1. Institute of Forestry Ecology, Enviroment and Protection, the Chinese Academy of Forestry, Key Laboratory of Forestry Ecology Environment of State Forestry Administration, Beijing 100091, China; 2. School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 7ZB, UK
It is generally accepted that climate has changed greatly on a global scale, and that the earth's climate has already warmed by some degrees over the past century. Ample evidence shows that there have been apparent changes in avian population dynamics, life-history traits and geographic ranges in response to global climate change. This paper briefly reviews the possible effects of climate change on avian biology and ecology all over the world, with emphasis on new findings from several long-term studies in Europe and North America, which provide unique opportunities to investigate how longterm changes in climate affect birds at both individual and population levels. The implications of such long-term studies for future bird studies in China is discussed with hope that this review can contribute to the preparation and plan for studies of climatic effects on birds in China in the future.