1. Yunnan Beef Cattle and Pasture Research Center, Kunming 650212, China; 2. Yunnan Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals & Laboratory of Molecular Evolution and Genome Diversity, Kunming Institute of Zoology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China
The complete mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences from 10 stud Brahman cattle were sequenced and analyzed. The results showed that the genetic diversity of Brahman cattle was rich; the rate of nucleotide variation, haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 6.25%, 0.978±0.054 and 0.014 30±0.008 68, respectively. Nine haplotypes were defined and fell into two distinct lineages, suggesting that Brahman cattle have both Bos indicus (Zebu) and B. taurus genetic background. The taurine haplotypes were predominant at 90% and only Brah-6 belonged to the Asian zebu mthaplotype. This indicates that Brahman cattle was one of the zebu breeds and inherited the excellent characteristics of both the Asian zebu and European beef cattle, such as easy calf delivery, high quality beef, heat tolerance and resistance to various parasites. Breeders introduced Brahman cattle to improve the productivity and adaptability of native cattle. The Zebu has evidently frequently introgressed into the modern taurine breeds. As for modern zebu breeds, B. taurus also highly contributed to their formation, except for the Asian zebu. Furthermore our results also confirm the hypothesis that B. indicus has undergone a separate domestication event and originated from the Indian subcontinent.