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Although 9.4 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been tested in healthy volunteers, its safety in diabetic patients is unclear. Furthermore, the effects of high static magnetic fields (SMFs), especially gradient vs. uniform fields, have not been investigated in diabetics. Here, we investigated the consequences of exposure to 1.0–9.4 T high SMFs of different gradients (>10 T/m vs. 0–10 T/m) on type 1 diabetic (T1D) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice. We found that 14 h of prolonged treatment of gradient (as high as 55.5 T/m) high SMFs (1.0–8.6 T) had negative effects on T1D and T2D mice, including spleen, hepatic, and renal tissue impairment and elevated glycosylated serum protein, blood glucose, inflammation, and anxiety, while 9.4 T quasi-uniform SMFs at 0–10 T/m did not induce the same effects. In regular T1D mice (blood glucose ≥16.7 mM), the >10 T/m gradient high SMFs increased malondialdehyde (P<0.01) and decreased superoxide dismutase (P<0.05). However, in the severe T1D mice (blood glucose ≥30.0 mM), the >10 T/m gradient high SMFs significantly increased tissue damage and reduced survival rate. In vitro cellular studies showed that gradient high SMFs increased cellular reactive oxygen species and apoptosis and reduced MS-1 cell number and proliferation. Therefore, this study showed that prolonged exposure to high-field (1.0–8.6 T) >10 T/m gradient SMFs (35–1 380 times higher than that of current clinical MRI) can have negative effects on diabetic mice, especially mice with severe T1D, whereas 9.4 T high SMFs at 0–10 T/m did not produce the same effects, providing important information for the future development and clinical application of SMFs, especially high-field MRI.
Reproductive strategies and spawning habits play key roles in the evolution of endemic East Asian cyprinids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of spawning habits are not well understood. We recently identified zona pellucida (Zp) as the top differentially expressed protein between East Asian cyprinids that produce adhesive and semi-buoyant eggs, suggesting that Zp protein may play important roles in the regulation of egg type. In this work, we generated transgenic zebrafish in which oocyte-specific expression of zp genes from rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus), an East Asian cyprinid laying adhesive eggs, was driven by a zebrafish zp3.2 gene promoter. We found that the transgenic eggs obtained partial adhesiveness and exhibited alteration in hydration and buoyancy. Abnormal metabolism of vitellogenin (VTG) may contribute to enhanced hydration and/or buoyancy. Our work shows that expression of the exogenous zp3a gene from an adhesive-egg producing fish is sufficient to induce changes in both egg adhesiveness and buoyancy in zebrafish, emphasizing the important role of zp genes in the regulation of spawning habits. Our results thus provide new insights into how endemic East Asian cyprinids may have adapted to the Yangtze river-lake system via changes in spawning habits.
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Generating diverse motor behaviors critical for survival is a challenge that confronts the central nervous system (CNS) of all animals. During movement execution, the CNS performs complex calculations to control a large number of neuromusculoskeletal elements. The theory of modular motor control proposes that spinal interneurons are organized in discrete modules that can be linearly combined to generate a variety of behavioral patterns. These modules have been previously represented as stimulus-evoked force fields (FFs) comprising isometric limb-endpoint forces across workspace locations. Here, we ask whether FFs elicited by different stimulations indeed represent the most elementary units of motor control or are themselves the combination of a limited number of even more fundamental motor modules. To probe for potentially more elementary modules, we optogenetically stimulated the lumbosacral spinal cord of intact and spinalized Thy1-ChR2 transgenic mice (n=21), eliciting FFs from as many single stimulation loci as possible (20–70 loci per mouse) at minimally necessary power. We found that the resulting varieties of FFs defied simple categorization with just a few clusters. We used gradient descent to further decompose the FFs into their underlying basic force fields (BFFs), whose linear combination explained FF variability. Across mice, we identified 4–5 BFFs with partially localizable but overlapping representations along the spinal cord. The BFFs were structured and topographically distributed in such a way that a rostral-to-caudal traveling wave of activity across the lumbosacral spinal cord may generate a swing-to-stance gait cycle. These BFFs may represent more rudimentary submodules that can be flexibly merged to produce a library of motor modules for building different motor behaviors.
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Confused geographical structure of a population and mitonuclear discordance are shaped by a combination of rapid changes in population demographics and shifts in ecology. In this study, we generated a time-calibrated phylogeny of Scutiger boulengeri, an endemic Xizang alpine toad occurring in mountain streams on the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau (QTP). Based on three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes, eight clades were assigned to three deeply divergent lineages. Analysis of nuclear DNA (nuDNA) genes revealed three distinct clusters without geographic structure, indicating significantly high rates of gene flow. Coalescent theory framework analysis (approximate Bayesian computation model DIYABC and Migrate-N) suggested that divergence of the main intraspecific clusters was the result of hybridization after secondary contact in the Holocene around 0.59 million years ago (Ma). The ratio of mtDNA FST (fixation index) to nuDNA FST was 2.3, thus failing to show male-biased dispersal. Geographic cline analysis showed that a wide hybrid zone was initially established in southwestern China, without significant reproductive isolation but with strong introgression in S. boulengeri, suggesting high hybrid fitness. Furthermore, mtDNA genes exhibited isolation by distance (IBD) while nuDNA genes exhibited significant isolation by environment (IBE). Results suggested that mitonuclear discordance may have initially been caused by geographic isolation, followed by precipitation-mediated hybridization, producing a wide hybrid zone and geographic structure confusion of nuDNA genes in S. boulengeri. This study indicated that complicated historical processes may have led to specific genetic patterns, with a specific climate factor facilitating gene flow in the system.
Understanding how evolutionary pressures related to climate change have shaped the current genetic background of domestic animals is a fundamental pursuit of biology. Here, we generated whole-genome sequencing data from native goat populations in Iraq and Pakistan. Combined with previously published data on modern, ancient (Late Neolithic to Medieval periods), and wild Capra species worldwide, we explored the genetic population structure, ancestry components, and signatures of natural positive selection in native goat populations in Southwest Asia (SWA). Results revealed that the genetic structure of SWA goats was deeply influenced by gene flow from the eastern Mediterranean during the Chalcolithic period, which may reflect adaptation to gradual warming and aridity in the region. Furthermore, comparative genomic analysis revealed adaptive introgression of the KITLG locus from the Nubian ibex (C. nubiana) into African and SWA goats. The frequency of the selected allele at this locus was significantly higher among goat populations located near northeastern Africa. These results provide new insights into the genetic composition and history of goat populations in the SWA region.
Fluoxetine (Prozac™) is the only antidepressant approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in children. Despite its considerable efficacy as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, the possible long-term effects of fluoxetine on brain development in children are poorly understood. In the current study, we aimed to delineate molecular mechanisms and protein biomarkers in the brains of juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) one year after the discontinuation of fluoxetine treatment using proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling. We identified several differences in protein expression and phosphorylation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and cingulate cortex (CC) that correlated with impulsivity in animals, suggesting that the GABAergic synapse pathway may be affected by fluoxetine treatment. Biomarkers in combination with the identified pathways contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the chronic effects of fluoxetine after discontinuation in children.
Lycosidae females demonstrate meticulous maternal care of offspring by carrying egg sacs and juvenile spiderlings during the reproductive stage. Nuclear receptors (NRs), especially the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP), have attracted considerable attention in the regulation of arthropod development and reproduction due to their pivotal roles in ecdysteroid signaling cascades. In the present study, 23 NRs, including one EcR and two USPs, were identified in the genome of the predatory wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata. RNA interference (RNAi) targeting EcR and USP-1 inhibited spiderling development and resulted in non-viable eggs in the egg sacs. EcR and USP-1 responded to changes in ecdysteroid levels, and interference in ecdysteroid biosynthesis led to similar phenotypes as dsEcR and dsUSP-1 treatments. These findings suggest that EcR/USP-1-mediated ecdysteroid signaling regulates P. pseudoannulata development and reproduction. The P. pseudoannulata females with suppressed ecdysteroid signaling proactively consumed their non-viable egg sacs, resulting in a 7.19 d shorter first reproductive cycle than the controls. Termination of the failed reproductive cycle enabled the spiders to produce a new egg sac more rapidly. This reproductive strategy may partially rescue the reduction in population growth due to non-viable eggs and compensate for the physiological expenditure of wasted maternal care, which would be beneficial for the conservation of P. pseudoannulata populations and their natural control of insect pests.
The development of epigenetic maps, such as the ENCODE project in humans, provides resources for gene regulation studies and a reference for research of disease-related regulatory elements. However, epigenetic information, such as a bird-specific chromatin accessibility atlas, is currently lacking for the thousands of bird species currently described. The major genomic difference between birds and mammals is their shorter introns and intergenic distances, which seriously hinders the use of humans and mice as a reference for studying the function of important regulatory regions in birds. In this study, using chicken as a model bird species, we systematically compiled a chicken chromatin accessibility atlas using 53 Assay of Transposase Accessible Chromatin sequencing (ATAC-seq) samples across 11 tissues. An average of 50 796 open chromatin regions were identified per sample, cumulatively accounting for 20.36% of the chicken genome. Tissue specificity was largely reflected by differences in intergenic and intronic peaks, with specific functional regulation achieved by two mechanisms: recruitment of several sequence-specific transcription factors and direct regulation of adjacent functional genes. By integrating data from genome-wide association studies, our results suggest that chicken body weight is driven by different regulatory variants active in growth-relevant tissues. We propose CAB39L (active in the duodenum), RCBTB1 (muscle and liver), and novel long non-coding RNA ENSGALG00000053256 (bone) as candidate genes regulating chicken body weight. Overall, this study demonstrates the value of epigenetic data in fine-mapping functional variants and provides a compendium of resources for further research on the epigenetics and evolution of birds and mammals.
Stearyl coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), also known as delta-9 desaturase, catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the formation of monounsaturated fatty acids. In mammals, depletion or inhibition of SCD activity generally leads to a decrease in triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. However, the endogenous role of scd in teleost fish remains unknown. Here, we generated a zebrafish scd mutant (scd-/-) to elucidate the role of scd in lipid metabolism and sexual development. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the scd -/- mutants had increased levels of saturated fatty acids C16:0 and C18:0, and decreased levels of monounsaturated fatty acids C16:1 and C18:1. The mutant fish displayed a short stature and an enlarged abdomen during development. Unlike Scd-/- mammals, the scd-/- zebrafish showed significantly increased fat accumulation in the whole body, especially in the liver, leading to hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and severe cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, srebf1, a gene encoding a transcriptional activator related to adipogenesis, acc1 and acaca, genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, and dgat2, a key gene involved in triglyceride synthesis, were significantly upregulated in mutant livers to activate fatty acid biosynthesis and adipogenesis. The scd-/- males exhibited defective natural mating behavior due to defective genital papillae but possessed functional mature sperm. All defects in the scd-/- mutants could be rescued by ubiquitous transgenic overexpression of scd. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that scd is indispensable for maintaining lipid homeostasis and development of secondary sexual characteristics in zebrafish.
Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) is an economically important fish species in North America, Europe, and China. Various genetic improvement programs and domestication processes have modified its genome sequence through selective pressure, leaving nucleotide signals that can be detected at the genomic level. In this study, we sequenced 149 largemouth bass fish, including protospecies (imported from the US) and improved breeds (four domestic breeding populations from China). We detected genomic regions harboring certain genes associated with improved traits, which may be useful molecular markers for practical domestication, breeding, and selection. Subsequent analyses of genetic diversity and population structure revealed that the improved breeds have undergone more rigorous genetic changes. Through selective signal analysis, we identified hundreds of putative selective sweep regions in each largemouth bass line. Interestingly, we predicted 103 putative candidate genes potentially subjected to selection, including several associated with growth (psst1 and grb10), early development (klf9, sp4, and sp8), and immune traits (pkn2, sept2, bcl6, and ripk2). These candidate genes represent potential genomic landmarks that could be used to improve important traits of biological and commercial interest. In summary, this study provides a genome-wide map of genetic variations and selection footprints in largemouth bass, which may benefit genetic studies and accelerate genetic improvement of this economically important fish.
Endosymbiosis with Gammaproteobacteria is fundamental for the success of bathymodioline mussels in deep-sea chemosynthesis-based ecosystems. However, the recent discovery of Campylobacteria on the gill surfaces of these mussels suggests that these host-bacterial relationships may be more complex than previously thought. Using the cold-seep mussel (Gigantidas haimaensis) as a model, we explored this host-bacterial system by assembling the host transcriptome and genomes of its epibiotic Campylobacteria and endosymbiotic Gammaproteobacteria and quantifying their gene and protein expression levels. We found that the epibiont applies a sulfur oxidizing (SOX) multienzyme complex with the acquisition of soxB from Gammaproteobacteria for energy production and switched from a reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle to a Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle for carbon assimilation. The host provides metabolic intermediates, inorganic carbon, and thiosulfate to satisfy the materials and energy requirements of the epibiont, but whether the epibiont benefits the host is unclear. The endosymbiont adopts methane oxidation and the ribulose monophosphate pathway (RuMP) for energy production, providing the major source of energy for itself and the host. The host obtains most of its nutrients, such as lysine, glutamine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine, and folate, from the endosymbiont. In addition, host pattern recognition receptors, including toll-like receptors, peptidoglycan recognition proteins, and C-type lectins, may participate in bacterial infection, maintenance, and population regulation. Overall, this study provides insights into the complex host-bacterial relationships that have enabled mussels and bacteria to thrive in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems.
Temperature tolerance restricts the distribution of a species. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that set the thermal tolerance limits of an organism are poorly understood. Here, we report on the function of dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) in thermal tolerance regulation. Notably, we found that dusp1-/- zebrafish grew normally but survived within a narrowed temperature range. The higher susceptibility of these mutant fish to both cold and heat challenges was attributed to accelerated cell death caused by aggravated mitochondrial dysfunction and over-production of reactive oxygen species in the gills. The DUSP1-MAPK-DRP1 axis was identified as a key pathway regulating these processes in both fish and human cells. These observations suggest that DUSP1 may play a role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity and redox homeostasis. We therefore propose that maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis may be a key mechanism for coping with cellular thermal stress and that the interplay between signaling pathways regulating redox homeostasis in the most thermosensitive tissue (i.e., gills) may play an important role in setting the thermal tolerance limit of zebrafish.
The ability to navigate long distances is essential for many animals to locate shelter, food, and breeding grounds. Magnetic sense has evolved in various migratory and homing species to orient them based on the geomagnetic field. A highly conserved iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein IscA is proposed as an animal magnetoreceptor (MagR). Iron-sulfur cluster binding is also suggested to play an essential role in MagR magnetism and is thus critical in animal magnetoreception. In the current study, we provide evidence for distinct iron binding and iron-sulfur cluster binding in MagR in pigeons, an avian species that relies on the geomagnetic field for navigation and homing. Pigeon MagR showed significantly higher total iron content from both iron- and iron-sulfur binding. Y65 in pigeon MagR was shown to directly mediate mononuclear iron binding, and its mutation abolished iron-binding capacity of the protein. Surprisingly, both iron binding and iron-sulfur binding demonstrated synergistic effects, and thus appear to be integral and indispensable to pigeon MagR magnetism. These results not only extend our current understanding of the origin and complexity of MagR magnetism, but also imply a possible molecular explanation for the huge diversity in animal magnetoreception.
Strabismus and amblyopia are common ophthalmologic developmental diseases caused by abnormal visual experiences. However, the underlying pathogenesis and visual defects are still not fully understood. Most studies have used experimental interference to establish disease-associated animal models, while ignoring the natural pathophysiological mechanisms. This study was designed to investigate whether natural strabismus and amblyopia are associated with abnormal neurological defects. We screened one natural strabismic monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and one natural amblyopic monkey from hundreds of monkeys, and retrospectively analyzed one human strabismus case. Neuroimaging, behavioral, neurophysiological, neurostructural, and genovariation features were systematically evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), behavioral tasks, flash visual evoked potentials (FVEP), electroretinogram (ERG), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), respectively. Results showed that the strabismic patient and natural strabismic and amblyopic monkeys exhibited similar abnormal asymmetries in brain structure, i.e., ipsilateral impaired right hemisphere. Visual behavior, visual function, retinal structure, and fundus of the monkeys were impaired. Aberrant asymmetry in binocular visual function and structure between the strabismic and amblyopic monkeys was closely related, with greater impairment of the left visual pathway. Several similar known mutant genes for strabismus and amblyopia were also identified. In conclusion, natural strabismus and amblyopia are accompanied by abnormal asymmetries of the visual system, especially visual neurophysiological and neurostructural defects. Our results suggest that future therapeutic and mechanistic studies should consider defects and asymmetries throughout the entire visual system.
Unraveling the diversification mechanisms of organisms is a fundamental and important macroevolutionary question regarding the diversity, ecological niche, and morphological divergence of life. However, many studies have only explored diversification mechanisms via isolated factors. Here, based on comparative phylogenetic analysis, we performed a macroevolutionary examination of horseshoe bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae: Rhinolophus), to reveal the inter-relationships among diversification, intrinsic/extrinsic factors, and climatic ecological niche characteristics. Results showed a general slowing trajectory during diversification, with two dispersal events from Asia into Southeast Asia and Africa playing key roles in shaping regional heterogeneous diversity. Morphospace expansions of the investigated traits (e.g., body size, echolocation, and climate niche) revealed a decoupled pattern between diversification trajectory and trait divergence, suggesting that other factors (e.g., biotic interactions) potentially played a key role in recent diversification. Based on ancestral traits and pathway analyses, most Rhinolophus lineages belonging to the same region overlapped with each other geographically and were positively associated with the diversification rate, implying a competitive prelude to speciation. Overall, our study showed that multiple approaches need to be integrated to address diversification history. Rather than a single factor, the joint effects of multiple factors (biogeography, environmental drivers, and competition) are responsible for the current diversity patterns in horseshoe bats, and a corresponding multifaceted strategy is recommended to study these patterns in the future.
综述
The innate immune system protects the host from external pathogens and internal damage in various ways. The cGAS-STING signaling pathway, comprised of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), stimulator of interferon genes (STING), and downstream signaling adaptors, plays an essential role in protective immune defense against microbial DNA and internal damaged-associated DNA and is responsible for various immune-related diseases. After binding with DNA, cytosolic cGAS undergoes conformational change and DNA-linked liquid-liquid phase separation to produce 2'3'-cGAMP for the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized STING. However, further studies revealed that cGAS is predominantly expressed in the nucleus and strictly tethered to chromatin to prevent binding with nuclear DNA, and functions differently from cytosolic-localized cGAS. Detailed delineation of this pathway, including its structure, signaling, and regulatory mechanisms, is of great significance to fully understand the diversity of cGAS-STING activation and signaling and will be of benefit for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer. Here, we review recent progress on the above-mentioned perspectives of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway and discuss new avenues for further study.
Univocal identification of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is an essential prerequisite for studying their degeneration and neuroprotection. Before the advent of phenotypic markers, RGCs were normally identified using retrograde tracing of retinorecipient areas. This is an invasive technique, and its use is precluded in higher mammals such as monkeys. In the past decade, several RGC markers have been described. Here, we reviewed and analyzed the specificity of nine markers used to identify all or most RGCs, i.e., pan-RGC markers, in rats, mice, and macaques. The best markers in the three species in terms of specificity, proportion of RGCs labeled, and indicators of viability were BRN3A, expressed by vision-forming RGCs, and RBPMS, expressed by vision- and non-vision-forming RGCs. NEUN, often used to identify RGCs, was expressed by non-RGCs in the ganglion cell layer, and therefore was not RGC-specific. γ-SYN, TUJ1, and NF-L labeled the RGC axons, which impaired the detection of their somas in the central retina but would be good for studying RGC morphology. In rats, TUJ1 and NF-L were also expressed by non-RGCs. BM88, ERRβ, and PGP9.5 are rarely used as markers, but they identified most RGCs in the rats and macaques and ERRβ in mice. However, PGP9.5 was also expressed by non-RGCs in rats and macaques and BM88 and ERRβ were not suitable markers of viability.
Although 9.4 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been tested in healthy volunteers, its safety in diabetic patients is unclear. Furthermore, the effects of high static magnetic fields (SMFs), especially gradient vs. uniform fields, have not been investigated in diabetics. Here, we investigated the consequences of exposure to 1.0–9.4 T high SMFs of different gradients (>10 T/m vs. 0–10 T/m) on type 1 diabetic (T1D) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice. We found that 14 h of prolonged treatment of gradient (as high as 55.5 T/m) high SMFs (1.0–8.6 T) had negative effects on T1D and T2D mice, including spleen, hepatic, and renal tissue impairment and elevated glycosylated serum protein, blood glucose, inflammation, and anxiety, while 9.4 T quasi-uniform SMFs at 0–10 T/m did not induce the same effects. In regular T1D mice (blood glucose ≥16.7 mM), the >10 T/m gradient high SMFs increased malondialdehyde (P<0.01) and decreased superoxide dismutase (P<0.05). However, in the severe T1D mice (blood glucose ≥30.0 mM), the >10 T/m gradient high SMFs significantly increased tissue damage and reduced survival rate. In vitro cellular studies showed that gradient high SMFs increased cellular reactive oxygen species and apoptosis and reduced MS-1 cell number and proliferation. Therefore, this study showed that prolonged exposure to high-field (1.0–8.6 T) >10 T/m gradient SMFs (35–1 380 times higher than that of current clinical MRI) can have negative effects on diabetic mice, especially mice with severe T1D, whereas 9.4 T high SMFs at 0–10 T/m did not produce the same effects, providing important information for the future development and clinical application of SMFs, especially high-field MRI.
Reproductive strategies and spawning habits play key roles in the evolution of endemic East Asian cyprinids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of spawning habits are not well understood. We recently identified zona pellucida (Zp) as the top differentially expressed protein between East Asian cyprinids that produce adhesive and semi-buoyant eggs, suggesting that Zp protein may play important roles in the regulation of egg type. In this work, we generated transgenic zebrafish in which oocyte-specific expression of zp genes from rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus), an East Asian cyprinid laying adhesive eggs, was driven by a zebrafish zp3.2 gene promoter. We found that the transgenic eggs obtained partial adhesiveness and exhibited alteration in hydration and buoyancy. Abnormal metabolism of vitellogenin (VTG) may contribute to enhanced hydration and/or buoyancy. Our work shows that expression of the exogenous zp3a gene from an adhesive-egg producing fish is sufficient to induce changes in both egg adhesiveness and buoyancy in zebrafish, emphasizing the important role of zp genes in the regulation of spawning habits. Our results thus provide new insights into how endemic East Asian cyprinids may have adapted to the Yangtze river-lake system via changes in spawning habits.

Vol 44, No 1 (18 January 2023)

Indexed by SCI-E

2021 影响因子 6.975

2/176 Zoology (Q1)

2022 Journal Citation Reports®

中科院期刊分区动物学一区

双月刊, 始于 1980

主编: Yong-Gang Yao

ISSN 2095-8137

CN 53-1229/Q

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