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Food habits and hunting patterns of Tibetan brown bear during warm seasons in Kekexili region on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

XU Ai-Chun JIANG Zhi-Gang LI Chun-Wang CAI Ping

XU Ai-Chun, JIANG Zhi-Gang, LI Chun-Wang, CAI Ping. Food habits and hunting patterns of Tibetan brown bear during warm seasons in Kekexili region on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Zoological Research, 2010, 31(6): 670-674. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.06670
Citation: XU Ai-Chun, JIANG Zhi-Gang, LI Chun-Wang, CAI Ping. Food habits and hunting patterns of Tibetan brown bear during warm seasons in Kekexili region on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Zoological Research, 2010, 31(6): 670-674. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.06670

青藏高原可可西里地区藏棕熊暖季食性及采食行为模式

doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.06670
基金项目: 浙江省自然基金(Y5090080), 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KSCX2-EW-Z-4), 国家科技支撑项目(2007BAC03A08-4)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    徐爱春,男,博士,动物生态学和保护生物学方向,springlover@cjlu.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    蒋志刚

  • 中图分类号: Q959.838; Q959.838.08

Food habits and hunting patterns of Tibetan brown bear during warm seasons in Kekexili region on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

More Information
    Author Bio:

    XU Ai-Chun,email:springlover@cjlu.edu.cn

    Corresponding author: JIANG Zhi-Gang
  • 摘要: 藏棕熊 (Ursus arctos pruinosus)是青藏高原特有的棕熊亚种, 作者曾对该地区藏棕熊夏季食性进行了初步报道(Xu et al, 2006), 然而, 藏棕熊的采食行为模式一直未见报道。2009年7—8月, 作者又对可可西里地区藏棕熊食性及采食行为模式做了补充调查研究, 对两次考察所获得的数据进行了整合分析, 研究结果表明, 该地区藏棕熊主要以动物性食物为主, 其中, 高原鼠兔(Ochotona curzoniae)的相对频次为37.3%和干物质量为44.7%, 下同); 野牦牛(Bos grunniens)分别为18.7%和30.2%; 藏羚(Pantholops hodgsoni)分别为15.0%和16.2%。藏棕熊在可可西里地区有两种采食行为模式:主动捕食高原鼠兔和采食藏羚、藏原羚和野牦牛尸体。观察期间藏棕熊约用10%的时间挖掘高原鼠兔的洞穴捕捉高原鼠兔, 但未见藏棕熊主动捕食大型哺乳动物。粪样分析结果发现, 藏棕熊主动捕食的高原鼠兔和喜马拉雅旱獭(Marmota himalayana)和通过食腐方式获得的藏羚、藏原羚和野牦牛的生物量基本相等。
  • [1] Bargali HS, Akhtar N, Chauhan NPS. 2004. Feeding ecology of sloth bears in a disturbed area in central India [J]. Ursus, 15, 212-217.Gao XY. 1992. Brown Bear in Xinjiang [C]// Ma Z ed. Proceeding of the 2nd East Asian Bear Conference. Harbin: Northeast Forest     University Press. [高行宜. 1992. 新疆的棕熊[C]// 第二届东亚熊类会议论文集. 哈尔滨:东北林业大学出版社.]Guo K. 1993. Vegetation of Qinghai Hoh Xil region [J]. Acta Phytoecol Geobot Sin, 17(2), 120-132. [郭柯. 1993. 青海可可西里地区的植 被. 植物生态学与地植物学学报. 17(2): 120-132.]Hamer D, Herrero S. 1987. Grizzly Bear Food and Habitat Use in the Front Ranges of Banff National Park, Alberta [C]// International Conference on Bear Research and Management. 7,199 -213.Harris RB, Loggers CO. 2004. Status of Tibetan plateau mammals in Yeniugou, China[J]. Wildlife Biol, 10: 121-129.Hwang MH, Garshelis DL, Wang Y. 2002. Diets of Asiatic black bears in Taiwan, with methodological and geographic comparisons
    [J]. Ursus, 13: 111-125.Jiang ZG. 2002. Field Methods for Nature Conservation [M]. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House. [蒋志刚. 2002. 自然保护野外研究技术. 北京: 中国林业出版社.]Li BY. 1996. Physical Environment of Hoh Xil Region, Qinghai. [M]. Beijing: Science Press. [李炳元. 1996. 青海可可西里地区自然环境.  北京:科学出版社.] Liu BW, Jiang ZG. 2002. Feces analysis and its role in wildlife research [J]. Zool Res, 23(1), 71-76. [刘丙万, 蒋志刚. 2002. 粪样在野生动物研究中的作用动物学研究. 动物学研究, 23(1) 71-76.]Liu WL. 2004. The ecology and resource of brown bears in Tibet [J]. Tibet's Sci Technol, 134 (6): 11-16. [刘务林. 2004. 西藏棕熊生态学和资源状况研究. 西藏科技, 134(6): 11-16.]Ma YQ, Hu JC, Zhai QL. 1994. Bears of the China [M]. Chengdu: Sichuan Sci Technol Press. 马逸清, 胡锦矗, 翟庆龙. 1994. 中国的熊类. 成都:四川科学技术出版社.]Mano T. 2006. General Biology of Species in This Report [C]// Understanding Asian Bears to secure their future. Nagano, Japan: Karuizawa Town.Mattson DJ, Blanchard BM, Knight RR. 1991. Food habits of Yellowstone grizzly bears, 1977 - 1987 [J]. Can J Zool, 69, 1619-1629.McLellan BN, Hovey FW. 1995. The diet of grizzly bears in the Flathead River drainage of southeastern British Columbia [J]. Can J Zool,  73, 704-712.Piao YZ. 1992. Distribution and Population of Tibetan Brown Bear in Xinjiang [C]// Ma Z ed. Proceeding of the 2nd East Asian Bear Conference. Harbin: Northeast Forest University Press. [朴仁珠, 1992. 棕熊在西藏的分布与数量. 第二届东亚熊类会议论文集. 哈尔滨:东北林业大学出版社.]Sathyakumar S. 2001. Status and management of Asiatic black bear and Himalayan brown bear in India [J]. Ursus, 12, 21-30.Schaller G.B. 1998. Wildlife of the Tibetan Steppe[M]. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press.Xu AC, Jiang ZG, Li CW, Guo JX, Wu GS, Cai P. 2006. Summer food habits of brown bears in Kekexili Nature Reserve, Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China. Ursus 17(2): 132-137.Wang S. 1998. China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals: Mammalia [M]. Beijing: Science Press. [汪松, 1998. 中国濒危动物红皮书: 兽类[M]. 北京:科学出版社.]Wu GS. 2009. Brown bear and its potential threat in Kekexili region of Tibet. Acta Ecol Anim Domast, 30(6): 117-119. [吴国生. 2009. 可可西里地区的藏棕熊与其面临的潜在威胁. 家畜生态学报, 30(6): 117-119.]Wu SG, Feng ZJ. 1996. Biology and Human Physiology in the Hoh Xil Region [M]. Beijing: Science Press. [武素功, 冯祚建. 1996. 青海可可西里地区生物与人体高山生理. 北京:科学出版社.]Zheng J. 2003. Wildlife of Qinghai Resource and Management [M]. Xining: Qinghai People’s Press. [郑洁. 2004. 青海野生动物资源与管理. 西宁:青海人民出版社.]
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2010-09-04
  • 修回日期:  2010-10-27
  • 刊出日期:  2010-12-22

Food habits and hunting patterns of Tibetan brown bear during warm seasons in Kekexili region on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.06670
    基金项目:  浙江省自然基金(Y5090080), 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KSCX2-EW-Z-4), 国家科技支撑项目(2007BAC03A08-4)
    作者简介:

    XU Ai-Chun,email:springlover@cjlu.edu.cn

    通讯作者: JIANG Zhi-Gang
  • 中图分类号: Q959.838; Q959.838.08

摘要: 藏棕熊 (Ursus arctos pruinosus)是青藏高原特有的棕熊亚种, 作者曾对该地区藏棕熊夏季食性进行了初步报道(Xu et al, 2006), 然而, 藏棕熊的采食行为模式一直未见报道。2009年7—8月, 作者又对可可西里地区藏棕熊食性及采食行为模式做了补充调查研究, 对两次考察所获得的数据进行了整合分析, 研究结果表明, 该地区藏棕熊主要以动物性食物为主, 其中, 高原鼠兔(Ochotona curzoniae)的相对频次为37.3%和干物质量为44.7%, 下同); 野牦牛(Bos grunniens)分别为18.7%和30.2%; 藏羚(Pantholops hodgsoni)分别为15.0%和16.2%。藏棕熊在可可西里地区有两种采食行为模式:主动捕食高原鼠兔和采食藏羚、藏原羚和野牦牛尸体。观察期间藏棕熊约用10%的时间挖掘高原鼠兔的洞穴捕捉高原鼠兔, 但未见藏棕熊主动捕食大型哺乳动物。粪样分析结果发现, 藏棕熊主动捕食的高原鼠兔和喜马拉雅旱獭(Marmota himalayana)和通过食腐方式获得的藏羚、藏原羚和野牦牛的生物量基本相等。

English Abstract

徐爱春, 蒋志刚, 李春旺, 蔡 平. 青藏高原可可西里地区藏棕熊暖季食性及采食行为模式[J]. 动物学研究, 2010, 31(6): 670-674. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.06670
引用本文: 徐爱春, 蒋志刚, 李春旺, 蔡 平. 青藏高原可可西里地区藏棕熊暖季食性及采食行为模式[J]. 动物学研究, 2010, 31(6): 670-674. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.06670
XU Ai-Chun, JIANG Zhi-Gang, LI Chun-Wang, CAI Ping. Food habits and hunting patterns of Tibetan brown bear during warm seasons in Kekexili region on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Zoological Research, 2010, 31(6): 670-674. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.06670
Citation: XU Ai-Chun, JIANG Zhi-Gang, LI Chun-Wang, CAI Ping. Food habits and hunting patterns of Tibetan brown bear during warm seasons in Kekexili region on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Zoological Research, 2010, 31(6): 670-674. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.06670
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