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Phylogenetic and morphological significance of an overlooked flying squirrel (Pteromyini, Rodentia) from the eastern Himalayas with the description of a new genus

Quan Li Feng Cheng Stephen M. Jackson Kristofer M. Helgen Wen-Yu Song Shao-Ying Liu Daosavanh Sanamxay Song Li Fei Li Yun Xiong Jun Sun Hong-Jiao Wang Xue-Long Jiang

Quan Li, Feng Cheng, Stephen M. Jackson, Kristofer M. Helgen, Wen-Yu Song, Shao-Ying Liu, Daosavanh Sanamxay, Song Li, Fei Li, Yun Xiong, Jun Sun, Hong-Jiao Wang, Xue-Long Jiang. Phylogenetic and morphological significance of an overlooked flying squirrel (Pteromyini, Rodentia) from the eastern Himalayas with the description of a new genus. Zoological Research, 2021, 42(4): 389-400. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2021.039
Citation: Quan Li, Feng Cheng, Stephen M. Jackson, Kristofer M. Helgen, Wen-Yu Song, Shao-Ying Liu, Daosavanh Sanamxay, Song Li, Fei Li, Yun Xiong, Jun Sun, Hong-Jiao Wang, Xue-Long Jiang. Phylogenetic and morphological significance of an overlooked flying squirrel (Pteromyini, Rodentia) from the eastern Himalayas with the description of a new genus. Zoological Research, 2021, 42(4): 389-400. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2021.039

东喜马拉雅一种被忽视鼯鼠的系统发育和形态学显著性暨一新属描记

doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2021.039

Phylogenetic and morphological significance of an overlooked flying squirrel (Pteromyini, Rodentia) from the eastern Himalayas with the description of a new genus

Funds: This study was supported by the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program (STEP, 2019QZKK0501), National Natural Science Foundation of China (32000304), Yunnan Fundamental Research Projects (202101AT070294), National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFC0505200), Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA20050202), Biodiversity Survey, Monitoring and Assessment (2019HB2096001006), and Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden
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  • 摘要: 鼯鼠(啮齿目松鼠科鼯鼠族)是分化最高、分布最广的滑翔性哺乳动物,其物种间界限区分及其相互关系一直是兽类学研究的活跃方向。李氏小飞鼠Pteromys (Hylopetes) leonardi Thomas, 1921一度被大多数学者认为是黑白飞鼠Hylopetes alboniger的亚种或同物异名。该研究基于在云南省西北部新采集到的李氏小飞鼠标本对该分类单元进行了形态学和遗传学的分析。系统发育重建使用了两个线粒体(12S rDNA和16S rDNA)和一个核(interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein)基因片段。形态学分析包括检视、比较博物馆标本皮张、头骨和阴茎特征,并对颅骨的测量数据进行主成分分析(PCA)。综合形态学和遗传学的证据,该研究认为李氏小飞鼠不仅是一个独立的物种,还应该作为一个新属,该文描记为喜山大耳飞鼠属(Priapomys)。
    #Authors contributed equally to this work
  • Figure  1.  Terminology of four typical kinds of upper cheekteeth (above) and lower cheekteeth (bottom) of living flying squirrels

    Eupetaurus form” (Eupetaurus only), “Petaurista form” (Petaurista and Aeretes), “Trogopterus form” (Trogopterus, Belomys, and Pteromyscus), and “Hylopetes form” (Eoglaucomys, Glaucomys, Hylopetes, Petaurillus, Petinomys, and Pteromys (Hylopetes) leonardi (=Priapomys gen. nov.)); the cheekteeth of Pteromys are closest to the Petaurista form but simplified; the cheekteeth of Biswamoyopterus, Aeromys, and Iomys are closest to the Hylopetes form but with some modification. Abbreviations for upper molars: Paracone (pa), metacone (me), protocone (pr), hypocone (hy), parastyle (past), mesostyle (msst), paraconule (pacu), metaconule (mecu), anteroloph (anl), paraloph (pal), metaloph (mel), posteroloph (pol), endoloph (enl), mesolophule (mslu), anterolophule (anlu), preparaconule crista (prepalc), postmetaconule crista (pomelc), anterior valley (av), central valley (cv), posterior valley (pv), anterior flexus (af), central flexus (cf), posterior flexus (pf). Abbreviations for lower molars: protoconid (prd), hypoconid (hyd), metaconid (med), entoconid (end), mesoconid (msd), paraconid (pad), ectostylid (ecstd), metastylid (mestd), hypoconulid (hycud), anterolophid (anld), protolophid (prld), entolophid (enld), posterolophid (pold), ectolophid (ecld), anterobuccal sinusid (asd), hypoflexid (hyfd), anterior fossettid (afd), central flexid (cfd), posterior fossettid (pfd).

    Figure  2.  Craniodental measurements taken for this study

    Greatest length of skull (GLS), length of nasals (LN), zygomatic breadth (ZB), anterior breadth of nasals (ABN), posterior breadth of nasals (PBN), interorbital breadth (IOB), condylobasal length (CBL), palate length (PL), post palatal length (PPL), length of incisive foramina (LIF), length of auditory bulla (LAB), length from P3 to M3 (LP3 M3), length from P4 to M3 (LP4 M3), breadth of P4 (BP4), breadth of M1 (BM1), breadth of M3 (BM3), inside breadth of bony palate at P4 (IBPP4), inside breadth of bony palate at M3 (IBPM3), breadth across infraorbital foramina (BIF), breadth of occipital condyle (BOC), mastoid breadth (MB), breadth across paroccipital process (BPP), length from P4 to M3 (LP4M3), and height of mandible (HM).

    Figure  3.  Principal component analysis scatter-plot of the skulls of Pteromys (Hylopetes) leonardi (=Priapomys leonardi) and related species (“similar sized+sympatric/parapatric” or “genetic similarity”)

    Red dots: Yunnan population of Pteromys (Hylopetes) leonardi; Red star: Holotype of Pteromys (Hylopetes) leonardi; Blue filled squares: Iomys horsfieldii; Blue open squares: Iomys sipora; Green open triangle: Hylopetes phayrei; Green filled triangle: Hylopetes alboniger; and Purple X: Belomys pearsonii.

    Figure  4.  Skin comparison of Pteromys (Hylopetes) leonardi (=Priapomys leonardi) and related species (“similar sized+sympatric” or “genetic similarity”)

    From top to bottom: Pteromys (Hylopetes) leonardi (holotype, BMNH20.8.8.2), Pteromys (Hylopetes) leonardi (Yunnan population, KIZ034951), Iomys horsfieldii (USNM153684), Hylopetes alboniger (KIZ034942), and Belomys pearsonii (KIZ034940).

    Figure  5.  Skull and dentition comparison of Pteromys (Hylopetes) leonardi (=Priapomys leonardi) and related species (“similar sized+sympatric” or “genetic similarity”)

    From left to right: Pteromys (Hylopetes) leonardi (holotype, BMNH20.8.8.2), Pteromys (Hylopetes) leonardi (Yunnan population, KIZ034951), Iomys horsfieldii (AMNH185169), and Hylopetes alboniger (KIZ034942).

    Figure  6.  Flying squirrel phylogeny (includes all genera except Aeretes) and node dating estimates based on Bayesian and Maximum likelihood approaches utilizing the mtDNA+nuDNA concatenated dataset

    Numbers of the branches are Bayesian posterior probabities (top left), likelihood bootstrap values (top right), and node dating estimate values (bottom). Dot is the fossil occurrence of Douglassciurus jeffersoni and star is the fossil occurrence of Miopetaurista neogrivensis.

    Figure  7.  Currently hypothesized distribution of Pteromys (Hylopetes) leonardi (=Priapomys leonardi) and two other flying squirrel genera

    Iomys spp.” include all species of Iomys, which is the sister lineage of Pteromys (Hylopetes) leonardi; and “Hylopetes spp.” include all species of Hyloptes, with which Pteromys (Hylopetes) leonardi has previously been confused taxonomically. Data from IUCN.

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  • 收稿日期:  2021-02-04
  • 录用日期:  2021-05-13
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-05-26
  • 刊出日期:  2021-07-18

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