1995 Vol. 16, No. 4
1995, 16(4): 301-306.
We constructed a DNA library of 150-500 bp fragments from giant panda genomic DNA digested with DpnⅡ.Ten microsatellite DNA loci were isolated and characterized by screening the library with a P-labelled (CA) probe.The specific primers for each of the microsatellite DNA locus were synthesized and employed to amplify DNA samples isolated from 7 specimens of panda tissue and 6 specimens of hair.Nine of the 10 microsatellite DNA loci were polymorphic in the 13 samples.Inheritance patterns of alleles at these loci accurately agree with the well recorded pedigree.The polymorphism on these loci also clarified some previously unresolved paternity.These results imply the screened microsatellite DNA loci are useful makers for the identification of kinship among giant panda.
Development of The Skull of Megalobrama skolkovii and It's Adaptive Signification (Teleostel,Cyprinidae)
1995, 16(4): 307-314.
The development of skull of Megalobrama skolkovii was divided into five phases:1) Cartilage phase.2) The dermal bones in splanchnocranium phase.3) The beginning of ossification in neurocranium phase.The fast ossification in neurocranium phase.5) The perfect ossification phase.Before the larve hatched,there are no cartilages.When the larva has just hatched,trabuculae,parachordal cartilages,Meckels cartilages,palatoquadrate cartilages,hyosymplectic cartilages,ceratohyal cartilages and the 1st-3nd ceratobranchial cartilages are all present.Then the cartilagious floor of the neurocranium develops.Maxillae and opercles are the first-two dermal bones of the skull,then are premaxillae and dentaries.The first-two bones of the neurocranium are basioccipital and exoccipitals,then is parasphenoid,frontals and parietals appear after the ossification of prootics and vomer.At the same time,most of the splanchnocranium bones are existent,including ectopterygoid,mesopterygoid,metapterygoid,preopercles,infraopercles,interopercles and branchiostegal rays.Then,orbitosphenoids,alisphenoids,sphenotics,epiotics and pterotics all begin ossification.The splanchnocranium has developed well when the fry is 50-55 mm in total length,the neurocranium has developed well when the fry is 70-77 mm in total length.The relationship between the early cartilages and bones with the mechanical demands of biological function such as breething and feeding has been discussed.
1995, 16(4): 315-323.
The present paper deals with 6 new species of Psocoptera from Yunnan Province,which represent six families of Psocomorpha.Type specimens are kept in the Insect Collection of Beijing Agricultural University.
1995, 16(4): 324-342.
1995, 16(4): 325-328.
Species of genus Vernaya live in subtropical areas.The range of this genus,so far as at present made out,includes Yunnan,Sichuan,Gansu,Shaanxi and probably northern Burma.It was reported that there were 2 species--V.fulva and V.foramena in Vernaya in China.All our six specimens were from mountainous areas in southern Gansu Province and southwestern Shaanxi Province,and these areas are adjacent to the region where the model specimens of V.foramena were collected.According to the distribution,pelage colour,measurements and characteristics of skull,undobtedly,our specimens belong to V.foramena.Our study results indicated that the identification characteristics of V.foramena (2 foramens on frontal and T doesnt separate from T on M) were unstable.We found that V.foramena could be distinguished from V.fulva by a light pelage colour and a bulgy braincase.So,V.foramena should be considered as a subspecies to V.fulva,namely,V.f.foramena.
Three New Species and Three New Records of The Genus Ornativalva Gozmany From Xinjiang,China (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae)
1995, 16(4): 329-336.
In this paper,three new species and three new records of the genus Ornativalva Gozmany,1955 from China are described.Up to now,18 species of the genus have been reported from China.All the specimens,including the types of the new species,are deposited in the Northwestern College of Forestry.
1995, 16(4): 337-341.
Two new species of the ant genus Prenolepis Mayr are described in Yunnan,China,I.e.P.nigriflagella sp.n.and P.magnocula sp.n.A key based on worker caste is given to the known species of Southern and Eastern Asia.
1995, 16(4): 343-347.
This species is similar to Topomyia yanbarensis,important differences of them are as follows:Type specimens :holotype,1♂;allotype,2♀♀.Two larvae and 2 pupae,all types deposited in Yunnan Institute of Anti-Malaria Research.
1995, 16(4): 349-351.
A new species,Trophithauma gastroflavidum,is described and illustrated.This species is easily distinguished from others by yellow color of its abdomenal segment 1 and a membranous process in segment 6.The type specimen is deposited in the Department of Plant Protection,Shenyang Agricultural University.
1995, 16(4): 352-378.
1995, 16(4): 353-358.
The authors studied the ecology of Silver Pheasant mainly by the method of observing at fixed spots with baits in Ba Wang Ling Nature Reserve on Hainan Island during the middle of 1986 through the end of 1993,they found that the existence of the Hainan subspecies of Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera whiteheadi) was facing dangerous threatening.The number of individuals of the colonies of Hainan Silver Pheasant was low.1-6 in general,averaged 3.27±1.49 on 48 colony-time;chicks in each colony were fairly few,commonly 1-6 chicks carried by their parents,averaging 2.33±1.33 on 18 colony-time.Maximum 6 chicks appeared only once;loss of chicks was very severe so that only few of them became adults.At 6 observing spots-time,that have complete annual records,there were 12 chicks,in the second year there were only 5 left,rate of loss was 58.3%;loss of parent Pheasants was very severe so that we saw very rare phenomena,I.e.pure chick groups appeared 5 out 17 flocks;the rate of production was quite low,the natality was only 77.5%;even the density of population in the core of reserves was quite low and was rapidly decrease as well.In 1987 it was 20.2/km,while it became 12.0/km in 1992.The main cause of its loss was endanger from their natural enemies and human.The present area of remaining foreste where Silver Pheasants still live is only 740 km on the whole Island.The optimist estimate of the number of Silver Pheasant is less than 8 800.The existence of Hainan subspecies of Silver Pheasant has become endangered from vulnerable in class.Effective protection must be made promptly.
1995, 16(4): 359-364.
We observed a series sexual behavior of civet in captivity during the estrus period with infrared ray telescope,and recorded the lacamotor,marking frequency and courtship calling with the clock control auto record device and Sony tape recorder.he results were as following:1.It was revealed the civet have two periods of heat per year.Most of them occurred in spring (Feb.-Apr.) and only few in autumn (Aug.-Sept.).The period of estrus lasted about 12-15 days.2.The locomotor activity frequency increased during the estrus period.The copulation occurred usually in that day when the civet is the most active.3.An increased frequency of scent-marking were observed in male and female during the estrus.The male civet marked with civet oil on any objects,but they more like to mark on other male and female cages with civet oil.The female civets marked with civet oil only on own cage.4.The male civet sounded"da,da,da…"frequently during the heat period,followed the estrus female and sniffed the anus of the female.The copulation behavior usually occurred on 21:00-22:00.Scent stimuti and calling are important for mate selection.
Studies on The Differentiation and Development in The First Sex-Cycle of The Ovary of Clarias lazera
1995, 16(4): 365-372.
In this paper,the differentiation and development of ovary in the first sexcycle and the ultrastructure of different stages of oocytes in Clarias lazera have been studied.PGCs originally appeared in the endoderm of late gastrula,migrated from the endoderm to mesodermal segments and then successively to splanchnic mesoderm,to parietal mesoderm,to dorsal mesentery where PGCs eventually reached the genital ridges.The ovary differentiation happened 66 days age.The ovarian development in the first sexcycle has been divided into six stages.It needs about 136 days age for the fish to grow to be sexually mature.The ultrastructural feature of oocytes in different stages and the formation of yolk granules have also been discribed.
1995, 16(4): 373-377.
In this experiment,the synaptosomal free calcium concentration and synaptosomal membrane protein-bound Ca[2+] in various brain regions were measured by using fluorescence indicator Fura-2/AM and Tb[3+] respectively.Compared with that of 3-month-old rats,the synaptosomal free calcium concentration significantly increased in hippocampus,cerebral cortex and hypothalamus of 26-month-old rats.Moreover,the synaptosomal membrane protein-bound Ca[2+] obviously increased in hippocampus and cerebellum while in the other brain areas examined (cerebral cortex,hypothalamus) decreased significantly.These suggest that the perturbation of normal Ca[2+] homeostasis appears to be an important factor correlated with aging.
1995, 16(4): 379-383.
The investigation is the first report on chemical compositions of Scolopendra mojiangica Zhang et Chi and comparison of the chemical compositions between S.mojiangica Zhang et Chi and S.subspinipes mutilans L.Koch were made.The contents were dentermined on their water,residues,proteins,free amino acids,microelements,lipid,and volatile fatty acids.The results showed that S.mojiangica contains proteins of 67.20%,residues of 3.95%,water of 3.59%,and lipid of 22.40%,while S.subspinipes mutilans was proteins of 68.80%,residues of 4.80%,water of 3.65%,and lipid of 10.35%,For the results showed that the contents of their main components in the both centipedes,except lipid,almost were the same.The free amino acids,volatile fatty acids,and microelements were compared to be approach.In the determined microelements,harmful elements were less than 1×10[-6].lipid in S.mojiangica was different from S.subspinipes mutilans,but the volatile fatty acids were similar.It is possible that those fatty acids combined with other components are different.
1995, 16(4): 385-391.
Edible swifts nest was made from the saliva that stick on the nest of swift of Apodidae.1.The protein contents of the three species of esculent swifts nest respectively 45.28%,47.78% and 42.21%,and theirs essential amino acids were 15.09%,14.37% and 12.22%.2.The carbohydrate contents were 11.45%,10.63% and 17.92%.Fat were 0.76%,0.18% and 0.34%.3.They still contained 24 kinds of macro minerals and trace elements,and three kinds of vitamin.