1993 Vol. 14, No. 3

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Present paper deals with 2 new species of the genus Bellardia R.-D.and 1 new species of Dexopollenia Townsend all from western Sichuan,China.The type specimens are kept in Shanghai Institute of Entomology,Academia Sinica.
This paper reports three new species,which were collected from Yunnan Province,China.The type specimens are kept in Hierodula zhangi,sp.nov.,H.brachynota,sp.nov.,of E.yunnanensis,sp.nov.Kunming Institute of Zoology,Academia Sinica.
Th method developed by Wyatt and White (1977) was applied to calculate the intrinsic rates of increase for parasitoids based on 23 fecundity data sets from the literature.The studies showed that there existed the linear relationship between the accurate values of r[m] and ln (M[d])/d or ln (M[d/2])/d,that is,1) r[m]=0.845 ln (M[d])/d or 2)r[m]=0.880 ln (M[d/2])/d.Where d is the prereproductive time,M[d] is the number of female offspring produced per original femlae from the first to the dthday of reproduction,and M[d/2] is the number of female offspring produced per original female from the first to the (d/2) [th] day of reproduction.These equations can provide the accurate estimates of r[m] for parasitoids in this study.The approach is advantageous because it does not require the construction of detailed fecundity tables for estimating parasitoid rates of increase.Of course,whether these equations are appropriate for the other taxa will need to be further studied.
Cynops orientalis is distributed on hilly lands or low mountain areas,and often spawns in the cold still pods,wells,terraced fields and ditches.Eggs are deposited on the leaves or the daventitious roots of some aquatic herbs.
The Chinese merganser (Mergus squamatus) is a rare species,it has a limited distribution area and in the International Red Data Book as a threatened species.The number of which shows a tendency to reduction.From 1962 to 1991,the population,distribution was studied in the Changbai Mountain.They inhabit mostly in the Tou Dao Bai river,San Dao Bai river,Gu Tong river and Mangjiang river in the mixed forests of conifers and broad-leaved species in Changbai Mountains.According to the 1977-1979 survey in Changbai Mountains region,the population density of the Chinese merganser on the Tou Dao Bai river was 0.72 ind/per km,1989 was 0.66 ind/per km,1990 was 0.63 ind/per km,1991 was 0.50 ind/per km,is falling gradually.The reason population density is falling was due to deforest,the breeding habitats of this species are being destroyed and popular disturbance.
The mating activities of a captive group of Macaca thibetana was observed with all occurrence method.The aim of this paper is to discuss the copulatory behavior pattern of the species,the role played by females in mating activities,and other aspects related to mating activities.The conclusions are 1) M.thibetana is both the multipleand single-mount ejaculator,rather than the typical single-mount ejaculator;2)females,like males,play an active role in the mating activity,particularly in the choice of mating parther;and 3) there exists sexual harassment by females of M.thibetana when copulation occurs.The social rank of females may be affected by their mating activities.
Description of difference in the total number of species occurring in different areas has given rise to the concept of "species diversity".The fact that there are usually more species of plants and animals in tropics than in temperate region has been recognized for nearly a century.Since 1950s eight different theories have been produced at least as to possible mechanism for the control of diversity.Because of the global scale of latitudinal gradient in species drversity,there has been relatively little ecological investigation contrasting tropical with temperate diversity,some theories have not been interpreted so far.Both of species and geographic distributions of gallinacaens were known in detail in Gansu.The interrelationships between gallinacean diversity in Gansu and climate (without frost days,mean temperature in January,annual mean temperature,mean temperature in July and annual pracipitation),altitude differences,latitudes and diversity of vegetational form were statistically analysed in order to reveal controlling determinants of species diversity of gallinaceans in Gansu and deal with some theories mechanisms for the control of diversity.There are 19 species of gallinaceans in Gansu,forming species diversity gradients with difference of latitude.The species diversity of gallinaceans was controlled by the mean temperature in July,annual precipitation,altitude differences and latitudes,but there are greater species from 400 mm to 650 mm in annual precipitation and between 1500 and 3500 m at an altitude differences.There is no interrelation between gallinacean diversity and diversity of vegetational form.The number of species in an area not only depends on distance which the area is from species pool but depends on environmental spacial heterogeneity in the area.
Studies showed great differences in development,survival rate,natural population level,natural egg density of the lesser green leafhopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius.) reared on different tea (Camellia sinensis) cultivars (YK10,YK14,CYBH,RF).These results revealed that there were differences of resistance to the lesser green leafhopper among the four cultivars.In our study the tea cultivar EF has the strongest resistance to lesser green leafhopper,the YK10 has the lowest resistance.All the spatial distributions of the Empoasca flavescens over the four different tea cultivars belongs to Poissons Distribution.The results of the different tea cultivars resistance to Camellia sinensiscan could be used in practice.
Totally 37 normal 6-7 days old bovine embryos collected from superovulated cows were used in this study.Embryos were first stained in 1:5 diluted H-Y antisera in M2 for 30 minutes and subsequently in 1:10 diluted fluorescencein isothiocynate-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG for another 30 minutes.Both stain procedures were performed under 39℃,5%CO2,95% air in incubator.Or these embryos,57% (21/37) with fluorescence were classified as H-Y negative (male) and 43% (16/37) without fluorescence as H-Y negative (female) under inverted fluorescence microscope.There was no significant difference between our result and bovine natural sex ratio (P<0.05).Five fluorescence positive embryos and three fluorescence negative embryos were transferred to 5 recipients (one or two embryos per recipient),two healthy female calve were born by H-Y negative embryo bearing recipients arter full term in vivo development.Out result indicated that this method in sex identification are reliable.
Using human SRY gene primers,the gene fragment of cattle homologous to human SRY was amplified by PCR.In male cattle,a gene fragment of about 609 bp homologous to human SRY was identified.By ligating pUC-Eco-T with the PCR products and colonies hybridization with human SRY probe,the positive colony with cattle the fragment was identified,and termed pBosY0.6.The colony contains a about 609 bp insert corresponding to human SRY conserved ORF.The restriction map of the recombinant was analysed and compared with that of human SRY gene.
The karyotypes of 10 species in Phasianidae were studied with colchicinehypotonic-air drying technique from bone marrow cells.
Mitochondrial DNAs purified from the livers of P.phayrei and P.francoisi were analyzed with 15 restriction endonucleases.From the 156 bp recognition enzymes used,41-50 sites were observed in the samples.By combining the cleavage patterns for each enzyme,the four samples were classified into four restriction types.The estimated number of nucleotide substitutions per site in P.phayrei,P.francoisi and between the two species was 0.007,0.006 and 0.038,respectively.In combination with our previous data on Macaca mulatta and M.arctoides,the molecular phylogenetic trees of these four species were constructed by the unweighted-pair-group method and the neighbor-joining method.These results provide evidence that intraspecific divergence of P.phayrei and P.francoisi began aout 0.3 Mybp,and that interspecific divergence between these two species and between Colobinae and Cercopithecinae began about 1.9 Mybp and before 11 Mybp,respectively.
In this present paper,the NOR localization in the representative species of 10 genera belonging to 3 subfamilies have been studied by Ag-staining method.The results show that the NOR localization are different among these genera,and same location in the same genus.For example,in Oxya,the five species studied,all of them show the NOR location on L2 and M8 chromosomes,and genus Gesonula,the location is S9 chromosome;Genus Caryanda the NOR localises on L2 chromosome,etc.From the results above,we considered that the NOR localization is paralleli with the evolutionary rate of genus category in Catantopidae.When make sure some species belonging to a certain genus,the NOR localization should be a useful cytological mark.
This paper deals with the study on the cross fertilization between Carassius auratus red variety (♀) and Cyprinus carpio xiangjianesis (♂).Mature oocytes of C.auratus red variety have a diameter of 680-720 μm.The micropyle is contained by micropylar vestibule (MV) and canal (MC) which has a diameter of 5 μm.While the sperm has a half diameter of MC,through the micropyle only single sperm usully enters the egg,which is known as monospermic egg,C.aurutus red variety and C.carpio xiangjianesis belong different genus,even then the process of their cross fertilization are normal.The appropriate time of insemindtion is at the metaphase of the meiosis.By the 5 min postinsemination,conspicuous spermast is seen in the egg cytoplasm of C.aurutus red variety.By the 15 min postinsemination,the male and female pronuclei are formed.By the 25 min postinsemination,the male and female pronuclei are fused to form the nucleus of the zygote.By the 30 min postinsemination,segmentation begins in the zygote.The 4 pronuclei being fused are found in the section of 1 zygote.Perhaps it comes from bispermism.
In vitro fertilization and embryotransfer (IVF-ET) is an useful way to study mechanism of reproduction,for instance,the regulation of oocytematuration,the role of maturation and development of fertilized eggs,embryo implantation as well as a genetic disease model for human.The technology is also helpful for conservation endangered species in nonhuman primates and enhance the quality for laboratory primates.This paper was summarized the progress of IVF-ET in nonhuman primates including oocytes got from hyperstimulation and unstimulated animals,semen collection,semen cryopreservation,fertilization in vitro,embryo transfer and embryo cryopreservation.