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Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2) is a cationic peptide that plays an important role in a host’s innate immune system. We previously demonstrated that mudskipper (Boleophthalmus pectinirostris) LEAP-2 (BpLEAP-2) induces chemotaxis and activation of monocytes/ macrophages (MO/MФ). However, the molecular mechanism by which BpLEAP-2 regulates MO/MΦ remains unclear. In this study, we used yeast two-hybrid cDNA library screening to identify mudskipper protein(s) that interacted with BpLEAP-2, and characterized a sequence encoding motile sperm domain-containing protein 2 (BpMOSPD2). The interaction between BpLEAP-2 and BpMOSPD2 was subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP). Sequence analyses revealed that the predicted BpMOSPD2 contained an N-terminal extracellular portion composed of a CRAL-TRIO domain and a motile sperm domain, a C-terminal transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that BpMOSPD2 grouped tightly with fish MOSPD2 homologs and was most closely related to that of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The recombinant BpMOSPD2 was produced by prokaryotic expression and the corresponding antibody was prepared for protein concentration determination. RNA interference was used to knockdown BpMOSPD2 expression in the mudskipper MO/MФ, and the knockdown efficiency was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. Knockdown of BpMOSPD2 significantly inhibited BpLEAP-2-induced chemotaxis of mudskipper MO/MФ and BpLEAP-2-induced bacterial killing activity. Furthermore, knockdown of BpMOSPD2 inhibited the effect of BpLEAP-2 on mRNA expression levels of BpIL-10, BpTNFα, BpIL-1β, and BpTGFβ in MO/MФ. In general, BpMOSPD2 directly interacted with BpLEAP-2, and mediated the effects of BpLEAP-2 on chemotaxis and activation of mudskipper MO/MФ. This is the first identification of MOSPD2 as a receptor for LEAP-2.
Palaeognathae includes ratites and tinamous that are important for understanding the early avian evolution. Here we analyzed the whole-genome sequences of 15 paleognathous species to infer their demographic history which remains unknown. We found that the majority of species shows reduction of population size since the beginning of the last glacial period, except for those distributed in Australasia or further south of the South America. Different extents of contraction and expansion of transposable elements (TE) have shaped the paleognathous genome architecture, with a higher transposon removal rate in tinamous than in ratites. One repeat family AviRTE, probably had undergone horizontal transfer from the tropical parasites to the ancestor of little tinamou and undulated tinamou about 30 million years ago. Our analysis on the gene families identified rapid turnovers of immune and reproduction related genes, but found no evidence for gene family changes underlying the convergent evolution of flightlessness among ratites. We also found that mitochondrial genes show a faster evolutionary rate in tinamous compared to ratites, the former of which also have more degenerated W chromosomes. This result can be explained by the Hill-Robertson inference affecting the genetically linked W chromosomes and mitochondria. Overall, we reconstructed the evolution history of Palaeognathae population, genes and TEs. Our findings of co-evolution between the mitochondria and the W chromosomes highlight the key difference of genome evolution between the species with ZW sex chromosomes vs. those with XY sex chromosomes.
Individuals can differ in how their behavioral and physiological systems are organized. The fact that these individual differences persist across life suggests they are supported by physical structures that may co-vary. Here, we explore three sets of data, obtained from infant rhesus monkeys during a standardized assessment of biobehavioral organization, which are associated with health and behavioral outcomes. Variation in biobehavioral measures was related to variation in molecular pathways assessed via metabolomics. Plasma from n=52 infant male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were subjected to metabolite profiling, and principal components analyses found multiple factors that explained 60-80% of the variance in the metabolite measures. Correlational and regression analyses on corticosteroid, hematological, and temperament measures revealed significant relationships with indicators of lipid metabolism. Significant relationships were found for cortisol responses to stress and ACTH stimulation, indicators of innate immunity (monocytes and NK cells), hemoglobin/hematocrit, and three measures of temperament. It will be important to replicate this first-of-a-kind study to determine whether the relationship between measures of biobehavioral organization and lipid metabolism may be a general result, or one that is specific to early development.
Gene regulatory network plays a pivotal role for our understanding of biological processes/ mechanisms at a molecular level. Many studies have focused on inferring sample-specific or cell-type-specific gene regulatory networks from single-cell transcriptomic data based on its large amount of cell samples. This paper gives a review of state-of-the-art computational algorithms, and also describes various applications of gene regulatory networks to biological studies.
Species of the spider family Leptonetidae Simon, 1890 from China are revised based on molecular and morphological data analyses. A new genus, Jingneta Wang & Li gen. nov ., is erected, with Leptoneta cornea Tong & Li, 2008 as the type species. Twenty-two Chinese species previously assigned to the genus Leptoneta Simon, 1872 are revised, with eight transferred to Falcileptoneta Komatsu, 1970, seven transferred to Jingneta gen. nov ., five transferred to Leptonetela Kratochvíl, 1978, and one species each transferred to Longileptoneta Seo, 2015 and Masirana Kishida, 1942. Eight new species are described: i.e., Falcileptoneta shuanglong Wang & Li sp. nov . (♂), Jingneta caoxian Wang & Li sp. nov . (♂♀), J. jingdong Wang & Li sp. nov . (♂♀), Longileptoneta gutan Wang & Li sp. nov . (♂♀), L. huangshan Wang & Li sp. nov . (♂♀), L. shenxian Wang & Li sp. nov . (♂♀), L. yeren Wang & Li sp. nov . (♂), and L. zhuxian Wang & Li sp. nov . (♂♀). In total, 127 leptonetid species from six genera are documented from China: nine species of Falcileptoneta, nine species of Jingneta gen. nov ., 101 species of Leptonetela, six species of Longileptoneta, one species of Masirana, and one species of Rhyssoleptoneta Tong & Li, 2007.

Understanding the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and clarifying antiviral immunity in hosts are critical aspects for the development of vaccines and antivirals. Mice are frequently used to generate animal models of infectious diseases due to their convenience and ability to undergo genetic manipulation. However, normal adult mice are not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we developed a viral receptor (human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, hACE2) pulmonary transfection mouse model to establish SARS-CoV-2 infection rapidly in the mouse lung. Based on the model, the virus successfully infected the mouse lung 2 days after transfection. Viral RNA/protein, innate immune cell infiltration, inflammatory cytokine expression, and pathological changes in the infected lungs were observed after infection. Further studies indicated that neutrophils were the first and most abundant leukocytes to infiltrate the infected lungs after viral infection. In addition, using infected CXCL5-knockout mice, chemokine CXCL5 was responsible for neutrophil recruitment. CXCL5 knockout decreased lung inflammation without diminishing viral clearance, suggesting a potential target for controlling pneumonia.

Accumulating studies have been conducted to identify risk genes and relevant biological mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder (MDD). In particular, transcriptomic analyses in brain regions engaged in cognitive and emotional processes, e.g., the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), have provided essential insights. Based on three independent DLPFC RNA-seq datasets of 79 MDD patients and 75 healthy controls, we performed differential expression analyses using two alternative approaches for cross-validation. We also conducted transcriptomic analyses in mice undergoing chronic variable stress (CVS) and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). We identified 12 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) through both analytical methods in MDD patients, the majority of which were also dysregulated in stressed mice. Notably, the mRNA level of the immediate early gene FOS (Fos proto-oncogene) was significantly decreased in both MDD patients and CVS-exposed mice, and CSDS-susceptible mice exhibited a greater reduction in Fos expression compared to resilient mice. These findings suggest the potential key roles of this gene in the pathogenesis of MDD related to stress exposure. Altered transcriptomes in the DLPFC of MDD patients might be, at least partially, the result of stress exposure, supporting that stress is a primary risk factor for MDD.
Spain has been one of the main global pandemic epicenters for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we analyzed >41 000 genomes (including >26 000 high-quality (HQ) genomes) downloaded from the GISAID repository, including 1 245 (922 HQ) sampled in Spain. The aim of this study was to investigate genome variation of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and reconstruct phylogeographic and transmission patterns in Spain. Phylogeographic analysis suggested at least 34 independent introductions of SARS-CoV-2 to Spain at the beginning of the outbreak. Six lineages spread very successfully in the country, probably favored by super-spreaders, namely, A2a4 (7.8%), A2a5 (38.4%), A2a10 (2.8%), B3a (30.1%), and B9 (8.7%), which accounted for 87.9% of all genomes in the Spanish database. One distinct feature of the Spanish SARS-CoV-2 genomes was the higher frequency of B lineages (39.3%, mainly B3a+B9) than found in any other European country. While B3a, B9, (and an important sub-lineage of A2a5, namely, A2a5c) most likely originated in Spain, the other three haplogroups were imported from other European locations. The B3a strain may have originated in the Basque Country from a B3 ancestor of uncertain geographic origin, whereas B9 likely emerged in Madrid. The time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of SARS-CoV-2 suggested that the first coronavirus entered the country around 11 February 2020, as estimated from the TMRCA of B3a, the first lineage detected in the country. Moreover, earlier claims that the D614G mutation is associated to higher transmissibility is not consistent with the very high prevalence of COVID-19 in Spain when compared to other countries with lower disease incidence but much higher frequency of this mutation (56.4% in Spain vs. 82.4% in rest of Europe). Instead, the data support a major role of genetic drift in modeling the micro-geographic stratification of virus strains across the country as well as the role of SARS-CoV-2 super-spreaders.
The interpretation of patterns of biodiversity requires the disentanglement of geographical and environmental variables. Disjunct alpine communities are geographically isolated from one another but experience similar environmental impacts. Isolated homogenous habitats may promote speciation but constrain functional trait variation. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that dispersal limitation promotes taxonomic divergence, whereas habitat similarity in alpine mountains leads to functional convergence. We performed standardized field investigation to sample non-volant small mammals from 18 prominent alpine sites in the Three Parallel Rivers area. We estimated indices quantifying taxonomic and functional alpha- and beta-diversity, as well as beta-diversity components. We then assessed the respective importance of geographical and environmental predictors in explaining taxonomic and functional compositions. No evidence was found to show that species were more functionally similar than expected in local assemblages. However, the taxonomic turnover components were higher than functional ones (0.471±0.230 vs. 0.243±0.215), with nestedness components showing the opposite pattern (0.063±0.054 vs. 0.269±0.225). This indicated that differences in taxonomic compositions between sites occurred from replacement of functionally similar species. Geographical barriers were the key factor influencing both taxonomic total dissimilarity and turnover components, whereas functional beta-diversity was primarily explained by climatic factors such as minimum temperature of the coldest month. Our findings provide empirical evidence that taxonomic and functional diversity patterns can be independently driven by different ecological processes. Our results point to the importance of clarifying different components of beta-diversity to understand the underlying mechanisms of community assembly. These results also shed light on the assembly rules and ecological processes of terrestrial mammal communities in extreme environments.
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2020, 41(5): 1-1.  
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Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Basic and translational breast cancer research relies heavily on experimental animal models. Ideally, such models for breast cancer should have commonality with human breast cancer in terms of tumor etiology, biological behavior, pathology, and response to therapeutics. This review introduces current progress in different breast cancer experimental animal models and analyzes their characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and potential applications. Finally, we propose future research directions for breast cancer animal models.
As a transparent avascular tissue located at the front of the eyeball, the cornea is an important barrier to external damage. Both epithelial and endothelial cells of the cornea harbor primary cilia, which sense changes in the external environment and regulate intracellular signaling pathways. Accumulating evidence suggests that the primary cilium regulates corneal development in several ways, including participation in corneal epithelial stratification and maintenance of corneal endothelial cell morphology. In addition, the primary cilium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several corneal diseases. In this review, we discuss recent findings that demonstrate the critical role of the primary cilium in corneal development. We also discuss the link between ciliary dysfunction and corneal diseases, which suggests that the primary cilium could be targeted to treat these diseases.
As of June 2020, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has killed an estimated 440 000 people worldwide, 74% of whom were aged ≥65 years, making age the most significant risk factor for death caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To examine the effect of age on death, we established a SARS-CoV-2 infection model in Chinese rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) of varied ages. Results indicated that infected young macaques manifested impaired respiratory function, active viral replication, severe lung damage, and infiltration of CD11b+ and CD8+ cells in lungs at one-week post infection (wpi), but also recovered rapidly at 2 wpi. In contrast, aged macaques demonstrated delayed immune responses with a more severe cytokine storm, increased infiltration of CD11b+ cells, and persistent infiltration of CD8+ cells in the lungs at 2 wpi. In addition, peripheral blood T cells from aged macaques showed greater inflammation and chemotaxis, but weaker antiviral functions than that in cells from young macaques. Thus, the delayed but more severe cytokine storm and higher immune cell infiltration may explain the poorer prognosis of older aged patients suffering SARS-CoV-2 infection.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to pose a global threat to the human population. Identifying animal species susceptible to infection with the SARS-CoV-2/ HCoV-19 pathogen is essential for controlling the outbreak and for testing valid prophylactics or therapeutics based on animal model studies. Here, different aged Chinese tree shrews (adult group, 1 year old; old group, 5–6 years old), which are close relatives to primates, were infected with SARS-CoV-2. X-ray, viral shedding, laboratory, and histological analyses were performed on different days post-inoculation (dpi). Results showed that Chinese tree shrews could be infected by SARS-CoV-2. Lung infiltrates were visible in X-ray radiographs in most infected animals. Viral RNA was consistently detected in lung tissues from infected animals at 3, 5, and 7 dpi, along with alterations in related parameters from routine blood tests and serum biochemistry, including increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Histological analysis of lung tissues from animals at 3 dpi (adult group) and 7 dpi (old group) showed thickened alveolar septa and interstitial hemorrhage. Several differences were found between the two different aged groups in regard to viral shedding peak. Our results indicate that Chinese tree shrews have the potential to be used as animal models for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Sperm are specialized cells that require adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to support their function. Maintaining sperm energy homeostasis in vitro is vitally important to improve the efficacy of boar sperm preservation. Metformin can activate 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to improve metabolic flexibility and maintain energy homeostasis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether metformin can improve boar sperm quality through AMPK mediation of energy metabolism. Sperm motility parameters, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), ATP content, glucose uptake, and lactate efflux were analyzed. Localization and expression levels of AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK (p-AMPK) were also detected by immunofluorescence and western blotting. We found that metformin treatment significantly increased sperm motility parameters, ΔΨm, and ATP content during storage at 17 °C. Moreover, results showed that AMPK was localized at the acrosomal region, connecting piece, and midpiece of sperm and p-AMPK was distributed at the post-acrosomal region, connecting piece, and midpiece. When sperm were incubated with metformin for 4 h at 37 °C, sperm motility parameters, ΔΨm, ATP content, p-AMPK, glucose uptake, and lactate efflux all significantly increased, whereas the addition of Compound C treatment, an inhibitor of AMPK, counteracted these positive effects. Together, our results suggest that metformin promotes AMPK activation, which contributes to the maintenance of energy hemostasis and mitochondrial activity, thereby maintaining boar sperm functionality and improving the efficacy of semen preservation.
Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is characterized by deregulated hepatic lipid metabolism; however, the association between MAFLD development and mitochondrial dysfunction has yet to be confirmed. Herein, we employed high-resolution respirometry, blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-based in-gel activity measurement and immunoblot analysis to assess mitochondrial function in obesity-induced mouse models with varying degrees of MAFLD. Results showed a slight but significant decrease in hepatic mitochondrial respiration in some MAFLD mice compared to mice fed a standard diet. However, the activities and levels of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes remained unchanged during obesity-induced MAFLD progression. These results suggest that mitochondrial function, particularly oxidative phosphorylation, was mildly affected during obesity-induced MAFLD development. Moreover, transcriptome profiling of mouse and human liver tissues with varying degrees of MAFLD revealed that the decreased activation of mitochondria-related pathways was only associated with MAFLD of a high histological grade, whereas the major regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis were not altered in mice or humans during MAFLD development. Collectively, our results suggest that impaired hepatic mitochondrial function is not closely associated with obesity-induced MAFLD. Therefore, therapeutic strategies targeting mitochondria for the treatment of MAFLD should be reconsidered.
Letters to the editor
With a population of around 4 000 individuals, the Kalash people have been living in the Hindu-Kush mountain valleys of present-day northern Pakistan for centuries. Due to their mysterious origin and fairer European complexion, the genetic history of this ethnic group has been investigated previously using different markers. To date, however, the maternal genetic architecture has not been systematically dissected based on high-resolution complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes), making their maternal genetic history, especially their genetic connection with Europeans from a matrilineal perspective, unclear. To unravel this issue, we analyzed mitogenome data of 34 Kalash samples together with 6 075 individuals from across Eurasia. Our results indicated exclusive western Eurasian origin of the Kalash people, represented by eight haplogroups. Among these haplogroups, J2b1a7a and R0a5a (accounting for ~50% of the Kalash gene pool) displayed in situ differentiations in the Kalash and could be traced to the Mediterranean region. Age estimations suggested these haplogroups arose in the Kalash population ~2.26 and 3.01 thousand years ago (kya), a time frame consistent with the invasion of Alexander III of Macedon to the region. One possible explanation for the maternal genetic contribution from Europeans to the Kalash people would be the involvement of women in foreign campaigns of ancient Greek warfare, followed by a founder effect. Our study thus sheds important light on the genetic origin of the Kalash community of Pakistan.
Changes in gene expression occur as animals, including primates, age. Macaques have long been used as a model species for primate evolution and biomedical studies. Here, to study gene expression in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana, TMs) and its differences to humans, we applied RNA-Seq to obtain the blood transcriptomes of 24 TMs. In total, 2 523 age-associated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Several pathways and processes that regulate aging, including the FoxO signaling pathway, autophagy, and platelet activation, were significantly enriched in the up-regulated DEGs. Two significantly age-related modules were identified by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). The TMs and humans shared 279 common DEGs, including 111 up-regulated and 141 down-regulated genes with advancing age in the same expression direction. However, 27 age-related DEGs presented the opposite expression direction in TMs as that in humans. For example, INPPL1, with inhibitory effects on the B cell receptor signaling pathway, was up-regulated in humans but down-regulated in TMs. In general, our study suggests that aging is a critical factor affecting gene expression in the captive TM population. The similarities and differences in gene expression patterns between TMs and humans could provide new insights into primate evolution and benefit TM model development.
Osteonecrosis is a common human disease in orthopedics. It is difficult to treat, and half of patients may need artificial joint replacement, resulting in a considerable economic burden and a reduction in quality of life. Hormones are one of the major causes of osteonecrosis and high doses of corticosteroids are considered the most dangerous factor. Because of the complexity of treatment, we still need a better animal model that can be widely used in drug development and testing. Tree shrews are more closely related to primates than rodents. As such, we constructed a successful tree shrew model to establish and evaluate steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON). We found that low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) combined with high-dose methylprednisolone (MPS) over 12 weeks could be used to establish a tree shrew model with femoral head necrosis. Serum biochemical and histological analyses showed that an ideal model was obtained. Thus, this work provides a useful animal model for the study of SAON and for the optimization of treatment methods.
The rise of the plasmid-encoded colistin resistance gene mcr-1 is a major concern globally. Here, during a routine surveillance, an unexpectedly high prevalence of Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility to colistin (69.9%) was observed in a Chinese broiler farm. Fifty-three (63.9%) E. coli isolates were positive for mcr-1. All identified mcr-1-positive E. coli (MCREC) were multidrug resistant and carried other clinically significant resistance genes. Furthermore, the mcr-1 genes were mainly located on the IncI2 and IncHI2 plasmids. Conjugation experiments unraveled the co-transfer of mcr-1 with other antibiotic resistance genes (blaCTX-M-55, blaCTX-M-14, floR, and fosA3) via the IncI2 (n=3) and IncHI2 (n=4) plasmids. The stable genetic context mcr-1-pap2 was common in the IncI2 plasmids, whereas ISApl1-mcr-1-pap2-ISApl1 was mainly found in the IncHI2 plasmids. The dominance of mcr-1-bearing IncI2 and IncHI2 plasmids and co-selection of mcr-1 with other antimicrobial resistance genes might contribute to the exceptionally high prevalence of mcr-1 in this broiler farm. Our results emphasized the importance of appropriate antibiotic use in animal production.
Theloderma pyaukkya is recorded for the first time in China based on a specimen collected from western Yunnan. Morphologically, the specimen shows good agreement with the original description of T. pyaukkya, and phylogenetically is clustered with the type specimens and holotype of T. pyaukkya from Kachin State (northern Myanmar) with strong support. The taxonomic status of T. pyaukkya from Chin State (western Myanmar) needs further examination. In addition, Theloderma moloch is also recorded in Yunnan for the first time. This brings the number of Theloderma species recorded in Yunnan, China, to seven, namely, T. albopunctatum, T. baibungense, T. bicolor, T. gordoni, T. moloch, T. pyaukkya, and T. rhododiscus.
We report on a new species, Micryletta dissimulans sp. nov. , from the lowland forests of southern Thailand, which is described based on molecular and morphological evidence. The new species is characterized by a combination of the following characters: small body size (20.3–22.4 mm in males, 24.4–26.7 mm in females); slender body habitus; head longer than wide; snout rounded in dorsal and lateral view; eye length equal to snout length; tibiotarsal articulation reaching to tympanum; dorsal surface slightly granulated to shagreened; supratympanic fold indistinct, ventrally edged in black with large black spot behind eye; outer metatarsal tubercle absent; dorsum reddish-brown with merging irregular-shaped brown blotches edged in beige, no black spots on dorsum; body flanks brown with large black spots edged in whitish mottling, two large black blotches in axillary and inguinal areas on each side; lateral sides of head black, with white patches on lips absent, whitish mottling on tympanum and axillary region; ventral surface pinkish to bluish-gray, translucent, laterally with dark-brown marbled pattern, medially immaculate; throat in males dark-gray with sparse white mottling laterally; iris copper-orange. The new species is divergent from all other congeners in 16S rRNA gene sequences (5.0%–7.4%). To date, Micryletta dissimulans sp. nov. is only known from a single locality in Saba Yoi District, Songkhla Province, Thailand, at an elevation of 120 m a.s.l., but is also expected to occur in neighboring parts of Malaysia. We suggest Micryletta dissimulans sp. nov. be considered as a Data Deficient (DD) species following the IUCN’s Red List categories (IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee, 2019).
A new stream salamander species, Batrachuperus daochengensis sp. nov. , from southwestern China, is described herein based on morphological and molecular evidence. Molecular phylogeny derived from the mitochondrial gene together with previous nuclear data revealed that B. daochengensis sp. nov. is sister to B. yenyuanensis. The new species differs from all other species of the genus by the following combination of characters: brown horny epidermis on tips of fingers and toes absent; tubercles on palms and soles absent; costal grooves 12; dorsal brown, mottled with blackish spots; fingers 2-3-4-1 in order of decreasing length; tips of longest digits of fore- and hindlimbs largely separated by one to two costal spaces when adpressed towards each other along sides of body. The new species is currently known in the central and southern Shaluli Mountains in southwestern China.
Cryptic diversity (CD), the presence of highly divergent phylogenetic lineages within closed morphological species, has been documented for many taxa. Great arachnid orders such as Araneae or Scorpiones are well studied and many cases of CD have been described therein; to date, however, related research on smaller arachnid orders, such as whip spiders (Amblypygi), remains lacking. In the current study, we investigated CD based on cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) in three nominal species of the genus Heterophrynus (H. alces, H. batesii, and H. longicornis), represented by 65 specimens. The sequences were compared using three different methods. All three species showed geographically structured CD. Thus, given its existence in this genus, it is important that CD and its spatial distribution be considered in future studies and possible conservation projects.

Vol 41, No 5 (18 September 2020)

Indexed by SCI-E

2019 Impact Factor 2.638

12/168 Zoology (Q1)

2020 Journal Citation Reports®

Bimonthly, Since 1980

Editor-in-Chief: Yong-Gang Yao

ISSN 2095-8137

CN 53-1229/Q

Special Collections

Animal models
Tree shrew biology
Amphibians & reptiles
Fish biology
Genetics & evolution
Toxin & peptide