior margin of eyes;3)antennae situated between the inferior margin of eyes;4)posterior angles of lateral lobes of pronotum thorn shape,long and transverse;5)hind wing nearly reaching the top of hind tibia;6)body ochraeus red,with many yellowish spots;7)abdominal sterna black. ♀ length of body 8 mm,length of pronotum 11 mm,length of hind femur 6 mm. Holotype ♀,Fengcheng (Fulong),Guangxi,108°2′E,22°N,200-370 m,2-Ⅻ-2001,coll.JIANG Guo-fang. 2 Miriatroides gen.nov. Body size small.Head not elevated above the pronotum surface;vertex square,considerably protuberance before the eyes,anterior margin flat,lateral margins straight and parallel,midkeel distinct and slightly protruding before anterior margin,width of vertex as wide as the width of an eye;frons oblique,in profile with vertex forming an acute angle and protruding forward;longitudinal sulcus of frontal ridge very narrow,its width only half the width of antenna basal segment;antenna filiform,situated the lower one third of the anterior margin of eyes.Anterior margin of pronotum straight,hind process conical,slightly reaching beyond the top of hind femur;tip of posterior angles of lobes of pronotum truncate,hind margin with two concavities.Hind wing reaching the top of hind process.First segment of posterior tarsi equal to the third.Ovipositor long and narrow,upper and lower margins of upper valve parallel,its length 3.3 times the length of its width. Type species:Miriatroides quadrivertex sp.nov. This new genus is related to Rhopalotettix Hancock and Miriatra Bolivar,it differs from both by:1)vertex square;2)middle keel slightly projecting before anterior margin;3)width of interocular distance as wide as the width of an eye;4)antennae situated the lower one third of the anterior margin of eyes. 3 Miriatroides quadrivertex sp.nov.(Figs.5-8) ♀ length of body 9-10.5 mm,length of pronotum 8-10 mm,length of hind femur 6-6.5 mm. Holotype ♀,Fengcheng (Fulong),Guangxi,108°2′E,22°N,350-400 m,24-Ⅷ-1998;paratypes,2♀,Shangsi,Guangxi,108°1′E,22°N,21-Ⅷ-1998,coll.JIANG Guo-fang. 4 Hyboella longinota sp.nov.(Figs.9-11) This new species is allied to Hyboella angulifrons Hancock,but differs in:1)width of vertex 1.6 times the width of an eye;2)in profile,vertex and frons forming obtuse rounded;3)lateral keels in prozona long,nearly parallel;4)hind wing reaching beyond the top of hind femur;5)width of midfemur wider than the width of anterior femur. ♀ length of body 12 mm,length of pronotum 14 mm,length of hind femur 4 mm. Holotype ♀,Du an,Guangxi,108°1′E,24°1′N,350 m,12-Ⅶ-1999,coll.LIU Gan. 5 Hedotettix bivalvatus sp.nov.(Figs.12-14) This new species is related to Hedotettix grossus Hancock and Hedotettix gracillis (De Haan).It differs from both in:1)width of vertex narrower than the width of an eye about 1.5 times;2)lateral keels of prozona constrict backward;3)hind wing reaching the top of hind femur;4)width of midfemur as wide as the width of elytra;5)hind margin of subgenital plate of female two valves.It differs from the former by the disc of pronotum flat,and differs from the latter by the width of sulcus of frontal ridge as wide as the width of antenna coxa. ♀ length of body 10 mm,length of pronotum 12.2 mm,length of hind femur 6 mm;♂ length of body 9 mm,length of pronotum 12 mm,length of hind femur 6 mm. Holotype ♀,Fengcheng (Fulong),Guangxi,108°2′E,22°N,115 m,23-Ⅷ-1998,coll.JIANG Guo-fang;paratype,1♂,same as holotype. 6 Coptotettix fengchengensis sp.nov.(Figs.15-17) This new species is allied to Coptotettix conspersus Hancock,but differs in:1)dorsal view,vertex protuberance before the eyes;2)midkeel of pronotum distinctly whole length;3)hind wing not reaching the top of hind femur;4)lower margin of midfemur straight. ♀ length of body 11 mm,length of pronotum 11 mm,length of hind femur 7 mm. Holotype ♀,Fengcheng (Fulong),Guangxi,108°2′E,22°N,115 m,23-Ⅷ-1998,coll.JIANG Guo-fang. 7 Tetrix guinanensis sp.nov.(Figs.18-20) This new species is allied to Tetrix beibuwanensis Zheng et Jiang and Tetrix zhengi Jiang.It differs from both in:1)width of vertex narrower than the width of an eye;2)hind process reaching the knee of hind femur;3)hind wing not reaching the top of hind femur;4)width of midfemur narrower than the width of elytra (♀) and wider than the width of elytra (♂).It differs from the former by the hind margin of subgenital plate of female with a triangular process in the middle. ♂ length of body 7.5-8 mm,length of pronotum 6.5-8 mm,length of hind femur 6 mm;♀ length of body 9.5-10 mm,length of pronotum 7.5-9 mm,length of hind femur 5-6 mm. Holotype ♂,Longzhou,Guangxi,106°7′E,22°3′N,300-400 m,9-Ⅹ-1998;paratypes,3♂,2♀,as holotype;2♂,Fengcheng (Fulong),Guangxi,108°2′E,22°N,23-Ⅷ-1998,coll.JIANG Guo-fang. 8 Euparatettix sinufemoralis sp.nov.(Figs.21-23) This new species is related to Euparatettix bimaculatus Zheng,but differs in:1)in profile,anterior part of upper margin of pronotum wave like,and posterior part flat;2)the part of hind wing which reaching behind the top of hind femur about 1-1.5 mm;3)lower margin of midfemur wave like;4)width of midfemur as wide as the width of elytra. ♀ length of body 8-8.5 mm,length of pronotum 10-10.5 mm,length of hind femur 4.5-5 mm. Holotype ♀,Napo,Guangxi,115°7′E,23°2′N,1 250-1 300 m,15-Ⅷ-1998;paratypes,2♀,as holotype,1♀,Jinxiu,Guangxi,110°1′E,24°N,750 m,5-Ⅸ-1998,coll.JIANG Guo-fang.
Two new species Eremus parvospinus sp.nov.and Apotrechus nigrigeniculatus sp.nov.are described in this paper and collected from Guangxi and Sichuan of China respectively.All the type specimens are deposited in Insects Collecting Museum of Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology,the Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1 Eremus parvospinus sp.nov.(Figs.1-4) ♀ Length.Body 20.0 mm,pronotum 4.0 mm,hind femora 9.5 mm,and ovipositor 5.0 mm.This new species very similar to Eremus rugosifrons Brunner-Wattenwyl,1888,with all characteristics of this distinct genus:both sexes apterous,face (front) with wrinkles,mid tibiae armed with a apical spur above and hind tibiae armed with spines.The new species is distinguished from E.rugosifrons by the smaller size and head with distinctly sunken face,hind tibiae with 3 external spines and 2 internal spines. ♂ unknown. Holotype ♀,Xinan (Maoershan Mt.),Guangxi,China, 1 000 m,22 to 23-Ⅷ-1992,coll.LIU Xian-wei and YIN Hai-sheng. 2 Apotrechus nigrigeniculatus sp.nov.(Figs.5-7) ♂ Length.Body 15.0-16.5 mm,pronotum 3.5 mm,hind femora 9.0-10.0 mm.This new species very similar to males of A.ambulaus (Erichson,1842) and with all characteristics of this distinct genus:both sexes apterous,hind tibiae unarmed above and male subgenital plate without styli.The new species is distinguished from it by the smaller size,fore and mid legs with blackish knee,paired lobes of male 10th abdominal tergite directed downwards,with acute apex.Male subgenital plate transverse,distal part deeply excised,the lobes with two rounded lobes at apex. ♀ unknown. Holotype ♂,Sichuan (Emei Mt.),China,1 840 m,16-Ⅷ-1985,coll.JIN Gen-tao;paratype,1♂,same data as in holotype.
The present paper overviewed the characteristics and function of courtship song in insects,especially Orthoptera and particularly emphasizing on the structure of calling organ and its calling mechanism,courtship calling orientation and its accuracy,individually appropriate adjust of courtship song under certain situation,acoustic parameters and their biological significances,and reaction and recognition to courtship song of receptor.On the base of this overview,the ecological significances of courtship song were discussed from the perspective of natural and sexual selection and speciation resulting from courtship song and its evolution.Finally,the progressing tendency of this scientific field was prospected.
The studies of amphibian population ecology are far less deep and extensive than those of mammals and birds.This paper mainly deals with summarizing the amphibian population structure and dynamic disciplinarian,behavior of taking food and foods analysis,call analysis and communication,process and habit of reproduce,preparation and adaptation for hibernation,and amphibian decline of the worldwide.A lot of reports stated had been reported both in the domestic and the abroad.Through the summary,the authors try to expatiate upon the research status in quo and existing problems among different studies,then to analyze what areas should be studied more and where may be developing trends in the future.As the environment worsen and survival space decreased,populations of all amphibian species are faced with tremendous survival pressure,and may be extinct in someday indeed.Thus,it is important to explore the relationship between the amphibian and the external circumstances through research on the amphibian population ecology widely and deeply,which will have many realistic and theoretic values for the environment inspection and for the protection and utilization of the amphibian population.
A myrmecochore is the plant whose seed is dispersed by ants.During long coordinating evolution,a mutualism has been developed between the ants and myrmecochores.The relationship between them means the following:1)myrmecochores develop elaiosome which is an external appendage on seeds and ants favorite food;2)ants eat the elaiosome and leave the seed nearby their nests,which results in such plants dispersing.Myrmecochores distribute worldwide,but a great number of them have been mainly discovered in Australia and South Africa.Seeds removed by ants are mainly ones of herbs and shrubs.The study on the mutualism has showed that the seed dispersal by the ant is favorable for the seed protection,and ants nests are good for the seed germinating,seedling and community formation.The seed dispersal by the ant is an important factor affecting some communities structure of temperate forests.The mutualism also plays an important role in restoration of natural communities.
Two acetylcholinesterase (AChE) genes cDNA fragments,Ag.acel and Ag.ace2,have been cloned from cotton aphid,Aphis gossypii Glover using degenerate primers with RT-PCR technique.Ag.acel gene cDNA fragment is of 282 bp encoding 94 amino acids,and Ag.ace2 gene cDNA fragment is of 264 bp encoding 88 amino acids.Both two putative AChE genes cDNA fragments share numerous similarities with those cloned from other insects.This is the first report of two AChE cDNA fragment sequences in the insect species,which provided the direct evidence of multiple AChE existence in insects.