1991 Vol. 12, No. 4

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The retina in Andrias davidianus were observed with light and scanning electron microscope.It is found that:There are about 130000 photoreceptors and 8000 ganglion cells per retina.The rate of rod to cone is 8.5∶1.The hree nuclear layers and the two plexform layers are evenly dispersed in the retina.No forea centralis is faunded.On the surface of both rod and cone,there are 20-30 calycal processes on the outer segment and 20-30 plasma processes which extended from perinuclear body.But,typical interlobuar furrows were only observed on the outer segment of rod.The structure of larval retina was also studied.At last,the relationship between the structure and function is discussed.
This paper dealt with the comparative study on the morphological features of masticatory apparatus.48 variables were measured from 40 skulla in four groups,Rhinopithecus bieti,Macaca mulatta lasiota,and adult and juvenile Macaca thibetana.All the variables and some combinations of them were exploited to study the relationships among behaviour,function and morphology etc.The results of clustering analysis show that thirteen index-like variables can separate golden monkeys from macaques,but the juvenile Macaca thibetana is quite different from all the adult groups.In Rhinopithecus bieti,the right side of the dental arch is larger than the left,and in adult macaques the left larger,in juvenile macaques,the right larger.However,there is not a significant difference between the left and the right side of the dental arches in any of the 4 groups.The decreasing sequence of symmetry index is from the adult Macaca thibetana to Rhinopithecus bieti,Macaca mulatta lasiota and juvenile Macaca thibetana.A regression reveals that nearly 70% of the variables significantly related to the skull weight.Sn ANOVA suggests that adult groups differ from one another above a significant level.And a Duncan multiple comparison shows that:11 variables between Macaca mulatta lasiota and Rhinopithecus bieti,12 between R.bieti and M.thibetana,12 between M.m.lasiota and M.thibetana are different above a significant level.It follows the sequences that (1) Macaca thibetana>(2) Macaca mulatta lasiota>(3)Rhinopithecus bieti>(4)juvenile Macaca thibetana in respect of masticatory force,and (3)>(2)>(1)>(4) in respect of mandibular robust.Rhinopithecus bieti use the force the most efficiently for mastication.From all of these,we find (3)>(1)>(2)>(4) in respect of masticatory capacity.All the morphological data mentioned above result in that the four groups have different diets from each other,especially between golden monkeys and macaques.This coincides with the field observation data on diets.Such results indicate that there is strong relationship between the diet and the morphology of the mandibles,and that to deduce the paleoenvironment from the morphology of the masticatory apparatus may be possible.
The structures of the cortical fibers revealed by biochemical technique of de-membrane in Euplotes sp.has been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy.It is observed that:(1)AZM (adoral zone of membranelles) bracket consists of the membranelle brackets ranged in parallel transversally.Each of the membranelle brackets is a rectangular sheet of fibers in which each fiber has a diameter of 40-50 nm.(2) UM (undulating membrane) bracket consists of over sixty strands of fibers in which a portion of fibers are parallel to one another transversally and another portion longitudinally.The two portions of fibers are woven into the shape of a network.(3) There are three layers of fibers,I.e.the longitudinal fibers,the spherule-coiled fibers and the deep fibers.Beneath the pellicle of the FVTC (fronto-ventro-transverse cirri) region,the layer of longitudinal fibers is divided into several sections by longitudinal ditches just lying beneath the pellicle between the cortical shoulders (or,between the shoulder and the lip).(4) There is also a layer of longitudinal fibers beneath the pellicle of dorsal cortex,and there seems to be a layer of spherulecoiled fibers under the layer of longitudinal fibers.The structures of the cortical fibers are evaluated for possible functions of cortex-shaping,support,movement and morphogenesis of ciliary organelles,etc.
The present paper deals with preliminary systematic revision on survey to parasitic crustacea in Yunnan,China,conducted since 1973.Altogether 130 species of fishes were examined.From which 28 parasitic crustacea were discovered,in addition to Caligus fronsuganinus,Argulus kunmingensis and Argulus yunnanensis discovered by Shen (1940,1948).The number of parasitic crustacea is up to 31 species.Among them 25 species belong to Copepoda,5 species belong to Brachiura,1 species belongs to Isopoda.In consideration of the convenience for readers,the author compiled a key to species.Besides,a new species is described,I.e.Lamproglena dibara,sp.nov.Diagnosis:The new species resembles L.carassii and L.heterognatha in general appearance but differs from them in having one blunt tooth on the base of the shortest claw of maxilla,and in having coupling-bars between 1st and 2nd pair of legs.Besides,the new species differs from L.heterognatha in the form of maxilla;differs from L.carassii in 2nd antenna non-segmented,the segment number of exopod of 2nd to 4th thoracic legs and 5th thoracic leg uniramous.
The present paper reports three new species of genus Phyllodistomum,collected from the excretory bladder of fresh-water fishes in Nanchang,Xiushui,Congren of Jiangxi Province,China.Type specimens are kept in the Scool of Animal Husbandry and Fishery of Jiangxi Province.
The present paper deals with a new commensal peritrich ciliates,Zoothamnium paraentzii nov.spec.on the penaeid shrimp Penaeus orientalis in seawater.The silver line system and infraciliature of the new species were studied by means of the protargol and dry silver impregnation method.
In this paper,the author reports the reproductive system and reproductive behavior of Hepialus baimaensis Liang.The results may be summarized as follows:The female reproductive system of the H.baimaensis is distinctly different from that of the other Lepidoptera insects.It has not the colleterial gland.The male inseminnates the female by the form of the spermatophore which contains sperms as the other Lepidoptera does.These are formed by accessory glands secretion,namely the spermatophore gland,accessory glands and the seminal vesicle.The copulation not only provides the sperms but also promotes oviposition.The parthenogenetic female could lay eggs,but none of the parthenogenetic eggs could behatched,and the number of eggs was obviously decreased.The female reproductive capacity is quite strong.The total number of eggs laid by each female H.baimaensis varies between 364-786.The period of reproduction was short,only 3-7 days.The imago needs 6.2 days for life cycle.The duration of eggs is about 48.5 days (12.6℃).The most suitable temperature and relative humidity for mating and oviposition are 12.5-19.0℃ and 75%-90% respectively.
Cobra Venom Factor (CVF),an anticomplement factor,had been separated from the venom of Chinese cobra,Naja naja atra.The anticomplementary activity and the hemolytic activity of CVF were observed by methods in vitro.Complement C[3] was activated and depleted by CVF through the alternative pathway leading to the decrease of the total complement activity.Cross immunoelectrophoresis showed that antigenicity of C[3] had changed after C had been cleaved by CVF.When guinea pigs were injected I.p.with purified CVF about 0.15 μg per grm body weight,the hemolytic complement activity of guinea pig serum reduced to less than 3% of normal level within 24 hours and recovered completely after 13 days.No toxic effect of CVF was observed.On rocket immunoelectrophoresis analysis,CVF and its subunits could not cross react with antiserum to human C[3],but normal human serum could cross react weakly with antiserum to CVF.Amino acid composition of CVF was found to be similar to human C[3] and its physiological cleavage products.The rocket immunoelectrophoresis analysis showed that some kinds of venom of different snake-species,I.e.for of family Elapidae (Naja naja atra),Ophiophagus hannah,Bungarus multicinctus,B.jasciatus,one of Viperinae (Vipera russelli) and two of Hydrophiidae (Hydrophis cyanocinctus,Lapemis hardwickii) had cross reactivity with anti-CVF to some extent,however,these venoms (except the venom of) Naja naja atra had no anticomplementary activity.Venoms of two species of Crotalinae (Agkistrodon acutus,A.halys) did not show such cross-reacting,but they had strong anticomplementary activity.
The results of injection of a high molecular copolymer HFMC into vas deferens of male rhesus monkey is preliminarily reported.While HFMC mixed with body fluid in the vas deferens,it immediately polymerized into solid polymer with porosity and attached to the wall of the vas deferens immediately,and released certain amount of H[+] gradually,thus the living environment of sperms was changed.In the matching experiment of the rhesus monkey,We could find the difference in fertility resumption,with various dosages of HFMC.In the 30 mg HFMC×2 intra vas deferens group (n=2),the rate of recovered fertility was 100% within 2-5 months,but in 60 mg HFMC×2 intra vas deferens group (n=4) that the rate was only 50% within 2 years of period.Experimental results demonstrated that injection of HFMC induced lethat effects and caused abnormality of sperms and thus obviously decreased sperm vitality.Such effects became stronger and stronger as the dosage of HFMC increased,such influence gradually weakened and disappeared as the length of time after injection of HFMC incrased,the degree of activity of sperms in the semen deterimination were determined by routine methods of WHO that the results analysed was consistent with the results of matching experiment.We are planning to continue the experiment by improvement on the stability of self solubility and the dosage of injection.It is quite possible that HFMC may be a new type of contraceptive for man.
12 donors (3-9 years old dairy cows) were superovulated with FSH-p twice daily in the dose of 36 mg for four days in 10-12th days of cycle after synchronized with PGF[2α].At the third day of superovulation,additional 35 mg PGF[2α] were administrated intramuscularly.A total of 135 embryos were recovered 6-7 days after insermination.Of these embryos,87.47% (118/135) showed good quality (average 9.8 embryos per donor).Particularly,we got 76 embryos from 3 donors (24,26 and 27 respectively) and 69 of 76 were good quality (23 embryos per donor).After transferred to synchronized recipients (20 dairy cows and 20 cattle) with total 40 embryos.7 dairy cows (35%) and 8 cattle (40%) were pregnant.The average pregnant rate were 37.5%.A total of 13 heifers were delivered to birth from 7 dairy cow and 6 cattle in this experiment.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms in three species of pheasants,I.e.,common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus),golden pheasant (Chrysolopus pictus),and Chinese pheasant (C.amherstiae),were analyzed to study phylogenetic relationships,when 10 restriction enzymes of 6-bp recognition were used,20-29 sites were observed in the samples.The estimated number of nucleotide substitutions per site (p) between genera Phasianus and Chrysolopus is 0.076 (rangs from 0.067-0.085),and between golden and Chinese pheasants is 0.012.Divergence times between the two genera,and between the two species of genus Chrysolopus were estimated to be 3.8×10[6] and 6×10[5] years on the mean rate of sequences divergence of 0.02 per million years in mtDNA,respectively.These findings suggest:1.Phasianus and Chrysolopus are two closely related genera in the phylogeny of pheasants.2.There is possible that golden and Chinese pheasants are two subspecies,not two species.
The diploid chromosome numbers of E.amurensis and H.auritus were both 2n=48,and N.F.=92.The chromosome complement of E.amurensis was composed of 13 metacentric,6 submetacentric,3 subtelocentric,1 telocetric and the XY chromosome pair.Using the C-and Ag-NOR-banding techniques,it has been demonstrated that the large,terminal blocks of heterochromatin were distributed on the long arm of 5 pairs of chromosomes,and the Ag-NORs were all located terminally,usually close to the heterochromatin blocks on 2-3 chromosome pairs.The chromosome complement of H.auritus was composed of 18 metacentric,4 submetacentric,1 subtelocentric,and the XY chromosome pair.The C-bands have been found in 17 out of the 24 pairs of chromosome.The Ag-NORs was distributed on 3-5 chromosomes and the interstitial distribution of one Ag-NOR was found.Therefore,there were striking differences between the karyotypes of the two species.The authors suggested there were three different types of karyotypes among various geographic populations of E.amurensis at least.The karyotype of three species of genus Erinaceus (E.aurensis,E.europaeous and E.concolor),as well as the karyotype of three species of genus Hemiechinus (H.auritus,H.dauuricus and H.hugi),were compared respectively.The morphology of SC and the behavior of XY of E.amurensis have been studied.The G-banded karyotype of H.auritus was also presented.
With a combination of detergent-microspreading and silver-staining techniques,the spermatocyte synaptonemal complexes (SCs) of 4 species of macaques I.e.rhesus macaque (M.mulatta),pigtail macaque (M.nemestrina),Assam macaque (M.assamensis),Tibetan stump-tailed macaque (M.thibetana) and a subspecies of rhesus monkey (M.m.lasiota) were observed by electron microscope.The results demonstrate the high similarity of SC karyotypes as well as its development among these macaques.The autosome synapsis or pairing of autosomal lateral elements starts at early zygotene,completes at pachytene and disppears at diplotene.Five types of XY pairs have been described,on the basis of patterns of XY pair.The morphology of XY axes and homology of X and Y were discussed also.
The karyotypes of 15 species of birds belonging to 10 nonpasserine families were studied from bone marrow cells with colchicine-hypotonic air drying technique.
The distribution of SCE among quail embryo cells coincided with Poisson distribution,while among chromosomes,it was nonrandom.There was a positive correlation (P<0.05) between SCE frequency and the chromosomal relative length,but SCE distribution in each chromosome was not completely in accordance with the relative length of each chromosome.The SCE frequency in each centromeric region was very high and accordance with the relative length of each chromosome.The per cell SCE average value was not significantly influenced by the sex of embryo (P>0.05),but that whether the SCE per Z was effected significantly by sex had not been determined.