2002 Vol. 23, No. 4

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The total mRNA was prepared and purified from the venom glands of snake Trimer esurus mucrosquamatus.The cDNAs encoding C-type lectin-like proteins were amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the PMD 18-T vectors.The positive clones encoding four C-type lectin-like proteins (TML-1,TML-2,TML-3 and TML-4) were selected and sequenced.Amino acid sequences of these proteins were deduced and each contains carbohydraterecognition domain (CRD).Homology comparison and cystein position analysis indicate that TML-1 and TML-2 might be the α and β subunits of a C-type lectin-like protein similar to flavocetin-A,TML-3 the α subunit of a C-type lectin-like protein similar to GPIb-bp,and TML-4 the β subunit of a C-type lectin-like protein similar to Ⅸ/Ⅹ-bp.
A neurotoxin named Hainantoxin-Ⅵ (HNTX-Ⅵ) was purified from the venom of the hinese bird spider Selenocosmia hainana by ion exchange chromatography and r everse phase high performance liquid chromatography.The molecular weight of HNTX-Ⅵ is 3.99 849 kDa identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry,which is in good agreement with the complete amino acid sequence of NH[2]-ECKYLWGTCEKDEH CCEHLGCNKKHGWCGWDGTF-COOHdetermined by automatic Edman degradation.The neurotoxin can paralyze rat after intracerebroventricular injection and block the neu romuscular transmission of the isolated rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation .The 34-residue peptide,which contained 6 Cys and formed three disulfide bond s,showed high homology with two kinds of K[+] channel inhibitor,the HaTx from the venom of the Grammostola spatulata and the SGTx1 from the tarantula Scodra griseipes.
From April 1998 to March 2001,the 24 hours time budget and activity rhythm of 5 captive Amur tigers (females and 2 males) were observed in Harbin Zoo,by all-occurrence and scan sampling methods.The results show that:There exist the d ifferences between the males and females in time budget and activity rhythm.The females spend more time sleeping and resting and less time moving and doing other behaviors than the males,but both sexes spend similar time eating.The males mainly sleep in the evening,and begin and end to move later 1 hour or so than the females.Variation of individuals and sexes,which were analyzed with one wa y ANOVA,indicates that there are clear differences in moving (P<0.05) among individuals,and in sleeping,resting,moving and other behaviors (P<0.05) between the male and female Amur tigers.
The structure,power spectrum and temporal parameters of the calling sound,courting sound and wrestle sound (different sex ratio) of Gryllus bimaculatus were studied with acoustic analysis techniques of computer.The results show:1) Pulse length (PL),inter pulse interval (IPI),pulse number of each pulse group (PN),and sounds pulse are almost the same in the calling sound,courting sound and wrestle sound.These features show the species recognition of factor.Among them,IPI is the most important.2) Other features,such as rhythm,sound length,sou nd intermission have a close contact with the social and individual activity of Gryllus bimaculatus.From calling sound to courting sound,the syllable num bers of each rhythm is gradually increasing from one syllable,two syllables to many syllables.But sound intermission is decreasing.In the different sex rate,t he number of males clearly affects the sound feature.When male increase,the rhy thm and sound length increase,but sound intermission decrease.Different rate of female have no law.3) Power spectrum and temporal parameters of the sound has a corresponding relation.Various pulse energy of sounds,including calling sound,courting sound and wrestle sound assemble in one energy range.
We studied the echolocation of Thylonycteris pachypus and T.robustula in southern Guangxi,China,which were often found roosting within internodes of the bamboo (Bambusa spp.).The echolocation signals of the T.pachypus and T.robustula were compared when the bats were flying in the laboratory.The result revealed that the echolocation calls of both T.pachypus and T.r bustula were FM signals.The frequency range of T.pachypus was higher (62.4-91.6 kHz) than T.robustula (42.7-72.4 kHz),the dominant frequency of T.pachypus was also higher [(76.5±2.1) kHz] than T.robustula [(49.2±1.8) kHz].But the pulse duration is not significant difference,nor do interpulse interval,repetition rate and duty cycle between the two kinds of bats.The characteristics of the echolocation calls of the two bats perh aps made them adapt to their bodysize and micro-habitat.
There were 34 species of grasshoppers that were collected from 23 samples on the northern slope of Taibai Mountain of Qinling,they belonged to 2 superfamilies ,7 families,25 genusesThe grasshopper communities were analysed using quantity classification,diversity indexes and similarity coefficients methods.Using quantity classification method,the grasshopper communities can be divided into 8 types:farmland,Quercus variabilies forest,Q.aliena var.acuteser rataforest,Liaotungensis forest,Betula  forest,Abies forest,Larix forest,and alpine meadow.The changing law of grasshopper distribution was obvious.The species and diversity indexes of grasshopper communities in high elevation mountain belt (alpine meadow) were lower than those in middle-low elevation mountain belt.The species and diversity indexes of grasshopper communitie s in middl-low elevation mountain belt (Q.aliena var.acuteserrata fo rest belt) were highest.But in farmland of low elevation mountain,for simple vegetation and human disturbance,the density and dominant indexes of grasshopper communities were higher than those in middle-low elevation mountain belt,and the species of grasshoppers were less.
The genus Saurogobio Bleeker (1870) is a group of small-sized cyprinids.Saurogobio dabryi Bleeker (1871) is widely distributed in East Asia.On the basis of careful inspection of morphological and meristic characters of specimen collected from Chenghai Lake in Yunnan and the opening river systems including Pearl River,Minjiang River,Yangtze River,Liaohe River and Songhuajiang River,the Chenghai Lake population of Saurogobio dabryi is considered to represent a new subspecies,Saurogobio dabryi chenghaiensis.Saurogobio dabryi chenghaiensis is distinguished by the combination of follo wing characters.Rostral cap developed,covering over upper lip,and lips with developed papillae.Body and caudal peduncle very slender,body depth 12.7%-15.0% of standardlength(SL),caudal peduncle depth 5.5%-6.1% of SL and 31.8%-39.1% of caudal peduncle length.A longitudinal dark stripe present along the axis on each side of body and 6-11 stick-shaped black spots (its widths being 25%-5 0% of its lengths respectively) occur along the stripe.Distance from pelvic fin origin to anus is more than 50% of pelvic fin length.The length of the shortest caudal fin ray is less than 50% that of the longest one.The new subspecies occur s only in Chenghai Lake,Yunnan,China.
There are 14 subspecies in the world (Mayr & Paaynter,1964;Howard & Moore,1980),5 subspecies recorded in China (Cheng,1987,1994;MacKinnon et al.,2000),3 subspecies recorded in Yunnan Province.Seven adult specimens of Chestnut-crowned Laughingthrush collected from the Ailaoshan Mountain region in Jindong,Shuanbai,and Xinping et al.counties of Yunnan,were discovered to have essential differences from all other recorded subspecies of Chestnut-crowned Laughingthrush and distribute in certain specific areaTherefore,they are identified as a new subspecies and named as:The Ailaoshan subspecies of Chestnut-crowned Laughingthrush Garrulax erythr ocephalus ailaoshanensis subsp.nov.
This paper deals with three new species of Tetrigoidea from Napo area of Guangxi.Type specimens are kept in Institute of Zoology,the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
The paper reports a new genus of Arcypteridae I.e.Suacris gen.nov.and a new species Suacris siyangensis sp.nov.The new genus is similar to Omocestus I.Bol.,but differs from the latter in:1)Lateral carinae slightly curved,widest 1.6-1.8 times greater than narrowest.2)Cubital area wider than or equal to medial area.3)Tympanum organ distinct,♂ widely oval,♀ crevice-like.The new genus is also similar to Stenobothroides Xu et Zheng,but differs from the later in:1)Lateral carinae obvious and curve.2)Ter gum of terminal abdomere without furcula.3)Male subgenital plate long conica.Typ e specimens are deposited in Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology,the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
This article indroduces some characteristics of ciliate developed during the course of evolution,which include nuclear dimorphism,gene-sized DNA,MAC genes characters,the difference of cell cycle and histones.Further more,it reports the latest research results of somatic function and code prejudice.
Owing to the absence of genetic recombination and the accumulation of deleterious mutations,unisexual animals were generally thought to be short-lived on an evolutionary timescale because of Mullers ratchet.However,more than 50 unisexual species have been identified in lower vertebrates and the evolutionary history has been revealed to be very long.The intriguing contradiction between the deleterious mutation accumul ation and the evolutionary longevity,and the underlying mechanism in the absenc e of genetic recombination remain to be revealed and interpreted.In this review,we introduce special structural characterization of genome,evolutionary history and possible ways to evolutionary success in these unisexual animals,such as mutation,triploidy allogynogenesis and reproduction mode diversity.
Neural and endocrine responses of mammals in cold stress were summarized in this paper.Cold stress activates sympathetic nervous system,activates the procedure of synthesis and release of hormones of hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis,and increases the secretion of catecholamine of sympathetic-adernal-medullary system At the same time,secretions of hormo nes of somatotrophic axis,gonadotrophic axis and lactotrophic axis are inhibit ed.Many neuropeptides and hormonesare involved in the stress response,such as neuropeptide Y,melatonin,leptin,orexin.The activation of hypothalamo-pituit ary-thyroid axis is a compensatory response of heat loss in cold environment,and it is beneficial to the maintaining of constant body temperature.The positive feedback system between the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and norepin ephrine (NE) forms during cold stress,but glucocorticoid inhibites both CRH and NE release,and heat produces.The neuroendocrine responses of chronic cold stress tends to recover,but the physiological responses in the state of new homeost asis reconstructed in cold stress might be different from the responses under basic condition.And cold stress changes animals response to later stressor.
"882" broilers at one-week-old were randomly divided into two groups.Contr ol group (CG) was feeded with distilled water,and experimental group (EG) was feeded with distilled water containing 0.05% GABA.Eath group was heat stress at 32 ℃ every day for 1.5 h.The experiment was conducted for four weeks.The results showed that GABA could affect the performance and physiologic index of the heat stress broiler.Compared with CG,GABA dropped significant respiratory of EG (P<0.01) and improved erythrocyte of broilers of EG (P<0.05).While GA BA could decrease feed conversion ratio of EG (P<0.01) and increase body we ight gain of EG 117.86% as compared with CG (P<0.05).
We used methods of scan sampling and all-occurrence sampling to observed a pair of captive Sclaters Monal (Lophophorus scalteri).The observation lasted o ne year and 43 days to be carried for collecting data,then 25 800 data to be g ained.The results shows the captive birds daily rhythm had peak in morning and evening.The time proportion of various behaviors of the pheasant had significant different in different month.The years data indicated the time budgets of the birds were:resting 39.88%,feeding 23.57%,watching 14.02%,moving 10.36%,body caring 8.08%,and others 4.09%.It is obvious that resting and feeding were the most important activities of Sclaters Monal in captivity.The birds time budgets were difference in different seasons.The time budgets are not obviously different between the cock and hen.Maybe this was due to the low frequency of propagation activity.We saw only one integrated mating process during the obs ervation.Another 2 courtship display of the cock stopped on midway with no relat ively responses from hen.
In order to investigate the avifauna and bird community in Weihe Plain and to discuss the similarity between communities in the different habitats and its influ encing factors,the bird species and their abundance in seven different sites were studied by line sampling method,Shannon-Wiener,Pielou indices and Multivar iate analysis.According to the record,there are 63 species in that area,belonging to 13 orders,29 genera and 47 families.Dominant species in different suits showed that water area was the important factor to special bird.Diversity were related to human disturbance (Y=2.945-0.352X).Higher evenness suggested that different communities distributed even,and influenced by water and human disturbance.The results of the Hierarchical Cluster,Principal Components Analy sis (PCA) and Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) suggested that all suits could be divided into 3-4 groups by the human disturbance,and the result of the MDS was b etter than that of the Hierarchical Cluster.Special factor,such as human disturbance,had influenced the bird communitys structure significantly and resulted in dissimilarity between similar habitat.
The development,survivorship,fecundity and longevity of Typhlodromus bambusae Ehara fed on the spider mite of Schizotetranychus bambusae were observed at 16,20,24,28,and 32 ℃,respectively.The age-specific life tables of experimental population in T.bambusae were established.The relationship bet ween population dynamics and 5 constant temperatures was analyzed using Morris model and Weibull frequency distribution.The results indicated that the eggs lai d per female varied greatly from 31.26 at 24 ℃ to 9.2 at 32 ℃.The relationship between population trend index (I) and temperature (T) could be si mulated with equation:I=98.7747+9.6914T-0.2033T[2].Theoretically,I had the highest value (16.74) at 23.83 ℃.Based on analysis,the mos t important factor affecting I was average eggs per female.Within temperature range of 16-32 ℃,The population survival curve belongs to type of Deevey Ⅰ.