1989 Vol. 10, No. 4
1989, 10(4): 271-275.
The diploid chromosome number of the Gekko gecko is 38 for the 2 male and 2 female studied.The karyotype consists of 2 pairs metacentric elements (Nos.1,4);3 pairs submetacentric (Nos.2,3,5)and 14 pairs telocentric or subtelocentric elements (Nos.6-19).No heteromorphic sex chromosomes is observed in the karyotype of Gekko Gecko.A pair of Ag-NOR on the terminal of No.7 chromosome is found.The identification and progression of the prophase stages of meiosis in Gekko gecko gonads are reported.With a combination of surface spreading and silver staining technique synaptonemal complex (S.C) of the Gekko gecko was studied by electron microscopy.The S.C karyotype of the Gekko gecko with 19 bivalents has been constructed.
1989, 10(4): 277-284.
The investigation of interspecific relationship between the Great Tit Parus major and willow Tit Parus montanus was carried out at the Qilian Mountain,from April to Juny of 1984,from May to June of 1985 and at the Xinglong Mountain from March to May of 1986 in Province Gansu.The paper deals with the interspecific relationship between the Great Tit and Willow Tit in the selection of habitat,foraging niches and the analysis of food.In the overlap areas of geographic distribution,overlap value of niche between the Great Tit and the Willow Tit is lower in the altitude of habitat.The Great Tit habits at an altitude of below 2370 m,and prefering chiefly to aspen-birch community and artificial old-age popular community,but the willow Tit habits at an altitude of over 2300 m,prefering more greatly to the mixed community and mountain aspen-oak community.There are certain overlap in their habitats,but the overlap value is lower.In the overlap among 4 dimensions of foraging niches between two species of tit,there is lower overlap value of niche in the dimensions selecting the kinds of trees,but the overlap value of niches is all greater in the others.Between two species of tit there is certain overlaps in the trophic niche,and overlap value of size of food is more great.In the course of evolution and development,through ecological separation between two species does not take place.
1989, 10(4): 285-294.
This paper presents rsults of our studies on the breeding ecology of Lady Amhersts Pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae) in Gulü (Eastern longitude 102°30′;Northern latitude 25°20′),western mountains of Kunming,middle part ot Yunnan Province.Surveys in sample plots shows that the density of breeding male pheasants in secondary forest of pine (Pinus armandii) is the lowest (See Table 1).The density of breeding males in deciduous secondary forest and in bush and coniferous-evergreen broadleaf secondary forest is not different.The reason relative to the difference is secondary forest of pine with a few of plant species and short age of food.Meanwhile,concealments are poor in secondary forests of pinc,so males are easily found by hunters and killed.The density of breeding female pheasants in secondary forest of pine is still lower.The reasonis is as indicated above.But the density of females in sample plot no.It is not different from the density of secondary forest of pine.The cause is that local people often fell trees and herd goats and cattle in sample plot no.When we were surveying population of females.Perhaps,the economic activties disturbed some females to move other forest.The density does not include males which do not occupy territory and females which do not breed,so it is only the density of breeding pheasants.Cocks begin to take territory in late of March.Accoding to observation of territory on 9 cocks,each cocks average territory is 0.076 km2 in the breeding season.There are 2-3 hens in each cocks territory.It is polygynous.Cock display takes place on a small open area in forest.It is typical lateral display and is similar to Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus).Females begin laying eggs in the middle of April.Six nests were found.All of which were built on land in thickets or under withered branches.The nests are very simple,a round shallow pit with dead leave and a few of feathers.The size of the nests and eggs in each cluth see Table 4.The eggs average 29.8 (26-32)g.In weights;45.4×34.6(43×33-46.2×35.3) mm in size.It is buff or white in color.Only the female takes responsibility for incubating the eggs.The weights of the eggs of no.5 nest were measured during the incubation period.Weight of eggs at the beginning was 29.8 g.,on eleventh,sixteenth,twenty-first days,they are 27.8 g.,26.3 g..and 24.8 g.Decrease progressively percentage of loss of eggs average weigh is 6.7%,11.5% and 16.5%,the duration of incubation is about 24 days.Chickens which just hatched stayed in the nest for several hours,then the female led them go off to look for food and did not go back to the nest again.After hatching,the female and young roost in dense bush at night.When the young can flight,they perch on trees at night.The young diets mainly consistes of fruits of Rubus spp.,Coria sinica,Vaccinium spregelii,etc.In the incubation period,we observed Red-billed Blue Magpic (Cissa erythrorhyncha) stole eggs when the hen was out of the nest.
Geographical Distribution,Origin and Evolution,and Centre of differentiation of High-Altitude Pelobatid Toads in Asia (Amphibia:Pelobatidae)
1989, 10(4): 295-302.
High-altitude pelobatid toads include twenty-nine species,among them thirteen belong to Oreolalax and mainly appear endemically in eastern Hengduan mountains,whereas the other sixteen species are grouped into Scutiger and chiefly found in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (Tibet).Scutiger includes two subgenera.The first is Scutiger (Scutiger) consisting of ten species and occurring in Himalayan areas and northern Hengduan mountains,seven of which exist in China while the other three in Burma,Nepal and Kashmir.And the second subgenus is S.(Aelurophryne) consisting of six species and mostly found in the middle and norhtern Hengduan mountains.Five species exist in China and the remaining one species in Burma.The geographical distribution of Scutiger and Oreolalax is divided roughly along Mt.Longmen,Mt.Gajin,Mt.Sheduo,Mt.Gongga and the line of about 28°N of the middle Hengduan mountains,and the distribution of the two genera overlaps in these regions.The high-altitude pelobatid toads generally distribute in an area of 77°to 110°E and 24°-36°N.The species of this group are quite abundant in Hengduan mountain areas.In an area of 90° to 104°E and 24°to 33°N,twenty-three species have been found,making up about 79.3% of the total number of Oreolalax and Scutiger.And eighteen species are endemic,occupying 78.3% of 23 species in Hengduan mountain areas.Hence this area may be considered as the probalbe main place of origin and centre of differentiation and speciation of the high-altitude pelobatid toads in Asia.
1989, 10(4): 303-308.
In our avifaunal survey of the Meridional Himalayan Region,we founda a new subspecies of the Athene brama,which we propose to name:Belly-Mottled Little Owl Athene brama poikila subsp.nov.Holotype:Adult male (field no.6079) collected from Rao Ji of Bao Xing County in western Sichuan province,alt.2,200 m.;December 6,1964.Allotype:Adult female (field no.820222) from Ba Jiao Lou of Ya Jiang County,alt.3,100 m.in the same province,September 26,1982.Type specimens have been deposited in the Sichuan Agricultural University (Holotype),and Kunming Institute of Zoology,Academia sinica (Allotype).Diagnosis:Differs from other subspecies of the Athene brama (Spotted Little Owl) in having on abdomen mottled with dark brown,not forming transversely barred as in other subspecies;chin and throat dark brown,lower throat mottled with white but not forming white throat-patch;breast more mottled with dark brown;above,dark brown with small white spots on the crown and wing;first primary shorter than sixth and seventh;skull and feet distinctly smaller than those of A.noctua (Little Owl).A photograph of the new subspecies (Athene brame poikila) is provided in the Chinese text (Fig.2).Measurements: Weight Wing Bill Tarsus Tail Holotype♂ 87 169 19 22 106Allotype♀ 115 166 19 22 111Habits:Roosts on trees of the mixed coniferous and broadleaf forests.Distribution:Bao Xing County and Ya Jiang County of western Sichuan Province of China,as shown on the map (Fig.1).
1989, 10(4): 309-317.
The karyotypes of 20 species of 8 families of Climber birds were studied from bone marrow cells with colchicine-hypotonic-airdrying technique.The results were given as follow:Picidae:Jynx torquilla,2n=90;Dendrolopos hyperythrus,2n=92;D.leucotos,2n=90;D.kizuki,2n=92;Picus canus,2n=92.Upupidae:Upupa epops,2n=126.Alcedinidae:Alcedo atthis,2n=132;Halcyon pileata,2n=84.Cuculidae:Cuculis canorus,2n=78;C.saturatus,2n=76;C.microptaus,2n=78;C.fugax,2n=78.Apodidae:Apus pacificus,2n=62;Hirumd-apus candacutus,2n=64.Psittacidae:Melopsittacus undulatus,2n=62.Caprimulgidae:Caprimulgus indicus,2n=76.Strigidae:Otus scops,2n=76;O.bakkamoena,2n=82;Asio flammeus,2n=82;Athene noctus,2n=80.The 15 families of Climber birds have usually been divided into 3 foottypes:Zygodactylous,Syndatylous and Heterodactylous.Sibley and Ahlquist (1988) assigned them to 3 Parv-classes:Picae,Coraciae and Passerae.These two divisions are very different each other.The karyotype comparisons of the Climber birds support the division by Sibley et al.,according DNA-DNA hybridization data.
1989, 10(4): 319-326.
The author suggests to found a new scientific branch----evolutionary cell biology,which is an overlapping aprt of evolutionary biology and cell biology.The main subject of this new scientific branch is to study the origin and evolution of eukaryotic cells and their various living activities in order to examine them from the standpoint of how they arose in history and what principle stages they passed through in their development,and from the standpoint of their developments,to examine what they have become today.The content of evolutionary cell biology can be temporarily definded as the following:1.the prokaryotic ancestor of eukarvotes;2.the origin and evolution of eukaryotic cells and their organelles;3.the origin and evolution of various activities of eukaryotic cells and their organelles;4.the origin and evolution of the social relationships among cells;5.the motive force in the origin and evolution of eukaryotic cells;6.the "un-evolution" phenomena of organelles;7.the law and conditions on transformmg endocytosymbionts into cellular organelles;8.the origin and evolution of the special organelles in certain eukaryotes (e.g.the macronucleus in ciliates,the kinetoplast in kinetoplastid flagellates).For studying the problems of evolutionary cell biology,both synthetical analyses of evlutionary biology and experimental researches of cell biology are necessary and ought to be integrated with each other.The main cause of the "un-evolution" phenomena of cellular organelles and the author regarded that these phenomena were mainly induced by the transference of the focal point of evolution.
1989, 10(4): 327-332.
The Crested Ibis is one of the famous endangered birds in the world.It once distrlbuted in countries,including China,Japan,Russia and Korea in Eastern Asia.But now it only survives in specific area in Yang-county,Shaanxi province China.This paper reported its field breeding information.The bird is resident in Yang-county.In Febuary it returns the nest area and copulation,nest-building,egg-laying were found from the middle of March to the beginning of April.And there are always 3 eggs in a clutch (1-4 eggs).The incubation period lasts about one month,and the feeding period is 45-50 days.The female and the male share in the nest building,incubation and feeding nestlings.Up to now,3 nests exist in Yang-county and each nest has a pair of adult.They raise young every year.
1989, 10(4): 333-339.
The daily feeding activities of the Cabots Tragopan during the breeding season in captivity are shown three peaks which are occurred in the morning,near the midday,and at dusk.The feeding activities of females have regularly variation in the breeding season,that is different from the males which have no remarkable differences in the different breeding stages.The results of stepwise-regression analyses shown that:the main factors which affect the feeding activities of the males are the whole active time in a day,the times of display and the walking time;For the females,the main affecting factors are the preening time,the times of flight and the times of jump.
1989, 10(4): 340-340.
1989, 10(4): 341-347.
Abstr ct:This paper reports 7 species belonging to two genera in two subfamilies of Phymatidae recorded from Inner Mongolia,among them three are new species:Cnizocoris mongolicus,n.sp.,C.unicellularis,n.sp.and C.acellularis,n.sp..Phymata crassipes chinensis Drake,1947,was raised to the specific rank.
1989, 10(4): 348-362.
1989, 10(4): 349-354.
Through many years of hard work by all members of the department of entomology about 12,000 butterfly specimens were collected from Yunnan province and its neighbouring regions.Besides a few of them are waiting for identification (new species of new subspecies),about 432 species belonging to 188 genera in 11 families have been preliminaryly determined.This paper deals with the scope of the fauna and geographical distribution of butterflies in Yunnan.It has three parts:The first part have discussed preliminarily the problem of the butterfly fauna of Yunnan based on the materials in hands at present.in order to explain the character of the Yunnan butterfly fauna,we classified the data quantitatively according to statistic procedure.As a whole the results show that about 74.42% of them are Oriental species.These are the main or majority part,about 14.19% of the species we collected are transitional or over leap-regional species.Only 11.4% of these species are Palearctic species.and analysed the belongingness as well as percentage of Yunnan butterflies in Zoo-geographical division into districts of China.The second part have discussed the characteristics of the distribution of Yunnan butterflies (1,the character of vertical distribution.2,the transitional character of the distribution.3,the character of distributional difference on the different sloping direction.) The last part have discussed the obvionus differences of the fauna constitution of various areas,according to the occurrence and distribution of butterflies characteristics,together with the physical geography,landform,climate and vegetation of the place,and divide these into 3 different types of regions as the following:Ⅰ,The lower mountainous north tropical rain forest and monsoon forest subregion (about under 1,500 M.);Ⅱ,The middle mountainous subtropical evergreen broad-leaf,mixed forest and coniferous forest subregion (about range 1,500-3,000 M.);Ⅲ,The high mountainous temperate zone of coniferous forest subregion (about range 3,000-4,600 M.)
1989, 10(4): 355-361.
The present paper deals with the fishes of the genus Discogobio Lin collected from Yunnan.Altogether four new species are reported,they are Discogobio polylepis,D.macrophysallidos,D.elongatus,D.brachyphysallidos.The type specimens ars preserved at the Kunming Institute of Zoology,Academia Sinica.Discogobio polylepis,sp,nov.(Fig.1)Syntypes 12,body length 73-121 mm.from Chengjiang,Wuxiang lake.D.iii-8;A.iii-5;P.I-14-16;V.I-8.L1.44/6,4-v/45,around cpe-duncle scales 16.Gill-rakers 18-19 (exteral),21-25 (inner).Phrygeal teeth 3.5-5.3.vertebrae 4+37.Diagnosis;Differs from other known species of Discogobio in larger number of scales in lateral line.Discogobio macrophysallidos,sp.nov.(Fig.2)Syntypes 9,body length 81-114 mm.from Fuyan,lounpin,Yunnan.D.iii-8;A.iii-5;P.I-14-15;V.I-8.L.1.42/5-6,4-4.5-v/43,around c-pedncle scales 16.Gill-rakers 18-22 (exteral),21-25 (inner).phyrygeal teeth 3.5-5.3.vertebrae 4+36-37.Diagnosis:The new species is closely allied to Discogobio yunnanensis (Regan),but differs 1)lateral line scales 42-43 versus 40;2)vertebrae 4+36-37 versus 34.It is closely allied to Discogogbio polylepis.sp.nov.,but differs 1)lateral line scales 42-43 versus 44-45;2)length of the postero air-bladder cavity is 3.4-4.1 times than that of the front air-bladder cavity versus 1.5-2.1 times.Discogobio elongatus,sp.nov.(Fig.3)Syntypes 21,body length 48-108 mm.from Xuanwei,Yunnan (Zhujiang river system).D.iii-8;A.iii-5;P.I-14-16;V.I-8.L.1.42/5-5.5,3-3.5-v/44,around c-peduncle scales 16.Gill-rakers 20-24 (exteral),23-28 (inner).Phyrygeal teeth 3.5-5.3.vertebrae 4+35-36.Diagnosis:Differs from other known species of the Discogobio Lin:The ratio of the body length to the hight of the body is 6.0-7.5 times.Discogobio brachyphysallidos,sp.nov.(Fig.4)Syntypes 23,body length 56-141 mm.from Yiliang,Luopin,Yunnan.D.iii-8;A.iii-5;P.I-14-16;V.I-8.L.1.42/5.5-6,3.5-4-v/43,around c-peduncle scales 16.Gill-rakers 17-19 (exteral),20-23 (inner).phyrygeal teeth 3.5-5.3.vertebrae 4+34-35.Diagnosis:This new species is closely allied to Discogobio tetrabarbatus Lin,but differs 1)the scales in the lateral line 42-43 versus 37-39;2)vertebrae 4+34-35 versus 4+31;3)c-peduncle length 1.7-2.0 versus 1.1-1.6.