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Avian sibling cannibalism: Hoopoe mothers regularly use their last hatched nestlings to feed older siblings

Juan José Soler Manuel Martín-Vivaldi Soňa Nuhlíčková Cristina Ruiz-Castellano Mónica Mazorra-Alonso Ester Martínez-Renau Manfred Eckenfellner Ján Svetlík Herbert Hoi

Juan José Soler, Manuel Martín-Vivaldi, Soňa Nuhlíčková, Cristina Ruiz-Castellano, Mónica Mazorra-Alonso, Ester Martínez-Renau, Manfred Eckenfellner, Ján Svetlík, Herbert Hoi. Avian sibling cannibalism: Hoopoe mothers regularly use their last hatched nestlings to feed older siblings. Zoological Research, 2022, 43(2): 265-274. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2021.434
Citation: Juan José Soler, Manuel Martín-Vivaldi, Soňa Nuhlíčková, Cristina Ruiz-Castellano, Mónica Mazorra-Alonso, Ester Martínez-Renau, Manfred Eckenfellner, Ján Svetlík, Herbert Hoi. Avian sibling cannibalism: Hoopoe mothers regularly use their last hatched nestlings to feed older siblings. Zoological Research, 2022, 43(2): 265-274. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2021.434

鸟类同胞相食:戴胜母亲经常使用最后孵出的雏鸟喂养年长的雏鸟

doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2021.434

Avian sibling cannibalism: Hoopoe mothers regularly use their last hatched nestlings to feed older siblings

Funds: This study was supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and European (FEDER) Funds (CGL2017-83103-P)
More Information
  • 摘要: 同胞相食在自然界中相对常见,但同胞相食这一行为如何在鸟类及其他具有双亲照顾的脊椎动物中进化已少有提及。然而,该研究显示,在欧亚大陆的两个欧洲戴胜种群(Upupa epops)中,同胞相食是一种普遍发生的行为,这需要进一步探讨其可能的适应性或非适应性。我们的研究表明,西班牙种群(51.7%)的同胞相食现象比奥地利种群(5.9%)更频繁。在这两个种群中,戴胜的窝卵数大小和离巢雏鸟数量相似,但奥地利种群的孵化失败率更高。因此,西班牙种群中,会有更多的雏鸟死亡,这可能解释了同胞相食发生率较高的原因。根据这种解释,雏鸟先后孵出的时间间隔、孵化率,而不是繁殖日期,解释了西班牙戴胜种群同胞相食高的可能性,但是这三个变量都预测了离巢雏鸟数量减少的强度。此外,实验性增加食物供应降低了同胞相食的可能性,但并没有减少离巢雏鸟数量减少的强度。 最后,当面临饥饿时,雌鸟将更少的资源分配给最小的雏鸟,但最小的雏鸟是否被用作其他同胞的食物却不一定。这些结果表明,戴胜繁殖时会产下额外的卵,在减少孵化失败和食物短缺的情况下,将最小的雏鸟用于喂养年长的雏鸟。这些发现提供了鸟类同胞相食是一种普遍行为的第一个实验性证据,从而有助于我们深入理解动物界中窝卵数、异步孵化、亲子冲突、杀婴和同胞相食等是如何进化的。
    #Authors contributed equally to this work
  • Figure  1.  Sibling cannibalism and experimental food supply

    Probability of sibling cannibalism (±95% CI) and number of nestling deaths in first 10 days after hatching (brood reduction) (±95% CI) in hoopoe nests with experimental food supply (Exp.) or in control nests.

    Figure  2.  Cannibalism and life history traits

    Associations between intensity of cannibalism and brood reduction, clutch size, and hatching failure. Lines are regression lines and 95% CI, and point size is proportional to log-transformed number of nests with such values.

    Table  1.   Life history traits of Spanish and Austrian hoopoes in two different study years

    Between-year comparisonsComparisons
    Mean (CI 95%)Mean (CI 95%)Stat.dfP
    Spanish population2017 (N=61)2018 (N=44)
    Clutch size7.23 (6.93–7.53)7.57 (7.16–7.97)F=1.921,1030.169
    Hatching failures0.70 (0.45–0.96)1.14 (0.83–1.44)F=4.811,1030.031
    Hatching failure prevalence44.26%70.45%χ2=7.0910.008
    Brood size6.56 (6.27–6.84)6.43 (6.02–6.84)F=0.271,1030.602
    Fledgling production3.78 (3.39–4.17)4.45 (3.98–4.92)F=5.621,1030.020
    Brood reduction2.82 (2.37–3.26)1.98 (1.50–2.45)F=6.531,1030.012
    Brood reduction (Day 8)1.23 (0.89–1.57)1.61 (1.18–2.04)F=1.941,1040.166
    Brood reduction prevalence86.9%,75.0%χ2=2.4410.119
    Austrian population2009 (N=29)2010 (N=38)
    Clutch size7.59 (7.04–8.13)6.58 (6.08–7.08)F=7.621,650.007
    Hatching failures2.17 (1.51–2.83)1.32 (0.88–1.75)F=5.291,650.025
    Hatching failure prevalence82.76%68.42%χ2=1.7910.181
    Brood size5.41 (5.03–5.80)5.26 (4.84–5.69)F=0.271,650.606
    Fledgling production4.66 (4.09–5.22)3.68 (3.16–4.21)F=6.431,650.014
    Brood reduction0.76 (0.40–1.12)1.58 (1.22–1.93)F=10.51,650.002
    Brood reduction prevalence51.7%86.84%χ2=9.9810.002
    Between-population comparisons
    Spain (2017–18)
    (N=105)
    Austria (2009–10)
    (N=67)
    Mean (CI 95%)Mean (CI 95%)
    Clutch size7.37 (7.13–7.61)7.01 (6.64–7.39)F=2.771,1700.098
    Hatching failures0.89 (0.69–1.08)1.69 (1.31–2.07)F=16.71,170<0.001
    Hatching failure prevalence55.24%74.63%χ2=6.5810.010
    Brood size6.50 (6.27–6.74)5.33 (5.04–5.61)F=39.61,170<0.001
    Fledgling production4.04 (3.74–4.34)4.10 (3.71–4.50)F=0.071,1700.789
    Brood reduction2.47 (2.14–2.80)1.22 (0.96–1.49)F=28.01,170<0.001
    Brood reduction prevalence81.90%71.64%χ2=2.5010.114
    Averages, confidence intervals (CI 95%), and sample sizes of life history characteristics, including clutch size, hatching failure, brood size, fledgling production, and intensity and prevalence of brood reduction in breeding hoopoes of Spanish and Austrian populations. Sample sizes and results from between-year and between-population comparisons are also shown. Statistically significant (P<0.05) differences are shown in bold. Stat.: Statistics.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Factors affecting sibling cannibalism and brood reduction

    Sibling cannibalismBrood reduction
    PrevalenceIntensityPrevalenceIntensity
    Estimate (SE)χ21PBeta (SE)F1,44PEstimate (SE)χ21PBeta (SE)F1,44P
    Hatching date0.017 (0.014)1.460.2260.212 (0.133)2.530.119-0.009 (0.025)0.120.7260.386 (0.109)12.430.001
    Hatching span0.695 (0.299)7.030.0080.393 (0.134)8.540.0052.628 (0.820)37.51<0.0010.530 (0.111)22.98<0.001
    Exp. treatment0.889 (0.369)6.650.0100.220 (0.133)2.730.1050.683 (0.676)1.310.2870.132 (0.109)1.450.234
    Results from generalized linear model (binomial distribution and logic link function) and general lineal model exploring effects of experimental food supply, hatching date (1: 1 April), and hatching span (independent factors) on prevalence and intensity of sibling cannibalism and brood reduction, respectively. Statistically significant (P<0.05) differences are shown in bold.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-01-14
  • 录用日期:  2022-02-23
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-02-28
  • 刊出日期:  2022-03-18

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