1993 Vol. 14, No. 2

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The tegumentary ultrastructure of Cyathocotyle orientalis has been described.Scanning electron microscopy shows clustered spines,ciliated papilla and non-ciliated pit-like papilla on the tegumental surface.The tegument of the holdfast is elevated into microvilli.In the transmission electron the tegument consists of a surface syncytium connected by protoplasmic strands to the cell bodies which lay below the peripheral musulature.Two types (T-1,T-2) of secretory bodies are presented in the syncytium and synthesized in the same tegumental cells.The mitochondria cells are found among the tegumental cells.The holdfast surface consists of an outer membrane elevated into microvilli and inner,fibrous basement membrane perforated by the apertures of the common ducts from the secretory cells.TEM also reveals that nonciliated pit-like papilla is glandular papilla.The tegumental ultrastructure of adult cultivated in vitro has an abnormal appearance and contains areas of vacuolation.The function of some important structures and usefulness of ultrastructural techniques to assess cultivation methods has been discussed.
This paper dealted with the study of the shoulder joint in Nycticebus coucang.The results of the stepwise descriminate function analyses,which based on the indices of the shoulder joint in N.coucang and other primates,showed that the indices of the width of the glenoid cavity and the length of the scapula were the significantly important factors for distinguishing the species.The characteristics of the shoulder joint in slow loris is similar with that of P.francoisi.And the more distal insertions of m.acromiodeltoideus,m.teres major and the cranial part of m.trapezius,which could improve the abduction of the arm,are the features adapted to the arboreal quadrupedal locomotion.The robust humerus and the relatively longer clavicle and the lower brachial index in N.coucang are related to its special slow-climbing and hanging beneath the support with four limbs.
This paper deals with the taxonomic revision of M.assamensis.After examining and analizing 32 specimens kept in China,we think M.a.coolidgei is a valid subspecies,and the assam macaques in westhern Yunnan probablly represent a new race,because the genetic deviation of mtDNA +in intraspecies of assam macaques between south Yunnan and west Yunnan is greater than that in interspecies between south Yunnan assam macaques and tibetan macaques (M.thibetana)(Zhang et al,1991).Through t-test on some cranial measurments,the difference between south and west Yunnan assam macaques in females is significant,and that between west and northwest Yunnan assam macaques in males is significant,too.As diagnoses distinguishing M.a.coolidgei from M.a.assamensis,the size of body is smaller in coolidgei (♂♂:HB 538-602 mm)than that in assamensis(♂♂:620-700 mm),the hair on the middle scapular-shoulder is shorter in coolidgei (35-75 mm,June-Dec.)than that in assamensis (85-110 mm,June-Sep.),and upper dorsal hair is not so clearly annulated (0-2 annuli) in coolidgei as that (3-4 annuli) in assamensis,and the hair,especially on hindpart,is greyer in coolidgei.
This paper deals with the systematic position and generic relationships of the tribe Epilachnini based on the morphological characteristics,especially on the basal teeth of the tarsal claws,lateral teeth of mandibles,on male and female genitalia.Applying cladistic methodology,the authors also discussed phylogenetic relationships within the tribe.Five genera,I.e.Epilachna,Afidenta,Afissula,Henosepilachna,Afidentula,are selected as the taxa for cladistic analysis.A taxonomy based on the cladogram is different from the orthodoxa one.The genus Epilachna should be divided into three phylogenetic groups.A subgeneric rank for the three groups is accepted in this treatment.Two new subgenera of Epilachna,I.e.Aparodentata Cao et Wang,Uniparodentata Cao et Wang,are described.
In 1990-1991,two breeding sites of the Relict Gull (Larus relictus) were discovered successively on Ordos Highland of Inner Mongolia with a total of 1115 nests of colonies occuring in 1991 making it the largest breeding population of the gull in the world.By the field work results as well as previous reports on the gull,I.e.,breeding in desert lakes and only nesting on islets as known so far of the breeding site selection,it might be concluded that this gull species is of high adaptability to the desert habitat and therefore might be properly regarded as one of the representatives of those desert birds.It is also observed that on ordos Highland the Relict Gull and the Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) are the companion species with each other,though in most cases the Relict Gull is dominant,competition and interdependence existing between the two species.The wetland birds community occuring at the breeding sites of the Relict Gull also shows a strong tendency of being a more affinity of the specific desert bird group.
In this paper,we reported the effect of ambient temperature (T) and kinds of food on growth rate,food intake,digestive efficiency and passage time (PT) in the one-year-old and two-year-old juvenile turtles,Chinemys reevesii.The turtles refused to take food when T was below 15℃.In the range of experimental T,growth rate,average daily food intake were positively correlated with T.Digestive efficiency of energy (DEE) of the one-year-old turtles decreased gradully as T rised,but the DEE of the two-year-old turtles did not vary significantly.The PT was negatively correlated with T.The T,kinds of food and size of the turtles did not affect on the digestive efficiency of lipid (DEL) significantly.The degree of effect of kinds of food and the size or the turtles on the growth rate and DEE depended on the T,but they did not affect on PT significantly.
The population dynamics of striped hamster (Cricetulus barabensis) has been studied in Huhehot district from March to November 1984-1989.A total number of 2920 specimens were collected,among which 1675 are males and 1245 are females.The results are as follows:The peaks of seasonal numbers of striped hamster in fluctuation curve varies from year to year.There are two peaks,the peak in the rear is higher than the one in front.Taking height of the grinding surface of the posterior molar and the molar wear as the age criteria,the samples were divided into four age groups.There are not old groups in Huhehot district.There are seasonal and annual changes in population age composition of striped hamster.The sex ratio of all the specimens proves that the male accounts for a larger proportion than the females,and such is the case in the adult group,but females aremore than males in young and subadult groups.The reproductive periods of males are 9 months.The beginning of the females breeding period varies with years.In 1985 and 1987-1989 it began in March and in 1986 it started in April.Females stop breeding from Oct.to next Feb.and they have two breeding peaks in a year.The first peak was between spring and summer and the second was between summer and autumn.Young striped hamster became matured within 2-3 months and adults breed 2 times each year.An annual average litter size of female was 6.19±0.08 in 1984-1989.
The nutritional requirements of protein,fat,carbohydrate,cellulose and mineral mix of Leiocassis Longirostris (average weight:60±4.9 g/fish) were studied.The L18 (6×36) table of orthogonal design method was employed to formulate eighteen diet combinations.Feeding experiments were conducted in 400×100×120 cm pool of 4000 L in capacity.The water flow maintained at 100 L/h.,had a temperature of 25.3±1.3℃,a dissolved oxygen of 4.9±1.1 mgO2/L and a Ph7.0-7.4.The daua of the experiments ware analysed with the method of analyses of variance and the multiple method or Tukeys Q procedure.The results of feeding experiment show that the effects of nutients on the specific growth rate (SGR),protein efficiency ratio (PER) and food conversion ratio (FCR) ranked in the following order:Protein>fat>carbohydrate>cellulose.Thus,protein was found to be the main nutrient in the present experiment.The daily nutritional requirements for the SGR.PER and FCR of Leiocassis longirostris were found to be 1.2-1.3 g protein,0.18-0.27 g fat.0.75 g carbohydrate and 0.24 g cellulose with an ingredient of 0.1 g mineral mix in the diet per 100 g fish (wet body weight) per day.Tramsferring to percentage composition,the diet should contain 40%-43.3% protein,6%-9% fat,25% carbohydrate and 8% cellulose with additional 4% mineral mix.The diet formulated according to this composition and fed to the fish at the rate of 3% body weight daily supported the maximum growth rate.There was a direct correlation between body fat (y) and the nutritional protein level the diet (x),the formula being y=6.6648+5.6229 x (r=0.9198).When there was a negative correlation between body fat (y) and the ash (x),the formula being y=10.2343-2.4314 x (r=0.9320).
The relation between evolution of spatial working memory function and of morphology of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex among the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta),the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) and the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) were reported in present paper.The results read as follows:In the DR performance with training,the rhesus monkeys and slow lorises could reach a criterion of 90% correct response at 7.7±3.2 seconds,and 3.8±0.4 seconds delay interval,respectively,by 1000 training trails.The tree shrews failed to reach the criterion of 90% correct response even at 0 seconds delay interval by 1000 training trails.If a delay interval was tested in one session (30 trails) only,doing the DR performamce without training,the rhesus monkeys reached a correct of 80% or higher in each session at 0,1,2,3,4,and 5 seconds delya,respectively.The percent correct in each session of the slow lorises showed no differences from the rhesus monkeys at 0,1,2,3,and 4 seconds delay.However,when the delay interval was increased to 5 seconds,the percent correct of the DR performance declined to 70% or lower in the slow lorises.In the tree shrews the percent correct in each session reached to 70% or lower at 0,1,2,3,4,and 5 seconds delay interval,respectively.The morphological studies revealed that the size of the prefrontal cortex increased,and the structure got complex in the course of the evolution in primates.It is suggested that the relation of evolution between the spatial working memory function and anatomy in the prefrontal cortex might be significant among the three species,both the development of morphology and that of the spatial working memory function in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are later than other regions of cerebral cortex in phylogenetic evolution course.
The surface structure of chorion,sperm penetration and exocytosis of cortical alveoli in goldfish,Carassius auratus,were examined by scanning electron microscopy.Five to ten grooves and ridges could be seen in the micropylar region,and they may help the sperms reach the micropyle canal.There was a distinct cluster of microvilli on the plasma membrane,identified as the sperm entry site,beneath the micropyle.The fertilizing sperm attached to the sperm entry site within 5 seconds of the mixing of a gamete suspension.Then,the microvilli of the sperm entry site elongated,fused with plasma membrane of the sperm head and formed a fertilization cone to engulf the sperm head and midpiece.At 110 seconds postinsemination,the sperm head and midpiece were fully incorporated into the egg cytoplasm and the fertilization cone tended to disappear.Exocytosis of cortical alveoli occurred beyond 30 seconds postinsemination.At 90 seconds postinsemination,the whole egg became honeycomb-like structure because of the exocytosis of cortical alveoli and a great number of spherical bodies accumulated on the linner surface of the egg chorion.
six reciprocal crosses were performed with common carp (Cyprinus carpio)♀×silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)♂,crucian carp (Carassius auratus)♀×silver carp ♂ and white crucian carp (Carassius auratus cuvieri)♀×silver carp ♂ as well as silver carp ♀×common carp ♂,silver carp ♀×crucian carp ♂ and silver carp ♀×white crucian carp ♂.The direct hybrid embryos of common carp ♀×silver carp ♂,crucian carp ♀×silver carp ♂ and white crucian carp ♀×silver carp ♂ seemed to develop normally,and about 50% of the hybrided eggs produced larvae,although the viability of most of the hatched larvae was inferior.The development of the reciprocal hybrid embryos of silver carp ♀×common carp ♂,silver carp ♀×crucian carp ♂ and silver carp ♀×white crucian carp ♂ was abnormal,and the embryos successively died after gastrular stage.No normal hybrid embryos survived to hatching.Developmental cytogenetic analysis of the hybrid embryos between the reciprocal crosses showed that the direct embryos of common carp ♀×silver carp ♂,crucian carp ♀×silver carp ♂ and white crucian carp ♀×silver carp ♂ were almost euploids,containing 74 chromosomes of 50 originated from maternal species and 24 from paternal species,whereas the reciprocal hybrid embryos of silver carp ♀×common carp ♂,silver carp ♀×crucian carp ♂ and silver carp ♀×white crucian carp ♂ were basically aneuploids.The chromosome number observed from the reciprocal gastrular embryos varied considerally,usually ranging from 24 to 74,and a few of cells in which the chromosome number was less than 24 or more than 74 were also observed.The chromosome analysis of individual tail bud embryos revealed that most of the reciprocal hybrid embryos were hypodiploids,within which the loss of chromosomes had heavily occurred.The significant difference in embryonic development between the reciprocal crosses suggesed that the developmental fate of hybrid embryos might be related to the genome size between parental species.When the genome of maternal species was larger than that of paternal species,female nucleus and egg cytoplasm could not only coordinate male nucleus to engage in synchronus cell division and to preserve euploidy,but also bring about the potentiality of polyploid embryogenesis more easily.When the genome of maternal species was smaller than that of paternal species,female nucleus and egg cytoplasm had no the ability of harmonizing male nucleus to carry out synchronus development,and the aneuploid embryos were formed by chromosome elimination owing to asynchronus division and imbalancing segregation.The relationship between the difference of reciprocal crosses in distant hybridization of fishes and the natural polyploid species as well as the rate of embryonic development were analysed and discussed.Considerating the difference of reciprocal crosses and the potentiality of polyploidy,we suppose that the natural polyploid species,such as common carp,crucian carp and white crucdian carp,might have the potential capability of coordinating foreign allogenome,which is different from ordinary diploid species.