2000 Vol. 21, No. 3

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β-Bungarotoxin-binding sites exist in the presynaptic membrane of rat phrenic nerve with a relatively high density.The purified β-bungarotoxin-binding protein was obtained from rat diaphragm muscle by a few steps (including homogenization,detergent solubilizaton,ion exchange chromatography,lectin affinity chromatography and β-bungarotoxin affinity chromatography) with a total yield of 3%.The specific binding activity of the purified protein preparations was around 1 nmol/mg protein.The pattern of SDS discontinuous buffer system polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the final protein preparation showed that two peptides were co-purified and their molecular weights were 61 and 69 kD,respectively.
Adult grass lizards,Takydromus septentrio-nalis,are similar in size (SVL) but sexually dimorphic in head size (males larger than females ) throughout its range.A comprehensive analysis on the ecological and evolutionary sources of sexual differences in growth and size of heads requires a detailed understanding of growth trajectories during ontogeny.In this study,we specifically quesioned at what point during ontogeny males and females diverge in head size:at birth,during juvenile growth,or as mature adults? Our results indicate that males and females begin to diverge in head size at birth,although the divergence in the newly emerged young is much less pronounced than that in adults.An ANCOVA indicates that adult females even have smaller heads than do juveniles (including the newly emerged young).This suggests that adult females partition less resources into head growth but more into carcass growth,thereby leaving a larger space for eggs so as to increase reproductive output.Lizards collected in different seasons,from different populations,and at different ontogenetic stages,in various degrees,differ in food niche width and breadth.However,no direct evidence shows a substantial contribution of the divergence in head size to the segregation of food niche between males and females.Our analyses support that sexual selection is the main evolutionary source of smaller heads in female T.septentrionalis.
The study was carried out on sandy pasture in the middle ten days of each month from April to October during 1991-1995 in Dalate County,Inner Mongolia.A total efforts of 101845 trap-day was made and 6325 rodents were captured among which 2217 specimens were Phodopus roborovskii.The results obtained were as follows:1) Sex ratio (♂/♀) of Phodopus roborovskii population in this area was close to 1∶1.2) The reproductive strength of both males and females increased with ages.3) Reproductive periods of males and females were from February to October and from March to October respectively.
Temperature is an important climatological variable that influences the biology and ecology of aphids and their parasitoids.Aphidius gifuensis is an important solitary primary endoparasitoid that mainly attacks Myzus persicae at the tobacco growing season in Yuxi,Yunnan Province.The population of A.gifuensis were reared in Lab.in five constant temperatures (10,15,20,25 and 30 ℃) and effects of these constant temperature on developmental rate,longevity,fecundity and reproductive rate were investigated.The relationship between temperature and developmental rate is fits Logistic curve with the fastest developmental rate at 25 ℃.The temperature threshold and thermal requirement for development from egg to adult were 3.3 ℃and 266.0 day-degree respectively.The female A.gifuensis could oviposite 90% eggs during first 4 days in its reproductive period,and 80% of the eggs were oviposited during daytime from 6:30 am to 22:30 pm.High temperatures (>25℃) have significant negative effect on total fecundity,longevity of female parasite,and the weight (size) and emergence rate of aphids mummies of A.gifuensis.Moderate temperature (20 ℃) was optimal for A.gifuensis survival,development and reproduction.Moreover,we concluded that the most favorable temperature for mass rearing and releasing of A.gifuensis was at the temperature range of 20-25 ℃ in biological control.Furthermore,the application of the result in this study for biological control of M.pericae by temperature was also discussed in the paper.
The study on the organelles and their functions in resting Paraurostyla weissei was carried out with electron microscopic enzymo-cytochemistry method.The results revealed:1)the activity of acid phosphatase (ACPase) was confined to the autophagic vacuoles of the different stages and the enzyme reaction particles wene made up the vacuolar bodies of various shapes;2)the activity of adenosine triposphatase (ATPase) also presented in the autophagic vacuoles,and the enzyme reaction particles formed the vacuolar or spherical bodies of various sizes;3)the localization of succinic dehydrogenase activity was in a few of the mitochondria separately scattered in the cytoplasm and there were a small number of the enzyme reaction granules in the mitochondrial inner membrane ranged with the out membrane although no reaction had been seen at a lot of the mitochondria converged to each other.Thus it was supposed from the above results:1)the digestion within autophagic vacuoles that was confirmed by the ACPase reaction might be a main life process which made use of the material and supplies the energy requirement for the resting cell in a physiologically special state;2)the ATPase reaction was at the autophagic vacuole,that was,the lysoome,in which the digestive duration was bound up with the energy consumption;3)The mitochondria that were mostly converged to each other might be the nonfunctional organelles in the resting cell while a few of those separately scattered in the cytoplasm might be the functional organelles.
This paper describes a new species of the genus Ochotona (Ochotonidae,Lagomorpha) from Pianma (=Hpimaw) western Yunnan,China.The type specimens (Holotype) is deposited in the Kunming Institute of Zoology,the Chinese Academy of Sciences.Paratypes (CREDY 287 and CREDY 429) are deposited in the Control and Research Institute of Epidemic of Yunnan. Ochotona nigritia sp.nov.Gong et Wang Holotype:CREDY 97-183,adult,collected on Oct.5,1997,from Pianma,Lushui County,western Yunnan,alt.3200 m. Paratypes:CREDY 97-287,97-429,adults,collected on Oct.7,and Nov.8,1997,from same locality as the holotype. Diagnosis:The new species distingished from all other of genus Ochotona by its especially dark coloration.Summer:dorsal pelage dark blackish with patch of umber-brownished on head and sides of cheek,and of grayish on flank.Ventral pure blackish;Winter pelage pure black dorsally and ventrally.Size medium,LHB 156(153-160) mm,EL 17.3(17-18) mm,LHF 27.3(27-28) mm,GLS 38.2(37.5-38.9) mm,ZW 19.1(18.8-19.1) mm,BW 16.7(15.9-16.7) mm,BH 14.6(14.3-14.9) mm;incisive and palatal foramina completely confluent.Remarks:Dark blackish pelage of the new species is unique in genus Ochotona.The new species belongs to subgenus Ochotona by its incisive and palatal foramina completely confluent on the skull.It differs from many species of sub genus Ochotona (O.macrotis,O.roylei,O.koslowi,O.curzoniae,O.daurica,O.annectens,O.iliensis,O.himalayana,O.gloveri,O.erythrotis) in its small size (GLS <40 mm),and flattened skull in profile.It distingished yet from O.macrotis and O.roylei by its no small oval foramina on the anterior end of the frontal.It differs from O.cansus and O.thomasi in its longer and wide skull (GLS 38.2(37.5-38.9) mm,vs.<36.2 mm;and ZW over 18 mm vs.<16.2 mm). The new species is closely similar to sympatric species (O.forresti,O.thibetana and O.gaoligongensis) in size,no small oval formina on the frontal and the ratio of ZW and GLS of the skull.It distinguished from latter 3 species by its dark black pelage,its rather prominent braincase (ratio of BH and GLS 38.1%-38.3% vs.<37.0%);by its wide basioccipital bone (width of basioccipital bone at carotid cannel 4.1 (3.8-4.3) mm vs.3.2(2.8-3.4) mm in O.forresti,2.7(2.6-2.9) mm in O.thibetana,and 2.4(2.2-2.4) mm in O.gaoligongensis);by its relatively shorter ear(17-18 mm vs.over 20 mm);by its large auditory bulla [LAB 9.1(8.9-9.2) mm vs.8.3(7.6-8.9) mm];by its relatively longer bone palate [2.1(1.9-2.2) mm vs.1.3(1.0-1.5) mm];by its pear shaped incisive-palatal foramina against calabash or violin shaped incisive-palatal foramina (O.forresti and O.gaoligongensis).
Six new species of Eosentomon,namely:E.gaoligongense,E.nujiangense,E.zixiensis,E.luquanense,E.yingjiangense and E.ruiliense,were described in this paper.All the specimens are preserved in Shanghai Institute of Entomology,the Chinese Academy of Science.
This paper is based on the material of the tribe Meconematini from China,three new genera and seven new species are described,and key to the genera of Chinese brachypterous Meconematini are given.The type specimens are deposited in Shanghai Institute of Entomology,the Chinese Academy of Science (IEAS).
The present paper describes three new species of the genus Phaonia from Yunnan Province,China.All materials are deposited in the Institute of Entomology,Shenyang Normal College.
A new technique for predicting species geographic distribution is described.The approach involves 3 steps:1)setting up geographic base data;2)collecting and georeferencing distributional points;3)modeling ecological niches using the biodiversity species workshop implementation of the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP).To illustrate these procedures,an example based on the Brown Eared Pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) is developed.This technique constitutes a useful tool for assessing geographic distribution for questions of ecology,biogeography,systematics,and conservation biology.
The paper reviewed the concepts,sustained metabolic rate (SusMR) and sustained metabolic scope (SusMS),and four hypotheses on its limit factors were given,I.e.food availability hypothesis,peripheral limit hypothesis,central limit hypothesis and symmorphosis hypothesis.Besides,SusMRs evolutionary reason was analyzed with the methods and the conclusions.The relationship between SusMR and SusMS and RMR is that RMR increased at high SusMR,and the mechanism were concluded.SusMR has an important role on animal life.In the end,four future directions for this field were given.