Qi-Hai ZHOU, Bang LUO, Cheng-Ming HUANG. Attacks on adult females with infants by non-resident males in the François langur. Zoological Research, 2013, 34(E1): 569-E. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2013.E01E09
Citation: Qi-Hai ZHOU, Bang LUO, Cheng-Ming HUANG. Attacks on adult females with infants by non-resident males in the François langur. Zoological Research, 2013, 34(E1): 569-E. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2013.E01E09

Attacks on adult females with infants by non-resident males in the François langur

doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2013.E01E09
  • Received Date: 2012-09-03
  • Rev Recd Date: 2012-11-05
  • Publish Date: 2013-02-08
  • Infanticide by males is a common phenomenon in mammals, especially primates, as lactation lasts much longer than gestation in many species. Usually, infanticidal episodes occur soon after group takeovers, and are traditionally considered a male reproductive strategy (i.e., support the sexual selection hypothesis, Hrdy, 1974). To verify the validity of this conception, we observed one group of François’ langurs in the Nonggang Nature Reserve, China, between August 2003 and July 2004. During the study period, a François’ langur female with the youngest infant in the group was attacked three times by immigrating males, and later disappeared by the third day after the final attack. We suggest that these attacks on the female-infant dyad represent infanticide attempts by males, and may be the cause of the adult female and her infant’s disappearance. Presumably, that female dispersed with her infant to avoid infanticide and was not killed. Though these observations do not completely verify the sexual selection hypothesis, they are not inconsistent with it.
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  • [1] Agoramoorthy G, Rudran R. 1995. Infanticide by adult and subadult males in free-ranging red howler monkeys of Venezuela. Ethology, 99(1-2): 75-88.
    [2] Altmann J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour, 49(3): 227-267.
    [3] Boggess J. 1979. Troop male membership changes and infant killing in langurs (Presbytis entellus). Folia Primatol, 32(1-2): 65-107.
    [4] Groves C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Washington, D C: Smithsonian Institute Press.
    [5] Guangxi Forest Bureau. 1993. Guangxi Nature Reserve. Beijing: Chinese Forestry Publishing House. (in Chinese)
    [6] Hrdy SB. 1979. Infanticide among animals: a review, classification, and examination of the implications for the reproductive strategies of female. Ethol Sociobiol, 1(1): 13-40.
    [7] Hu G. 2007. Socioecology and Behavioral Flexibility of François’ langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) in Mayanghe Nature Reserve, Southwest China . Ph.D. dissertation, Australian National University.
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    [9] Li ZY. 2000. The Socioecology of White-headed langurs, Presbytis leucocephalus, and Its Implications for Their Conservation . Ph.D. dissertation, University of Ednbergh.
    [10] Morelli TL, King SJ, Pochron ST, Wright PC. 2009. The rules of disengagement: takeovers, infanticide, and dispersal in a rainforest lemur, Propithecus edwardsi. Behaviour, 146(4): 499-523.
    [11] Newton PN, Dunbar RIM. 1994. Colobine monkey society // Davies AG, Oates JF. Colobine Monkey: Their Ecology, Behaviour and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 311-346.
    [12] Shu ZM, Zhao TL, Huang QC. 1988. Vegetation survey in Nonggang Nature Reserve. Guangxi Botany, 1(Suppl): 185-214. (in Chinese)
    [13] Sommer V. 2000. The holy wars about infanticide. Which side are you on? And why? // van Schaik CP, Janson CH. Infanticide by Males and Its Implication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 9-26.
    [14] Steenbeek R. 2000. Infanticide by male and female choice in wild Thomas’s langurs // van Schaik CP, Janson CH. Infanticide by Males and Its Implication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 153-177.
    [15] Sugiyama Y. 1965. On the social change of hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) in their natural condition. Primates, 6(3-4): 381-418.
    [16] Sussman RW, Cheverud JM, Bartlett TQ. 1995. Infant killing as an evolutionary strategy: Reality or myth? Evol Anthrop, 3: 149-151.
    [17] Teichroeb JA, Wikberg EC, Sicotte P. 2009. Female dispersal patterns in six groups of ursine colobus (Colobus vellerosus): infanticide avoidance is important. Behaviour, 146(4): 551-582.
    [18] Van Schaik CP, Janson CH. 2000. Infanticide by Males and Its Implication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [19] Wang YX, Jang XL, Feng Q. 1999. Taxonomy, status and conservation of leaf monkeys in China. Chn Zool Res, 20(4): 306-315. (in Chinese)
    [20] Wu MC. 1983. On the distribution and number estimate of primates in Guangxi Province. Acta Theriol Sin, 3: 16. (in Chinese) Zhao Q, Borries C, Pan WS. 2011. Male takeover, infanticide, and female countertactics in white-headed leaf monkeys (Trachypithecus leucocephalus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 65(8): 1535-1547.
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Attacks on adult females with infants by non-resident males in the François langur

doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2013.E01E09

Abstract: Infanticide by males is a common phenomenon in mammals, especially primates, as lactation lasts much longer than gestation in many species. Usually, infanticidal episodes occur soon after group takeovers, and are traditionally considered a male reproductive strategy (i.e., support the sexual selection hypothesis, Hrdy, 1974). To verify the validity of this conception, we observed one group of François’ langurs in the Nonggang Nature Reserve, China, between August 2003 and July 2004. During the study period, a François’ langur female with the youngest infant in the group was attacked three times by immigrating males, and later disappeared by the third day after the final attack. We suggest that these attacks on the female-infant dyad represent infanticide attempts by males, and may be the cause of the adult female and her infant’s disappearance. Presumably, that female dispersed with her infant to avoid infanticide and was not killed. Though these observations do not completely verify the sexual selection hypothesis, they are not inconsistent with it.

Qi-Hai ZHOU, Bang LUO, Cheng-Ming HUANG. Attacks on adult females with infants by non-resident males in the François langur. Zoological Research, 2013, 34(E1): 569-E. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2013.E01E09
Citation: Qi-Hai ZHOU, Bang LUO, Cheng-Ming HUANG. Attacks on adult females with infants by non-resident males in the François langur. Zoological Research, 2013, 34(E1): 569-E. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2013.E01E09
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