1999 Vol. 20, No. 1

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The classification of the white-headed langur has remained controversial.Tan (1957) proposed that the white-headed langur,discovered by Tan in 1952 in southwestern Guangxi Autonomous Region,be a new species Presbytis leucocephalus.Li and Ma (1980) recognized the white-headed langur as a subspecies of P.francoisi based on a field survey of the geographical distribution of both the Francois langur and the white-headed langur in southern Guangxi Autonomous Region.Lu and Huang (1993) found that altitude coincides with habitat use,and separates Francois langur from white-headed langurs.So they distinguished the langur as separate species.All of viewpoints mentioned above are mainly based on gross morphological features and geographical distribution.Random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) of 2 T.phayrei,1 T.vetulus,1 Semnopithecus entellus and 6 T.francoisi,and 3 white-headed langurs were analyzed in order to clarify the classification status of the whiteheaded langur.A total of 30 10-mer arbitrary primers were used and 22 of which generate clear bands.The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of genetic distance shows that the whole tree should be sorted into two clusters:(1)T.phayrei and (2)T.f.leucocephalus and T.francoisi.Our results show that T.francoisi and T.f.leucocephalus are more closely related to each other than to T.phayrei.The T.francoisi and T.f.leucocephalus are not monophyletic groups.However,T.francoisi.2,3,6 are more closely related to T.f.leucocephalus 1,2,3 than to T.francoisi 1,4,5.Students s test was performed among groups based on the phylogenetic tree.The statistic tests show that T.f.leucocephalus is different from T.francoisi at 5% significant level and the group T.f.leucocephalus 1,2,3,T.francoisi.2,3,6 is different from group T.francoisi1,4,5 at 5% significant level.The other three groups are not different from each other at 5% significant level.Our phylogenetic tree and students test results suggest that a genetic differentiation exists in T.francoisi and T.f.leucocephalus at a low level.Considering the morphological features and geographical distribution,we think that the whiteheaded langur might be a subspecies.A gene flow may exist between the white-headed langur and Francois langur in recent years.
Fifteen restriction endonucleases,Bam HⅠ,BglⅡ,DraⅠ,Eco RⅠ,Eco RⅤ,Hin dⅢ,KpnⅠ,PstⅠ,PvuⅡ,SacⅠ,SalⅠ,ScaⅠ,StuⅠ,XbaⅠ,and XhoⅠ were used to investigate the mitochondrial DNA polymorphism of Guizhou native cattle and Guizhou black and white cow.Two types of mtDNA molecules were detected in Guizhou native cattle:one showed the type of yellow cattle (Bos taurus),the other showed that of zebu cattle (Bos indicus),suggesting their European and zebu origins respectively.The mtDNA in Guizhou black and white cow also consists of two restriction types.We also discussed the nomenclature of "Panjiang cattle"and "Wuling cattle".
In the study,tanning sludge with Cr[3+] two times higher than the national ontrol standard for agricultural use was applied in forest and mutation of erythrocyte nucleus of Rhodeus sinensis caused by the water (both percolated water and surface water) from the site was examined.The results showed that the erythrocyte nucleus induced didnt increase in the test areas,and the forestry utilization of tanning sludge is safe,but oozing water for the tanning sludge can induce the increase of the red cell nucleus of R.sinensis blood.Thus careless disposal of tanning sludge can be very dangerous.
A DNA sample extracted from HeLa cells was digested by DnaseⅠ and found to contain two enzyme-resistant species (termed as B and C).Results from gel electrophoresis showed that the fragment sizes of species B were more than 20000 bp and that of species C were between 40-50 bp.All these two species were different from the standard duplex DNA in the image of atomic force microscopy,among which species B exhibited characteristics similar to a reported unusual form of λ-DNA.Species C has not been reported and was assumed to be quadruplex according to its apparent width and height.In addition,the fluorescence experiments showed that they can also interact with EB and increase its fluorescence intensity.
The conservation in sequence and structure of protein tyrosine phosphatases has been analyzed by aligning their sequences and superposed their three-dimensional topological structures.The results indicated that only three residues related closely to the function are conserved in sequence,but the core regions in their functional domains are strikingly similar in structure,and there are two conserved structural motifs,I.e.,βαβ and βαβα motifs.On the other hand,the topology of the active site in protein tyrosine phosphatases is also very similar.Thus,it is suggested that the very important residues for maintaining protein function are highly conserved,however,the residues for keeping protein structure are conservatively varied.In molecular evolution,three-dimensional structural conservation seems to be mainly expressed in holding some common secondary structural elements and common fold.
The distribution of the substance P-like immunoreactive (SP-LI) neurons in the basal forebrain cholinergic corticopetal neuron areas in the cat was studied and compared with that of the choline acetyltransferase-like immunoreactive (ChAT-LI) neurons in the paired consecutive sections of the corresponding areas.A continuum of ChAT-LI neurons were distributed in the medial septal nucleus (MS),nuclei of diagonal band,vertical and horizontal divisions (NDBV/H),nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM),subcommissural ventral pallidum (sVP),and the areas of interstitial elements of Ch4,e.g.the internal capsule (ic) and nucleus of anterior commissure (Nac).The distribution of the SP-LI neurons closely resembled that of the ChAT-LI neurons with similar shape and size in the corresponding areas of the MS-NDB-NBM continuum.However,no perikarya in the paired surfaces of two adjacent sections could be really identified as bisected neurons being SP- and ChAT-LI respectively.The number of the SP-LI neurons,compared with that of the ChAT-LI neurons was more in MS,almost the same in NDBV/H,much less in NBM,and only a few in the interstitial elements of Ch4 areas and sVP.The results demonstrated that the majority of the SP-LI neurons in the MSNDB-NBM were mainly contained in the MS-NDB and most of the SP-LI neurons in the cholinergic neuron areas belonged to a subdivision with different chemical property.We suggested that the Spergic neurons in the MS-NDB might be one of the main components,in addition to the cholinergic and GABAergic neurons,in the septohippocampal projection system and might play an important role in modulation of the memory-functioning neocortex-hippocampusneocortex circuit.
The relationship of extracellular Ca concentration and the fine structure of dark adapted photoreceptors in the crab (Eriocheir sinensis) was studied with electron microscopy.The results showed that in vitro,in presence of 50 mmol/L calcium,the diameter of rhabdoms and the dimension of perirhabdomal vacuoles extremely reduced than that of photoreceptor incubated in physiological saline.The dimension of the cytoplasm,located around the rhabdom,increased in the higher extracellular Ca solution.Meanwhile,like the morphological structure of the retinular cells during light adaptation,the pinocytotic vesicles were more,the diameter and number of multivesicular bodies reduced,while the number of lamellar bodies and lysosomes increased in the retinula.The pigment granules were more and located in distal part of the retinular cell.However,in presence of 50 mmol/L EGTA and 2 mmol/L calcium,the diameter of the rhabdoms,the dimensiom of perirhabdomal vacuoles and the number of multivesicular bodies was increased,but the pinocytotic vesicles were few and the pigment granules located in the proximal region.
A study on spermatheca of the freshwater crab,Sinopotamon yangtsekiense was performed with histologic and cytochemical metheds.Female crabs were collected from Ningguo County in Anhui Province on May 1994.The results showed that morphology of the spermatheca is associated with the ovarian cycle.During reproductive stage,a lot of mucus was secreted by the topcrine gland cells of spermathecal epithelium in lumen,providing proper fluidy medium for sperm storage,and nutrients for sperm survival.It was found that there was an obvious cytochemical changes in the epithelium and in the luminal contents of the spermatheca during different phases of the vitellogenesis cycle.
Fungus polysaccharose abstracted from Cordyceps militaris was used as immunopotentiator,and was tested the effects on immune activities of the serum and lymphocyte of Penaeus chinensis.After the prawns were injected intraperitoneally by fungus polysaccharose,the phagocytic rate and index of lymphocyte,and immune activities of serum were detected.The results showed as follows:When the prawn had been injected for 48 h,the phagocytic rate of lymphocyte increased by 11.4%,the phagocytic index increased by 39.7%.The hemolytic ability and bacteriolytic ability of serum improved evidently over the control group,preserved at a high level until 96 h after injection.Hemagglutinating activities of serum of P.chinensis enhanced too.The polysaccharose could strengthen the nonspecific immunization function of P.chinensis distinctly.
In mid-May and the beginning of August every year,the abundance indexes of both eggs/larvae and the juveniles were surveyed in the spawning sites and habitats of penaeid shrimp in the Bohai Bay,the relationship of the egg abundance index (S[t]) and the recruitment (R[t]) in Ricker Model is:R[t]=aS[t]e[-bS][t],and the obtained parameters are:a=29.2243,b=0.069,R[2]=0.47,P<0.005. The results indicated that the egg abundance of penaeid shrimp had the determinant effect on the recruitment and the environmental factors of the habitat,such as rainfall,wind,sunlight and runoff from the Yellow River,would also largely affect the survival rate of eggs and larvae as well as the recruitment.
With the methods of call-listening,and counting feces in fixedwidth transects,and food plants in fixedsize quadrats,we tried to collect data on call patterns,range,and diet in Lophophorus scalateri at Mt.Gaoligongshan at west Yunnan in a period from April to June,or its beeding season.The species is endemic to the Eastern Himalayas,poorly known,and highly threatened.The elevation-belt of 3400-3600,where the cover was dominated by the bamboo,Fargesiu orbiculata,(sometimes mixed with few Rhododendron sinogande) with a few patches of grass-lands set in,was freguently used by the pheasant in the seacon according to its calls produced by males.Only one male was found in each valley-branch.A female appeared with fledglings in 23 May.The peak period of calls was between 11:00-17:00 h.The bird fed mainly on Frotillaria cirrhossa,Allium wallichii,Aralia apioides,Notopteryum forrestii,Lilium sou-liei,and Climtonia udensis etc.,both the parts above and under the ground.This observation is the first step for a proposed long-term project of ecological monitoring in the reserve known as one of the richest area in biodiversity in China.
Two new species of Isotomidae from Shanghai are described.Genus Tetracanthura Martynova,1971 is a new record to China,and genus Uzelia Absolon,1901 has been mentioned by Zhao (1992).
This paper describes a new species of the genus Fannia R.-D.From Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,China.The type specimen is deposited in the Institute of Entomology,Shenyang Normal College. Fannia alxaensis sp.nov.(Figs.1-3) This new species is similar to Fannia pallitibia (Rondani,1866) from Europe,but differs from the latter in 2nd antennal segment yellow;prealar bristles 2;mid and hind femora orangeyellow,mid tibia with 1 small anterodorsal bristle at 1/4 of distal part,hind femur without posteroventral bristle;abdomen without median stripe,rather narrow distal part of the cerci in posterior view,surstylus wide and short. Holotype ♂,Alxa-youqi,Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,101°40′E,39°10′N,1300 m,wilderness,21-Ⅵ-1986,collected by Tian Zhao-feng.
Tabanus jinghongensis sp.nov (Fig.1) Eye purple with two green bands,Frons brownish yellow,indes ×5.2.Subcallus,face,cheeks,antenna and palpus brownish yellow.Thorax scutum and scutellum dark brown,covered with brown and black hairs.Tibiae mainly brown with brown hairs.Tergite Ⅰ brownish yellow covered with brown hairs.Tergites Ⅱ-Ⅶ black covered with black hairs,tergites Ⅱ-Ⅴ with one tuft of white hairs on medium-hind margins,Stermum Ⅱ-Ⅵ black with apial white hairs bands.Holotype,female,Mengla County,Yunnan,China,480 m 23°N,102°E,26 August 1996,was collected.The type is deposited in the Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology,Beijing,China.The new species is related to Tabanus fujianensis Xu et Xu,1993,but in Tabanus fujianensis,the tergites Ⅱ-Ⅴ of abdomen with apial white hairs bands,the notum of thorax covered with brown-yellow hairs only.
This paper discussed the sex steroid hormone effect on vocal behavior and neural circuits in songbirds.It reviewd the effect of sex steroid hormone in vocal learning of young bird and song plasticity of adult bird in the level of neuron,circuits and behavior.We described new data in this fields in domestic and abroad,and have important value for the future research in the neural mechanism of learning and memory of animals.