1989 Vol. 10, No. zk
The Major Characteristics of Musculature on The Upper and Lower Limbs in Francois' and Phayre's Leaf Monkeys
1989, 10(zk): 1-10.
Based on 11 anatomic specimens,including 7 for Francois leaf monkeys Presbytis f.francoisi (2 males and 5 females),P.f.leucocephalus (1 female,and 3 for Phayre s leaf monkeys P.phayrei) (3 females),musculature of the upper and lower limbs of two leaf monkeys were studied and compared with those in other primates.The results showed:in regard to most myological characteristics two leaf monkeys share plesiomorphous ones with Cercopithecoidea,and some of them are similar to that of the anthropoids.However,there also exist some differences compared with the monkeys.
1989, 10(zk): 11-18.
This paper carries on the comparative study on the growth and functional morphology of limb bones in M.thibetana and M.mulatta.The analysis of the long bones and skeletal allometry were based on the research of 15 skeletons (5 ♂♂,10♀♀) of different ages.M.thibetana is the special species of China.
1989, 10(zk): 19-28.
The paper,based on 11 corpses,including 8 Francois leaf monkeys,Presbytis francoisi (2 males,6 females) and 3 Phayres leaf monkeys,Presbytis phayrei (3 females),carried out the observation on gross dissection of the arterial system.
Electron Microscopic Observations on The Synaptonemal Complex in Spermatocytes of The Tree Shrew (Tupaiabelangeri Chinensis)
1989, 10(zk): 29-33.
Using surface spreading-silver staining technique,the synaptonemal complexes (SCs) in spermatocytes of the tree shrew were observed by electron microscopy.It is shown that the mean relative lengths and centromeric indices of autosomal SCs agree closely with those of mitotic chromosomes.Comparisions of the morphology and the pairing of sex chromosomes during meiotic prophase between the tree shrew and other primates are made and discussed in this paper.
1989, 10(zk): 34-60.
Study on Cultivation of Albino monkey (Macaca mulatta) Ⅰ.Study on Genetic Background of Albino Monkey
1989, 10(zk): 35-38.
Through cross of the F hybrid of the only albino male monkey with an ordinary female monkey,a homozygous recessive albino female monkey F offspring was obtained.This result shows that the mode of heridity of albino monkey seems to be in accordance with that of human beings,and the result of cross experiment substantially supported us both in theocretical and substantial background for our breeding of an albino variety of monkey to be quite possible just as the breeding of an albino mice variety under artificial conditions.
1989, 10(zk): 39-44.
Hematologic and hemachemical parameters in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta),Pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina) and Assamense monkey (Macaca assamensis) were studied in the present paper.The blood parameters of above three species were similar except for amount of white blood cell,the difference of that was related to the length of keeping and feed condition.Amylase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in serum of rhesus monkey were quite higher than that of human being.Other hemachemical parameters were similar to the humans normal parameter.The percent among five bands of the Lactic dehydrogenase isoenzyme was different from that of normal human.The phosphocreatine kinase isoenzyme of healthy human showed one band,however,that of the rhesus monkey showed two bands,the amount of the MM band and MB band in rhesus monkey was about 70% and 30% respectively.
1989, 10(zk): 45-52.
In order to research the relationship between tooth and body size in Phayres leaf monkey,the distance from glabella to opisthocranion was chosen to represent the body size (Wood,1979).The conclusions show that Phayres leaf monkey incisors exhibit significant negative correlationship and allometry with increase of the body size.Molars,especially those in the mandibula,are isometry or nearly isometry with the increase of body size.These phenomena are tightly correlated with their feeding habits.That is,the diets in this kind of animal mostly include the leaves and seeds which make them to use the molars in chewing frequently (chew carefully and swallow slowly) the hard fibers.There is much correlated with the body size on the buccolingual distance than that on the mesiodistal distance because the allometry coefficients on the buccolingual distance are significant bigger than those on the mesiodistal distance.So we hypothesize when Phayres leaf monkeys use molars to chew the leaves and seeds the movement usually happens in the direction from right to the left or from buccal to lingual direction.The relationship between the tooth and body size in Phayres leaf monkeys is closer to that of Colobus guereza,than to the human.These show that in the evolutionary process,phylogeny and feeding habits,Phayres leaf monkey is more closer to that of Colobus.
In order to provide a large scale of laboratory rhesus monkeys which have clear genetic and madical backgrounds,standard food and controlled environment,three breeding systems were carried out in National Laboratory Primate Centre of China,Xishuangbanna,Yunnan during 1984-1988.The study of 628 female breeders indicated that the average annual mortility rate of females was 4.7%,average annual conception rate was 83.2%,average annual reproduction rate was 72.2%.The results showed that,in Harem breeding colony,fertility was affected by female social rank and age.There were not significant difference in reproduction for male/female rate within 1/4-16.The major cause of death was trauma,following by enteropathies.56.2% of reproductive growth rate was gained in this colony.
The ecological characteristics of Hylobates leucogenys distributed only in the Nature Sancturay of Meng La,Yunnan Province (21°08′-22°00′N;101°15′101°50′E).Were investigated from 1983 to 1988.The total number of gibbons were less 40.The most individual number of group was 5 while least one was 2.The habitate of the gibbon situate at the altitude 700-1,000 M.This gibbon feeds chiefly on plants that occurred 90.6% of the total food specimens,and eat also small animals that occurred 9.4% of the whole food specimens.The time of feeding peak was at 8:00-10:00 a.m.The fruites were the most preference food of the gibbon following by leaves,buds,flowers and animals.The gibbons spend 38.62%,35.52%,17.29%,4.67% and 3.89% of daily feeding time on those food categories respectively.Daily activity time was about 9.5 hours.Feeding,travel and rest time occur 41.2%,13.1% and 45.7% of daily activity time respectively.Daily range was 1305 M.(1024-1586).
1989, 10(zk): 68-78.
1989, 10(zk): 69-77.
Using the method of electrophresis,the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and population relationship of Yunnan and Guangxi tree shrews is studied by isozyme analysis.There are diverged in their tissues and also in different animals inhabit in different place,but no electrophoretic difference observed between malcs and females for the analysis of LDH isozyme in the six tissues (heart,liver,lung,spleen,kidney and muscle).The results suggested that these tree shrews are three subspecies which confirm some reports on morphology tudy in tree shrews.
1989, 10(zk): 79-89.
The mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from slow loris (Nycticebus coucang bengalensis) and tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) liver were digested with ten restriction endonucleases.One site for BglⅠ,HindⅢ,PstⅠ,SalⅠ,XhoⅠ;two sites for EcoRⅠ,BglⅡ,PvuⅡ;and three sites for BamHⅠ,EcoRⅤ were found on the mtDNA from slow loris.One site for BglⅡ,HindⅢ,PstⅠ,SalⅠ,XhoⅠ;two sites for BamHⅠ,BglⅠ,PvuⅡ;three sites for EcoRⅠ;and four sites for EcoRⅤ were found on the mtDNA from tree shrew.The mtDNAs were also cleaved by double-enzyme digestions with the above mentioned enzymes.The fragments thus obtained and their molecular weights were estimated by agarose gel electrophoresis.Restriction maps for slow loris and tree shrew were made according to the number and the size of those fragments obtained by single and double digestions.The distribution of cleavage sites were found not to be random.
1989, 10(zk): 91-100.
The slope habitat of Macaca thibetana was described by processing data made available in varying degrees from different institutions and those collected in our observations.The only primate species in the area was mainly restricted in the evergreen broadleaf (EB) and the EB-deciduous broadleaf (DB) mixed forest zonations.Variations in temperature and precipitation were obvious across seasons and very small across years in the subtropical-warm temperate belts.The spatial structure of the forest/potential foods under the moist condition was very complex in three dimensions.Both the climate and vegetation changed sharply with the elevation.Accordingly,the former results of ecoethological studies on the animals could be better understood.Foodens (1982) model regarding the ecogeographic segregation of macaques was partly confirmed,but the dichotomy of EB and non-EB macaque habitats was questionable at this site.
A Micro-Quantitative Analysis of Types of Residuary Diets Among Excrements of A Group of Rhinopithecus Bieti in Snowing Season
1989, 10(zk): 101-109.
This study delt with quantitative analysis for diets taken in by a group of Rhinopithecus bieti in wild,and tested its principal types of diets among the residues from its excrements.Through the determination of digestive ability from an individual of R.bieti in captivity,an equantion about quantity of diets taken in by wild R.bieti groups was established.The results have indicated that,in this group of R.bieti,Per 0.49 kg residuary compounds excreted must correspond to 12.5 kg of grass belonging to Monocotydoneae,21.7 kg of lichens,but only 1.1 kg of leaves of Abies sp.etc.taken in (all are dry weights).These data had been analysed with statistics,and test of null hypothesis indicated that Abies sp.are less important diets than the two above.
1989, 10(zk): 111-117.
The present paper dealt with the feed containt different proteins influences the nitrogen balance in tree shrews.For a period of 15-days,five groups of tree shrews (total of 30) were fed formula feeds containing 10%,15%,20%,25%,and 30% crude protein,respectively.The mean daily deposited nitrogen amount of five group animals was 64.7±18.2 mg,157.4±16.6 mg,276.4±39.4 mg,485.2±73.1 mg,and 494.1±83.9 mg,respectively.The mean nitrogen deposited rate of five group animals was 14.9±4.7%,28.8±6.3%,35.2±6.9%,50.6±1.9%,and 40.4±7.4%,separately.According to statistical analysis,there are extremely remarkable differences between five group animals in the mean daily deposited nitrogen amount and the mean nitrogen deposited rate (P<0.01).The above results indicate that the formula feed containing 25% crude protein is advantageous to the health of growing tree shrews and saving on feeding cost under our feeding condition,or more accurately,it is appropriate that a growing tree shrews ingests 52.0-62.0 g crude protein/kg body weight per day.
1989, 10(zk): 118-150.
Preliminary Study on The Group Composition,Behavior and Ecology of The Black Gibbons (Hylobates concolor) in Southwest Yunnan
1989, 10(zk): 119-126.
This paper is the results of the survey and study on the black gibbons (Hylobates concolor) in Southwest Yunnan from October,1987,to March,1989.The gibbon population investigated in the mid-mountain humid evergreen broadleaf forest between 2,000 to 2,700 meters above sea level,was made up of 117 to 144 groups in Mt.Wuliang,and maybe next in Mt.Ailao,and few in Mt.Banma and Mt.Daxueshan.All the groups observed in these area were small,averaged 3.0±1.4(N=12,range=2-5) in size,and seemed to be monogamous.According to the observations on one group in Mt.Wuliang,the total amount of their active time was about 576±30 minutes (N=5,range=540-615),among them 3% for calling (15.8),14% for traveling (73.3),33% for feeding (180.8) and 50% for resting (273.3).The average day range length was about 795±153 meters (N=13,range=600-1,100),and home range was about 44-49 ha,in which 7.4 ha was utilized everyday.The results above have been compared with that of other species.
1989, 10(zk): 127-132.
578 rhesus infants were separated from breeding females before mating season and were used for nursery rearing experiment at Xishuangbanna,Yunnan National Laboratory Primate Center of China (YNLPCC) during 1984-1988.The weaning age varies from 1 to 230 days after birth,with an average of 113 days.91.5% of infants were survival in the first rearing year.In the infants died within the first rearing year,61.8% of them occurred in the first mont;the death rate of infants weaned age under two month old (≤60 days) was 20% and which of weaned age over two month old was 6.9%.64.7% of death were resulted from pneumonia and enteropathies.The nursery-rearing infants of male under ten months of age and female under nine months of age have a rapid growth rate,their regressive equation on the growth of body weight (grams) are:W=145.6t+403.5 (male,under 10 months of age);W=144.2t+372(female,under 9 months of age).We believe that separating infants from their mothers before mating season could improved female fertility.
Gross Morphological and Histological Characteristics of The Alimentary System in Tupaia belangeri chinensis
1989, 10(zk): 133-142.
Alimentary system in the Tupaia belangeri chinensis are studied of Gross morphology and histology in thispaper.
Comparative Study on Contents of Lactate Dehydrogense Isozymes From Normal Serums of Four Taxa in The Genus Macaca
1989, 10(zk): 143-149.
The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes of normal serums of the four species in genus Macaca were analysed quantitatively by LKB-bromma 2202 Ultroson Laser Densitometer.The results showed that there were some differences for active contents of LDH-A and LDH-B and LDH isozymes pattern between these species.The differences between M.mulatta and M.nemestrina were greater than that between M.assamensis.These differences were considered as the relationship with the phylogeny of these species.
1989, 10(zk): 151-155.
250 rhesus monkeys breeding in the house were examined for B.coli.The following is the result of B.coli found in this examination:We obtained 2365 B.coli from the investigation.Among them observe the Trophozoites were 144 individual and the Cyst 144 individual.The Trophozoites measure 30-180 μm in length (averge 108±37.68 μm),and 20-114.4 μm in width (average 57.51±37.98 μm).The Cysts measure 39.6-61.6 μm (average 48.65±6.89 μm) in length and width.To see table 1.The infection rate was found to be 36.4%,with the young group aocounting for 42.86%,the ill group for 42.85%,the quaratined group for 42.50%,the long-term-breeting monkeys for 24.42%,and that its infection rate of 5 and more year old group is lower than that of group of 4 year old below.Of importance to the infection rate of B.coli is the atructure and sanitation of breeding cottages.It is also found that male monkeys are as susceptible as female monkeys and that the B.coli in young monkeys comes down from their while its infection rate is higher than that of their parents.The monkeys could be infected by this B.coli during all seasons,with its higher rate in winter seasons.The parasitic number of 91 positive monkeys was found to be 1-220 individual (Trophozoite and Cyst).To see table 2.The morphology and diagnosis and infected state and so on B.coli on related problems were discussed in this paper.