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Although 9.4 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been tested in healthy volunteers, its safety in diabetic patients is unclear. Furthermore, the effects of high static magnetic fields (SMFs), especially gradient vs. uniform fields, have not been investigated in diabetics. Here, we investigated the consequences of exposure to 1.0–9.4 T high SMFs of different gradients (>10 T/m vs. 0–10 T/m) on type 1 diabetic (T1D) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice. We found that 14 h of prolonged treatment of gradient (as high as 55.5 T/m) high SMFs (1.0–8.6 T) had negative effects on T1D and T2D mice, including spleen, hepatic, and renal tissue impairment and elevated glycosylated serum protein, blood glucose, inflammation, and anxiety, while 9.4 T quasi-uniform SMFs at 0–10 T/m did not induce the same effects. In regular T1D mice (blood glucose ≥16.7 mM), the >10 T/m gradient high SMFs increased malondialdehyde (P<0.01) and decreased superoxide dismutase (P<0.05). However, in the severe T1D mice (blood glucose ≥30.0 mM), the >10 T/m gradient high SMFs significantly increased tissue damage and reduced survival rate. In vitro cellular studies showed that gradient high SMFs increased cellular reactive oxygen species and apoptosis and reduced MS-1 cell number and proliferation. Therefore, this study showed that prolonged exposure to high-field (1.0–8.6 T) >10 T/m gradient SMFs (35–1 380 times higher than that of current clinical MRI) can have negative effects on diabetic mice, especially mice with severe T1D, whereas 9.4 T high SMFs at 0–10 T/m did not produce the same effects, providing important information for the future development and clinical application of SMFs, especially high-field MRI.
Reproductive strategies and spawning habits play key roles in the evolution of endemic East Asian cyprinids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of spawning habits are not well understood. We recently identified zona pellucida (Zp) as the top differentially expressed protein between East Asian cyprinids that produce adhesive and semi-buoyant eggs, suggesting that Zp protein may play important roles in the regulation of egg type. In this work, we generated transgenic zebrafish in which oocyte-specific expression of zp genes from rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus), an East Asian cyprinid laying adhesive eggs, was driven by a zebrafish zp3.2 gene promoter. We found that the transgenic eggs obtained partial adhesiveness and exhibited alteration in hydration and buoyancy. Abnormal metabolism of vitellogenin (VTG) may contribute to enhanced hydration and/or buoyancy. Our work shows that expression of the exogenous zp3a gene from an adhesive-egg producing fish is sufficient to induce changes in both egg adhesiveness and buoyancy in zebrafish, emphasizing the important role of zp genes in the regulation of spawning habits. Our results thus provide new insights into how endemic East Asian cyprinids may have adapted to the Yangtze river-lake system via changes in spawning habits.