1990 Vol. 11, No. 2

Display Method:
Dorsi-connected Stylonychia mytilus (two normal cells connected on dorsal sides) can be obtained by artificial induction,I.e.,certain pattern of cutting operation.Results from protargol staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that in each ventral side of the two dorsi-connected component cells,there are ventral ciliatures corresponding to a normal S.mytilus.In most cases,on any side of dorsi-connected S.mytilus,there are 4 rows of dorsal bristles (DB) on the dorsal side of one component cell (arranged similar to lst to 4th DB rows in normal cell),while 2 DB rows (similarly arranged as 5th & 6th rows in normal cell),are on the dorsal side of the other component cell.It is observed that most of dorsi-connected S.mytilus are formed by the connection of two cells at their dorsal cortical region between their 4th & 5th DB rows.Also,there are cases of various forms of dorsal cortical connections.During asexual division,the morphogenesis of cortical ciliatures on two dorsi-connected cells are similar to that of normal S.mytilus.In both of them,various cortical ciliatures,such as adoral zone of membranelles (AZM),frontal,ventral & transverse cirri (FVTC),right marginal cirri (RMC),left marginal cirri (LMC),and DB,are developed synchronously.Thus,it is supposed not only the cortical development in the two dorsi-connected component cells are relatively independent,but,theres also certain mechanism contrplling their mutual coordination.During asexual reproduction,dorsi-connected S.mytilus are always in the processes of being regulated to normal cells.It is suggested that this is related to the "un-coordinated" tendencies toward opposite directions due to the pnesence of a whole set of locomotive organelles (especially,AZM) with normal structures and functions in each component cell of the dorsi-connected S.mytilus.
The chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges of the peripheral lymphocytes from the workers in different polluted environments were observed,and the results are as follows:1.Average frequencies of the cells with chromosomal aberrations and reakages were 2.47% and 2.53% for pit workers respectively,3.22% and 3.29% for smelters,1.00% and 1.10% for up-pit workers,and 0.4% and 0.5% for non-exposed workers.2.Average frequencies of SCEs were 4.25±0.13 for pit workers,3.49±0.10 for up-pit workers,3.26±0.09 for smelters,and 2.46±0.09 for non-exposed workers.3.In three groupes with different urine arsenic level,average frequencies of SCEs were 5.35±0.31,5.76±0.24,and 5.60±0.19,respectively,and average frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and breakages were 1.75%,2.16%,1.90% and 1.75%,2.16%,2.00%,compared with 0.6% for each control group.4.In four groups with different urine lead,average frequencies of SCEs were 5.07±0.1,5.82±0.21,and 5.96±0.09 respectively,and average frequencies of the cells with chrosomal aberrations and breakages were 2.53%,2.18%,2.59%,2.42% and 2.58%,2.36%,2.42% and 2.66%,compared with 0.6% for each control group.The difference between the exposed groups and each control groups are statistically significant.
Protonemacheilus,gen.nov.Type-species:Protonemacheilus longipectoralis,sp.nov.Body slightly elongate and compressed.Anterior and posterior nostrils closely adjacent,anterior one in a short tube.Mouth inferior,upper and lower lips neither fimbriated nor papillated.Barbels 6,long,4 rostral and 2 maxillary.Body covered with minute scales except the head and thoracic region.Lateral line uncomplete,terminating over the anal fin.Pectoral girdle with a postcleithrum.The posterior wall of bony capsule membranous.The posterior chamber of air-bladder developed and connected to anterior chamber with a short tube.The new genus resembles Micronemacheilus Rendahl and Paranemachilus Zhu in having a postcleithrum in pectoral girdle,the posterior wall of bony capsule membranous and the anterior nostril in a short tube.However it can be distinguished from Micronemacheilus in the unfimbriated lips,having less dorsal fin rays.It differs from Paranemachilus in having no scales on cheeks,short barbels (Table 2).Protonemacheilus longipectoralis,sp.nov.(Fig.1).Diagnosis:Postcleithrum present;the posterior wall of bony capsule membranous;posterior chamber of air-bladder developed;anterior and posterior nostrils closely adjacent and the anterior one in a short tube;upper and lower lips neither fimbriated nor papillated;lateral line uncomplete.By these diagnostic characteristics this new species can be distinguished from other known species of the subfamily (Table 1).Holotype no.8310110,standard length 53.0 mm,collected from Luxi county (24°30′N,98°37′E),Yunnan in Oct.1983.Paratype nos.8310106,8310108,8310109,8310111,standard length 52.9-62.3 mm,locality and date same as holotype.Type speciemens are deposited in Kunming Institute of Zoology,Academia Sinica.
Of the new species here described,two were collected from China and one from Korea.All of them belong to the genus Syngamoptera Schnabl,1902,and their types are kept in Shanghai Institute of Entomology,Academia Sinica.
The karyotype of Ichthyophis bannanica has been studied by using the preparations of its peripheral lymphocytes.The diploid number is 2n=42.The fundamental number (NF) of chromosome arms is 62.The relative length,arm ratio,and centromere position of each chromosome are listed in table 1 and illustrated in figure 1.Chromosomes 1 and 2 are easily distinguished by their large size and metacentric morphology.No.3 is also readily identified as it is a large bi-armed chromosome with one arm visibly shorter than the other.Compared the karyotype of I.bannanica with the karyotype of I.glutinosus,both species have a karyotype with 2n=42,whereas NF=62 in I.bannanica,NF=60 in I.glutinosus,chromosomes 3 and 11 are submetacentrics in I.abnnanica,but are telocentrics in I.glutinosus.
In this paper,A method,pre-trcatment with 2-Mercapto Ethanol and hypotonic treatment with the Ohnukis solution and flame dry,is employed to show chromosome high-resolution bands of Rana catesbeiana.This procedure can elongate chromosomes and leads the chromosomes to show highresolution bands which are similar to the high-resolution G-bands of human.The mechanism of chromosome high-resolution banding of Rana catesbeiana was discussed.
The specimens involved in this paper include 3 males,2 females captured from Lu Quan County,China and are deposited as the anatomic examples in order to observe the arterial system under the surgical microscope.The results are as follows:The arterial system indicates evolutionary position of the animal.The characters of this animal are different from other animals,particular in primates,on the following respects:1.There are three branches on arcus aortae (anonyma,left common carotid and subclavian arteries),which are similar to the A type shown in the other primates;2.Stapedial artery including the superior branch (the thick one) and the inferior branches (the slendr one) are observed;3.Willis circle exist;4.Four branches originated from subclavian artery,whick are the vertebral branch,suprascapular branch,deep cervical and costo-cervical trunk;5.There are two trunks resulted from axillary artery,I.e.the common trunks consisting of thoraco-acromial,the lateral thoracic arteries,and those consisting circumflex humerus artery and subscapular artery;6.Brachial artery gives off only a branch,accompanied by ulnar nerves in the anterior arm,which becomes slender ulnar artery;7.In the anterior arm,brachial artery continue to become the mediana artery,instead of dividing into radial and ulnar arteries;8.Mediana artery gives off as four arteriae digitales palmares communes and no true palmar arch exists.But the most ulnaris arteries by the ulna communicate with the descend slender ulnar artery following the ulnar nerves;9.Common iliac artery was not observed,but the distal end of the abdominal aorta divided into the external and internal iliac arteries;10.Being smaller and slender,ischiac artery distribute in the muscules of posterior aspect of the thigh;11.From femoral artery,two branches are arisen directly.It correspond to its supplying area of the blood,the deep femoral artery existing in the human;12.In order to supply the blood of plantar area,saphenous artery continue to form posterior tibial artery;13.Dorsal pedes artery comes from anterior tibial artery.
The evergreen broad-leaf forest,the evergreen broad-leaf and coniferous mixed forest and coniferous forest,of which the tree layer coverage is about 90%,are the suitable habitats for the breeding of Elliots Pheasants.During the breeding season,the males courtship display includes dthe wing-flapping display,the lateral display and the display before mating.The activity intensity of courtship display has two obvious peaks during the day time,occourring between 7:00 and 9:00 a.m.and between 1:00 and 3:00 p.m.separately.The process of mating could be divided into five stages for male and the process of egg-laying has three stages for female.The females nest on the ground and the typical clutch-size are from five to eight eggs.Under artificial conditions the incubation period requires 24 days.
A traditional classification of the gibbons recognised a single genus,Hylobates,with four subgenus (Groves,1972;Prouty et al.,1983).The Concolor or Crested Gibbons were placed in the subgenus Nomascus,and assigned to one species,H.(N.) concolor.To this species was assigned six subspecies,as follows:H.c.concolor (North vietnam and Laos,between the Red and Black Rivers),hainanus (Hainan Island,China),lu (a small area in far western Laos),leucogenys (Other parts of northern Vietnam and Laos),siki (Central Vietnam,southern Laos),gabriellae (South Vietnam).The adult males (and juveniles of both sexes) are completely black in the first three,but have light (white to pale reddish) cheek patches in the other three;the adult female are buffy coloured (with a blackish streak from crown to nape) in all,but in concolor and lu the ventral region is blackish.
We observed the canalis cochlearis of 14 Tupaia belangeri chinensis (T.b.)which come from different populations,used the surface specimen technique counted the number of hair cell (HC) and measured the length of the canalis cochearis.Results are as follow:the canalis cochlearis is 13.41±0.48 mm lengths,have three and a half turns.The number of inner HC is 1455.64±50.07,108.58±2.81 per mm.The nature loss ratio is 0.10%.The number of outer HC is 5143.93±210.61,383.56±7.02 per mm;the loss ratio is 0.53%,in the first row is 0.46%,second row is 0.42%,third row is 0.72%.Conclusion:1.There are very different between T.b.and men,monkey,guinea-pig in the length of canalis cochlearis,the number of outer HC,inner HC and their nature loss ratios.2.According to the lower nature loss ratios of HC and the discarded part of apical end is 0.2 mm <0.5 mm,the intraspecies differences is small.It is worth developing to a new kind of experimental animal for oticphysiology,pathology and clinical study.
Urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) was measured during two menstrual cycles of one adult female golden monkey using an improved in vitro bioassay method.Midcycle peaks in LH (100.0±9.0 miu/ml) were six times higher than the follicular phase and four times higher than the luteal phase.This suggests that the cycles were ovulatory.The peaks appear in the middle of the menstrual cycle.The pattern of LH secretion in the golden monkey closely resembles those in the rhesus monkey and human females.
Molecular evolutionary researches is a field developed more fast in morden biological evolutionary researches,and has got great progress.At the same time,there are also some problems need to be solved.Up to now,according to the published researching articles on molecular evolution,we can see some conceptional confusion.For example,the examination had not been done all in the characters of biosystem,and difference between the molecular and biological evolution is confused in a certain degree,so it causes the mistakes in methodology which the mathematical methods treating linear system are used simply in treating nonlinear biosystem.So that the researched results of molecular administrative levels are extended simply and unconditionaly to nonlinear biological individual or popular level.Therefore it leads to some faults.We do write the article to stress the concept that biosystem is a system of nonlinear administrative level construction,and discuss the difference between molecular and biological evolution for the purpose of making the biologists concentrtion.We also investigate and review preliminary the problems that the structures of biomacromolecular one-,two- and tree-dimensions relating to molecular evolution in the paper,in order to explore the methodology of molecular evolutionary researches.The author considers that at the same time for doing the researches of molecular evolution,one must pay enough attention to the problems of administrative levels that exist between biomacromolecular one- and three- dimensions amd from the linear to the nonlinear.
Ecology,Silver Pheasant, Peacock Pheasant, Hainan Hill Partridge