Zhen-Hua GUAN, Bei HUANG, Wen-He NING, Qing-Yong NI, Xue-Long JIANG. Proximity association in polygynous western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis): network structure and seasonality. Zoological Research, 2013, 34(E1): 561-E. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2013.E01E01
Citation: Zhen-Hua GUAN, Bei HUANG, Wen-He NING, Qing-Yong NI, Xue-Long JIANG. Proximity association in polygynous western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis): network structure and seasonality. Zoological Research, 2013, 34(E1): 561-E. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2013.E01E01

Proximity association in polygynous western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis): network structure and seasonality

doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2013.E01E01
  • Received Date: 2012-10-23
  • Rev Recd Date: 2012-11-20
  • Publish Date: 2013-02-08
  • We investigated the structure and seasonality of the proximity network in a group of polygynous western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor) using social network analysis. The spatial proximity changed seasonally and was affected by temperature and rainfall. Preferred proximity association was not distributed randomly among individuals. Kinship was one explanation for the social structure, as offspring preferred to maintain close proximity with their mothers. The proximity of infants to mothers decreased with age, and independent offspring had lower proximity to mothers than dependent ones. We found that the adult male had different proximity relationships with two different adult females. The frequency of proximity between the male and the infant-carrying female was significantly higher than that between the male and the female who had immigrated carrying one offspring of uncertain paternity into the group. Infanticide avoidance and/or predation protection for dependent infants might explain the proximity relationship differences. Temperature influenced group proximity association, with individual proximity increasing in the cold months and decreasing in the hot months. Group proximity decreased in months with higher anthropogenic disturbance.
  • 加载中
  • [1] Barrett L, Henzi SP. 2006. Monkeys, markets and minds: biological markets and primate sociality // Kappeler PM, van Schaik C. Cooperation in Primates and Humans: Mechanisms and Evolution. Berlin: Springer, 209-232.
    [2] Borgatti SP, Everett MG, Freeman LC. 2002. Ucinet for Windows: Software for Social Network Analysis. Harvard: Analytic Technologies, 2002.
    [3] Brockelman WY. 2009. Ecology and the Social System of Gibbons // Lappan S, Whittaker D. The Gibbons: New Perspectives on Small Ape Socioecology and Population Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago: 211-240.
    [4] Cairns SJ, Schwager SJ. 1987. A comparison of association indices. Anim Behav, 35(5): 1454-1469.
    [5] Chivers DJ. 1971. Spatial relations within the siamang group // Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress of Primatology, 3. Zürich, 14-21.
    [6] Corradino C. 1990. Proximity structure in a captive colony of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata): an application of multidimensional scaling. Primates, 31(3): 351-362.
    [7] de Luna AG, Sanmiguel R, Di Fiore A, Fernandez-Duque E. 2010. Predation and predation attempts on red titi monkeys (Callicebus discolor) and equatorial sakis (Pithecia aequatorialis) in Amazonian Ecuador. Folia Primatol, 81(2): 86-95.
    [8] de Waal FB, Luttrell LM. 1986. The similarity principle underlying social bonding among female rhesus monkeys. Folia Primatol, 46(4): 215-234.
    [9] Dunbar RIM. 1992. Time: a hidden constraint on the behavioural ecology of baboons. Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 31(1): 35-49.
    [10] Dunbar RIM. 1998. Impact of global warming on the distribution and survival of the gelada baboon: a modelling approach. Glob Change Biol, 4(3): 293-304.
    [11] Dunbar RIM. 2002. Modelling primate behavioral ecology. In J Primatol, 23(4): 785-819.
    [12] Dunbar RIM, Dunbar EP. 1980. The pairbond in klipspringer. Anim Behav, 28(1): 219-229.
    [13] Dunbar RIM, Korstjens AH, Lehmann J. 2009. Time as an ecological constraint. Biol Rev, 84(3): 413-429.
    [14] Emlen ST, Oring LW. 1977. Ecology, sexual selection, and the evolution of mating systems. Science, 197(4300): 215-223.
    [15] Fairbanks L. 1976. A comparative analysis of subgroup structure and spatial relationships in captive baboons and squirrel monkeys. Primates, 17(3): 291-300.
    [16] Fan PF, Jiang XL. 2008. Sleeping sites, sleeping trees, and sleep-related behaviors of black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis) at Mt. Wuliang, Central Yunnan, China. Am J Primatol, 70(2): 153-160.
    [17] Fan PF, Jiang XL. 2009. Maintenance of multifemale social organization in a group of Nomascus concolor at Wuliang Mountain, Yunnan, China. Int J Primatol, 31(1): 1-13.
    [18] Fan PF, Jiang XL. 2010. Altitudinal ranging of black-crested gibbons at Mt. Wuliang, Yunnan: effects of food distribution, temperature and human disturbance. Folia Primatol, 81(1): 1-9.
    [19] Fan PF, Fei HL, Ma CY. 2012. Behavioral responses of Cao Vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) to variations in food abundance and temperature in Bangliang, Jingxi, China. Am J Primatol, 74(7): 632-641.
    [20] Fan PF, Jiang XL, Liu CM, Luo WS. 2006. Polygynous mating system and behavioural reason of black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis) at Dazhaizi, Mt. Wuliang, Yunnan, China. Zool Res, 27(2): 216-220.
    [21] Fan PF, Huang B, Guan ZH, Jiang XL. 2010. Singing behavior before and after male replacement in a western black crested gibbon group in Wuliang Mountain, Yunnan. Acta Theriol Sin, 30(2): 139-143 (in Chinese).
    [22] Fan PF, Ni QY, Sun GZ, Huang B, Jiang XL. 2008. Seasonal variations in the activity budget of Nomascus concolor jingdongensis at Mt. Wuliang, Central Yunnan, China: effects of diet and temperature. Int J Primatol, 29(4): 1047-1057.
    [23] Fan PF, Fei HL, Scott MB, Zhang W, Ma CY. 2011. Habitat and food choice of the critically endangered cao vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) in China: Implications for conservation. Biol Conserv, 144(9): 2247-2254.
    [24] Furuichi T. 1984. Symmetrical patterns in non-agonistic social interactions found in unprovisioned Japanese macaques. J Ethol, 2(2): 109-119.
    [25] Guan ZH, Huang B, Ni QY, Ning WH, Sun GZ, Jiang XL. Significance of grooming behavior in polygynous group of western black crested gibbon for immigrant female and resident sub-adult. Submitted.
    [26] Hanneman RA, Riddle M. 2005. Introduction to social network methods. Available at: http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/nettext/. Riverside: University of California.
    [27] Henzi SP, Lusseau D, Weingrill T, Schaik CP, Barrett L. 2009. Cyclicity in the structure of female baboon social networks. Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 63(7): 1015-1021.
    [28] Hill RA, Weingrill T, Barrett L, Henzi SP. 2004. Indices of environmental temperatures for primates in open habitats. Primates, 45(1): 7-13.
    [29] Huang B. 2011. The ecological and behavioural adaption of black-crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) to the habitat at Dazhaizi, Wuliang Mountain, central Yunnan, China. Ph. D. thesis, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (in Chinese).
    [30] Huang B, Guan ZH, Ni QY, Orkin JD, Fan PF, Jiang XL. Observation of intra- and extra-pair copulation and reproductive characters in free ranging groups of western black-crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis). Integr Zool, accepted.
    [31] Jiang X, Ma S, Wang Y, Sheeran L, Poirier F. 1994a. Human encounter and predator avoidance behaviour in black-crested gibbon, Hylobates concolor. Acta Anthropol Sin, 13(2): 181-188 (in Chinese).
    [32] Jiang XH, Ma SL, Wang YX, Sheeran L, Poirier F, Wang Q. 1994b. Group size and composition of black-crested gibbons (Hylobates concolor). Zool Res, 15(2): 15-22 (in Chinese).
    [33] Jiang XL, Wang YX, Wang Q. 1999. Coexistence of monogamy and polygyny in black-crested gibbon (Hylobates concolor). Primates, 40(4): 607-611 (in Chinese).
    [34] Kanngiesser P, Sueur C, Riedl K, Grossmann J, Call J. 2011. Grooming network cohesion and the role of individuals in a captive chimpanzee group. Am J Primatol, 73(8): 758-767.
    [35] Kappeler PM, Van Schaik CP. 2002. Evolution of primate social systems. Int J Primatol, 23(4): 707-740.
    [36] Kasper C, Voelkl B. 2009. A social network analysis of primate groups. Primates, 50(4): 343-356.
    [37] Kim S, Lappan S, Choe JC. 2011. Diet and ranging behavior of the endangered Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch) in a submontane tropical rainforest. Am J Primatol, 73(3): 270-280.
    [38] Korstjens AH, Verhoeckx IL, Dunbar RIM. 2006. Time as a constraint on group size in spider monkeys. Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 60(5): 683-694.
    [39] Kummer H. 1968. Social Organization of Hamadryas Baboons: A Field Study. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [40] Lappan S. 2007. Social relationships among males in multimale siamang groups. Int J Primatol, 28(2): 369-387.
    [41] Lappan S. 2008. Male care of infants in a siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) population including socially monogamous and polyandrous groups. Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 62(8): 1307-1317.
    [42] Leighton D. 1987. Gibbons: territoriality and monogamy // Smuts BB, Cheny DL, Seyfarth RM, Wrangham RW, Struhsaker TT. Primates Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press: 135-145.
    [43] Massen JJM, Sterck EHM, De Vos H. 2010. Close social associations in animals and humans: functions and mechanisms of friendship. Behaviour, 147(11): 1379-1412.
    [44] Matsumura S, Okamoto K. 1997. Factors affecting proximity among members of a wild group of moor macaques during feeding, moving, and resting. Int J Primatol, 18(6): 929-940.
    [45] Pruetz JD, Isbell LA. 2000. Correlations of food distribution and patch size with agonistic interactions in female vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) living in simple habitats. Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 49(1): 38-47.
    [46] Ramos-Fernández G, Boyer D, Aureli F, Vick LG. 2009. Association networks in spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 63(7): 999-1013.
    [47] Reichard UH. 2003. Social monogamy in gibbons: the male perspective // Reichard UH, Boesch C. Monogamy: Mating Strategies and Partnerships in Birds, Humans and Other Mammals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 190-213.
    [48] Sade DS. 1965. Some aspects of parent-offspring and sibling relations in a group of rhesus monkeys, with a discussion of grooming. Am J Phys Anthropol, 23(1): 1-17.
    [49] Sade DS. 1972. Sociometrics of Macaca mulatta. I. Linkages and cliques in grooming matrices. Folia Primatol, 18(3): 196-223.
    [50] Sato H. 2012. Diurnal resting in brown lemurs in a dry deciduous forest, northwestern Madagascar: implications for seasonal thermoregulation. Primates, 53(3): 1-9.
    [51] Schreier AL, Swedell L. 2012. Ecology and sociality in a multilevel society: Ecological determinants of spatial cohesion in hamadryas baboons. Am J Phys Anthropol, 148(4): 580–588.
    [52] Schülke O, Bhagavatula J, Vigilant L, Ostner J. 2010. Social bonds enhance reproductive success in male macaques. Curr Biol, 20(24): 2207-2210.
    [53] Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL. 2012. The evolutionary origins of friendship. Ann Rev, 63: 153-177.
    [54] Sherman BR. 1980. The formation of relationships based on socio-spatial proximity in a free-ranging colony of rhesus monkeys. Primates, 21(4): 484-491.
    [55] Shimooka Y. 2003. Seasonal variation in association patterns of wild spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth belzebuth) at La Macarena, Colombia. Primates, 44(2): 83-90.
    [56] Silk JB. 2002. Kin selection in primate groups. Int J Primatol, 23: 849-875.
    [57] Silk JB. 2007. Social components of fitness in primate groups. Science, 317(5843): 1347-1351.
    [58] Silk JB, Beehner JC, Bergman TJ, Crockford C, Engh AL, Moscovice LR, Wittig RM, Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL. 2010. Strong and consistent social bonds enhance the longevity of female baboons. Curr Biol, 20(15): 1359-1361.
    [59] Snyder-Mackler N, Beehner JC, Bergman TJ. 2012. Defining higher levels in the multilevel societies of geladas (Theropithecus gelada). Int J Primatol, 33(5): 1-15.
    [60] Sommer V, Reichard U. 2000. Rethinking monogamy: the gibbon case // Kappeler PM. Primate Males: Causes and Consequences of Variation in Group Composition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 159-168.
    [61] Sterck EHM, Watts DP, Van Schaik CP. 1997. The evolution of female social relationships in nonhuman primates. Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 41(5): 291-309.
    [62] Swedell L, Plummer T. 2012. A papionin multilevel society as a model for hominin social evolution. Int J Primatol, 33(5): 1-29.
    [63] Terborgh J. 1986. Keystone plant resources in the tropical forest. // Soule ME. Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sinauer: Sunderland, Mass, 330-344.
    [64] Thompson CL, Norconk MA. 2011. Within-group social bonds in white-faced saki monkeys (Pithecia pithecia) display male-female pair preference. Am J Primatol, 73(10): 1051-1061.
    [65] Weigel RM. 1980. Dyadic spatial relationships in pigtail and stumptail macaques: a multiple regression analysis. Int J Primatol, 1(3): 287-321.
    [66] Whitehead H. 1995. Investigating structure and temporal scale in social organizations using identified individuals. Behav Ecol, 6(2): 199-208.
    [67] Whitehead H. 1997. Analysing animal social structure. Anim Behav, 53(5): 1053-1067.
    [68] Whitehead H. 2009. SOCPROG programs: analysing animal social structures. Behav Ecol and Sociobiol, 63(5): 765-778.
    [69] Zhang P, Li BG, Qi XG, MacIntosh AJJ, Watanabe K. 2012. A proximity-based social network of a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Int J Primatol, 33(5): 1081-1095.
    [70] Zhou J, Wei FW, Li M, Pui Lok CB, Wang DL. 2008. Reproductive characters and mating behaviour of wild Nomascus hainanus. Int J Primatol, 29(4): 1037-1046.
    [71] Zhou J, Wei FW, Li M, Zhang JF, Wang DL, Pan RL. 2005. Hainan black-crested gibbon is headed for extinction. Int J Primatol, 26(2): 453-465.
  • 加载中
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
  • 1. 

    沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

  1. 本站搜索
  2. 百度学术搜索
  3. 万方数据库搜索
  4. CNKI搜索

Article Metrics

Article views(2153) PDF downloads(1331) Cited by()

Related
Proportional views

Proximity association in polygynous western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis): network structure and seasonality

doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2013.E01E01

Abstract: We investigated the structure and seasonality of the proximity network in a group of polygynous western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor) using social network analysis. The spatial proximity changed seasonally and was affected by temperature and rainfall. Preferred proximity association was not distributed randomly among individuals. Kinship was one explanation for the social structure, as offspring preferred to maintain close proximity with their mothers. The proximity of infants to mothers decreased with age, and independent offspring had lower proximity to mothers than dependent ones. We found that the adult male had different proximity relationships with two different adult females. The frequency of proximity between the male and the infant-carrying female was significantly higher than that between the male and the female who had immigrated carrying one offspring of uncertain paternity into the group. Infanticide avoidance and/or predation protection for dependent infants might explain the proximity relationship differences. Temperature influenced group proximity association, with individual proximity increasing in the cold months and decreasing in the hot months. Group proximity decreased in months with higher anthropogenic disturbance.

Zhen-Hua GUAN, Bei HUANG, Wen-He NING, Qing-Yong NI, Xue-Long JIANG. Proximity association in polygynous western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis): network structure and seasonality. Zoological Research, 2013, 34(E1): 561-E. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2013.E01E01
Citation: Zhen-Hua GUAN, Bei HUANG, Wen-He NING, Qing-Yong NI, Xue-Long JIANG. Proximity association in polygynous western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis): network structure and seasonality. Zoological Research, 2013, 34(E1): 561-E. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2013.E01E01
Reference (71)

Catalog

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return