Volume 33 Issue 3
May  2012
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
WANG Shuang-Jin, HUANG Zhi-Pang, HE Yu-Chao, HE Xiao-Dong, LI Dong-Hui, SUN Jun, CUI Liang-Wei, XIAO Wen. Mating behavior and birth seasonality of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha. Zoological Research, 2012, 33(3): 241-248. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2012.03241
Citation: WANG Shuang-Jin, HUANG Zhi-Pang, HE Yu-Chao, HE Xiao-Dong, LI Dong-Hui, SUN Jun, CUI Liang-Wei, XIAO Wen. Mating behavior and birth seasonality of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha. Zoological Research, 2012, 33(3): 241-248. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2012.03241

Mating behavior and birth seasonality of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha

doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2012.03241
  • Received Date: 2012-02-03
  • Rev Recd Date: 2012-03-27
  • Publish Date: 2012-06-22
  • Copulation patterns are important to understanding male mating strategies and stabilization strategies of social organizations in primates. However, information on copulation patterns of Asian primates is relatively rare. This study was undertaken to collect data on mating behavior and birth seasonality of Black-and-white Snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) using all occurrence sampling and Focal animal-scan sampling methods at Mt. Lasha, between January and December, 2011. Our study focused on observing mating frequency and birth rates. Snub-nosed monkeys mate year round, with two observable peaks: one reproductive peak during the mating season, roughly from August to October, and a second non-breeding peak during the birth season. It is unclear what biological significance this non-reproductive mating peak has. During our observation, we noted a lower ratio of mount to ejaculation and rare ejaculatory copulations, which indicated that every mating would not result in ejaculation. This study corroborates the previous view that the Rhinopithecus bieti’s copulatory pattern is likely multiple-mount ejaculation (MME) or at the upper part of mating continuum of single-mount ejaculation (SME) toward MME. More ejaculatory copulations initiated by males than females indicate that MME is not only a mating strategy of males, but that males can influence the position of their copulatory pattern on the continuum between SME and MME. The mating frequencies significantly correlated with the birth rates with a delay of 6 to 7 months. Monkeys gave birth within a strict seasonality with a birth peak of March, which confirms the previous view. Infants were born with a certain degree of synchronization, but different populations displayed different modes of synchronizations.
  • loading
  • [1]
    Altmann J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: sampling methods [J].Behav, 49(3): 227-267.
    [2]
    Andelman SJ. 1986. Ecological and social determinants of cercopithecine mating patterns [M] // Rubenstein DI, Wrangham RW. Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution. Princeton: Princeton University of Press, 201-216.
    [3]
    Batschelet E. 1981. Circular Statistics in Biology [M]. New York: Academic Press.
    [4]
    Borries C, Koenig A. 2008. Reproductive and behavioral characteristics of aging in female Asian colobines [M] // Atsalis S, Margulis SW, Hof PR. Primate Reproductive Aging: Cross-Taxon Perspective on Reproduction. Basel: Karger, 80-102.
    [5]
    Caldecott JO. 1986. Mating patterns, societies and the ecogeography of macaques [J]. Anim Behav, 34(1): 208-220.
    [6]
    Caughley G. 1977. Analysis of Vertebrate Population [M]. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
    [7]
    Cui LW, Huo S, Zhong T, Xiang ZF, Xiao W, Quan RC. 2008. Social organization of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Deqin, China [J]. Am J Primatol, 70(2): 169-174.
    [8]
    Cui LW, Sheng AH, He SC, Xiao W. 2006. Birth seasonality and interbirth interval of captive Rhinopithecus bieti [J]. Am J Primatol, 68(5): 457-563.
    [9]
    Darwin C. 1871. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex [M]. London: John Murray, Reprinted in 1998.
    [10]
    Ding W, Zhao QK. 2004. Rhinopithecus bieti at Tacheng, Yunnan: diet and daytime activities [J]. Int J Primatol, 25(3): 583-598.
    [11]
    Eisenberg JF, Dittus WPJ, Fleming TH, Green K, Struhsaker T, Trorington RW, JR. 1981. Techniques for the Study of Primate Population Ecology [M]. Washington: National Academy Press.
    [12]
    Fooden J. 1980. Classification and distribution of living macaques (Macaca lacepede) [M] // Lindburg DG. The Macaques: Studies in Ecology, Behavior and Evolution. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1-9.
    [13]
    Hrdy SB. 1977. The Langurs of Abu: Female and Male Strategies of Reproduction [M]. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    [14]
    Hrdy SB, Whitten PL. 1987. Patterning of sexual activity [M] // Smuts B, Cheney D, Seyfarth R, Wrangham R, Struhsaker T. Primate Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 370-384.
    [15]
    Huang ZP. 2009. Foraging Food Choice, Reproduction and Sleeping Site Selection of Black-and-white Snub-nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) at the Southern Range [D]. Thesis, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming. [黄志旁. 2009. 黑白仰鼻猴 (Rhinopithecus bieti) 南部种 群的摄食选择、繁殖及过夜地选择 [D]. 硕士学位论文, 西南林学 院, 昆明.]
    [16]
    Huang ZP, Cui LW, Scott MB, Wang SJ, Xiao W. 2012. Seasonality of reproduction of wild black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan, China [J]. Primates, doi:  10.1007/s10329-012-0305-7.
    [17]
    Ji WZ, Zou RJ, Shang EY, Zhou HW, Yang SC, Tian BP. 1998. Maintenance and breeding of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus [Rhinopithecus] bieti) in captivity [M] // Jablonski NG. The Natural History of the Doucas and Snub-nosed Monkeys. Singapore: World Scientific, 323-335.
    [18]
    Jin T, Wang DZ, Zhao Q, Yin LJ, Qin DG, Ran WZ, Pan WS. 2009. Social organization of white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) in the Nongguan Karst Hills, Guangxi, China [J]. Am J Primatol, 71(3): 206-213.
    [19]
    Kavanagh M. 1978. The social behaviour of Doucs (Pygathrix nemaeus nemaeus) at San Diego Zoo [J]. Primates, 19(1): 101-114.
    [20]
    Kirkpatrick RC. 1996. Ecology and Behavior of the Yunnan Snub-nosed Langur Rhinopithecus bieti (Colobinae) [D]. Dissertation. University of California Davis.
    [21]
    Kirkpatrick RC, Grueter CC. 2010. Snub-nosed monkeys: multilevel societies across varied environments [J]. Evol Anthropol, 19(3): 98-113.
    [22]
    Kirkpatrick RC, Long YC, Zhong T, Xiao L. 1998. Social organization and range use in the Yunnan Snub-nosed Monkey Rhinopithecus bieti [J]. Int J Primatol, 19(1): 13-51.
    [23]
    Lippold LK. 1998. Natural history of Douc langurs[M] // Jablonski NG. The Natural History of the Doucs and Snub-nosed Monkeys. Singapore:
    [24]
    World Scientific Publishing, 191-206.
    [25]
    Long YC, Kirkpatrick CR, Zhong T, Xiao L. 1994. Report on the distribution, population, and ecology of the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) [J]. Primates, 35(2): 241-250.
    [26]
    Manson JPH, Navarrete CD, Silk JB, Perry S. 2004. Time-matched grooming in female primates? New analyses from two species [J].Anim Behav, 67(3): 493-500.
    [27]
    Newton PN. 1987. The social organization of forest hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) [J]. Int J Primatol, 8(3): 199-232.
    [28]
    Newton PN, Dunbar RTM. 1994. Their ecology, behavior, and evolution [M] // Davies AG, Oates JF. Colobine Monkeys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 311-346.
    [29]
    Qi JF. 1998. Observation studies on reproduction of golden monkey in captivity. I. Copulatory behavior [J]. Acta Theriol Sin, 8(3): 172-175.[戚静芬. 1988. 人工饲养下金丝猴繁殖的观察研究 I. 交配 行为. 兽类学报, 8(3): 172-175.]
    [30]
    Qi XG, Li BG, Ji WH. 2008. Reproductive parameters of wild female Rhinopithecus roxellana [J]. Am J Primatol, 70(4): 311-319.
    [31]
    Ren BP, Xia SZ, Li QF, Zhang SY, Liang B, Qiu JH. 2002. Male copulatory patterns in captive Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) [J]. Acta Zool Sin, 48(5): 577-584. [任宝平, 夏述忠, 李庆芬, 张树义, 梁冰, 邱军华. 2002. 圈养雄性川金丝猴交配模式. 动物学报, 48(5): 577-584.]
    [32]
    Ren BP, Zhang SY, Xia SZ, Li QF, Liang B, Lu MQ. 2003. Annual reproductive behavior of Rhinopithecus roxellana [J]. Int J Primatol,24(3): 575-589.
    [33]
    Ren RM, Yan KH, Su YJ, Qi HJ, Liang B, Bao WY, De Waal FBM. 1995. The reproductive behavior of golden monkeys in captivity (Rhinopithecus roxellana roxellana) [J]. Primates, 36(1): 135-143.
    [34]
    Shively C, Clarke S, King N, Schapiro S, Mitchell G. 1982. Patterns of sexual behavior in male macaques [J]. Am J Primatol, 2(4): 373-384.
    [35]
    Struhsaker TT. 1975. The Red Colobus Monkey [M]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [36]
    Struhsaker TT, Leland L. 1987. Colobines: Infanticide by adult male [M] // Smuts BB, Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM, Wrangham RW, Struhsaker TT. Primate Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 83-97.
    [37]
    Trivers RL. 1972. Parental investment and sexual selection [M] // Campbell B. Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man. Chicago: Aldine,136-139.
    [38]
    Xiang ZF, Sayers K. 2009. Seasonality of mating and birth in wild black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Xiaochangdu, Tibet [J]. Primates, 50(1): 50-55.
    [39]
    Xiao W, Ding W, Cui LW, Zhou RL, Zhao QK. 2003. Habitat degradation of Rhinopithecus bieti in Yunnan, China [J]. Int J Primatol, 24(2):389-398.
    [40]
    Yang MY, Sun DY, Zinner D, Roos C. 2009. Reproductive parameters in Guizhou Snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) [J]. Am J Primatol, 71(3): 266-270.
    [41]
    Yang SJ, Zhao QK. 2001. Bamboo leaf-based diet of Rhinopithecus bieti at Lijiang, China [J]. Folia Primatol, 72(2): 92-95.
    [42]
    Yeager CP. 1990. Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) social organization: group structure [J]. Am J Primatol, 20(2): 95-106.
    [43]
    Zar JH. 1999. Biostatistical Analysis [M]. 4th ed.. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.
    [44]
    Zhang SY, Liang B, Wang LX. 2000. Seasonality of matings and births in captive Sichuan golden monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) [J]. Am J Primatol, 51(4): 265-269.
    [45]
    Zhao QK. 1993. Sexual behavior of Tibetan macaques at Mt. Emei, China [J]. Primates, 34(4): 431-444.
    [46]
    Zhao QK, Deng ZY. 1988. Macaca thibetana at Mt. Emei, China. II. Birth seasonality [J]. Am J Primatol, 16(3): 261-268.
  • Relative Articles

    [1] Liang-Wei CUI, Qing-Lei SUN, Bao-Guo LI. Dominance hierarchy and social relationships in a group of captive black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti). Zoological Research, 2014, 35(3): 204-213.  doi: 10.11813/j.issn.0254-5853.2014.3.204
    [2] Jin-Fa LI, Yu-Chao HE, Zhi-Pang HUANG, Shuang-Jin WANG, Zuo-Fu XIANG, Juan-Jun ZHAO, Wen XIAO, Liang-Wei CUI. Birth seasonality and pattern in black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan. Zoological Research, 2014, 35(6): 474-484.  doi: 10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2014.6.474
    [3] XIANG Zuo-Fu , *,  HUO Sheng XIAO Wen. Male Allocare in Rhinopithecus bieti at Xiaochangdu, Tibet: Is It Related to Energetic Stress?. Zoological Research, 2010, 31(2): 189-197.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.02189
    [4] 钟 泰, 肖 林, 霍 晟, 向左甫, 肖 文, 崔亮伟. Altitudinal Range of Black-and-white Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti ) at Baima Snow Mountain, China. Zoological Research, 2008, 29(2): 181-188.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2008.02181
    [5] HUANG Yong, QUAN Rui-chang, REN Guo-peng, XIAO Wen, ZHU Jian-guo. Habitat Alternation of Rhinopithecus bieti in Milaka of Tibet, China. Zoological Research, 2008, 29(6): 653-660.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2008.06653
    [6] CUI Liang-wei, ZHONG Tai, XIAO Lin, XIAO Wen , *. Group Size and Composition of Black-and-White Snub-nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) Estimated by Faeces of Sleeping Sites at Baima Snow Mountain. Zoological Research, 2006, 27(4): 337-343.
    [7] XIAO Wen, HUO Sheng, XIANG Zuo-fu, CUI Liang-wei. A Preliminary Analysis on Population Viability for Black-and-white Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti). Zoological Research, 2005, 26(1): 9-16.
    [8] ZOU Ru-jin, JI Wei-zhi, YANG Shang-chuan, TIAN Bao-ping, BAO Hai-xian et al.. A Preliminary Study on Breeding Yunnan Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti). Zoological Research, 1994, 15(3): 87-92.
    [9] ZOU Ru-jin, YANG Shang-chuan, JI Wei-zhi, BAO Hai-xian, CHEN Jian-chun, LI Ming. The Hematological and Biochemical Values of The Yunnan Golden Monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) in Captive. Zoological Research, 1994, 15(1): 71-75.
    [10] LI Zhao-yuan, DENG Zi-yun. Preliminary Study on Copulatory Behavior of A Captive Group of Macaca thibetana. Zoological Research, 1993, 14(3): 226-232.
    [11] YANG Gui-bo, YE Zhi-zhang, HE Yuan-hui, PAN Ru-liang, WANG Hong. A Comparison of the Masticatory Apparatus Among Rhinopithecus bieti,Macaca thibetana and M.m.lasiota. Zoological Research, 1991, 12(4): 329-336.
    [12] HOU Yi-di, PENG Yan-zhang. A Description of New Species of Trichocephalus (Trichocephalidae,Trichocephalata) From The Golden Monkey,Rhinopithecus Bieti. Zoological Research, 1989, 10(1): 45-50.
    [13] YUAN Tao, LI Pei-xun. Observations on Mating Behavior of white-Naped Cranes in the Wild. Zoological Research, 1988, 9(zk): 14-14.
    [14] BAI Shou-chang, ZOU Shu-quan et al., TUO Ding, ZHONG Tai et al.. An Investigation of Distribution,Number and Food Habit of the Rhinopithecus Bieti. Zoological Research, 1988, 9(zk): 67-75.
    [15] YE Zhi-zhang, PENG Yan-zhang, PAN Ru-liang, WANG Hong. Preliminary Study of Hemocytology in Rhinopithecus bieti. Zoological Research, 1988, 9(4): 437-438.
    [16] WU Bao-qi, ZHONG Tai, WU Ji. A Preliminary Survey of Ecology and Behavior on A Yunnan Snub-Nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) Group. Zoological Research, 1988, 9(4): 373-384.
    [17] BAI Shou-chang, ZOU Shu-quan, LIN Shu, TUO Ding, TU Zha, ZHONG Tai. A Preliminary Observation on Distribution,Number and Population Structure of Rhinopithecus bieti in Baima Xueshan Natural Reserve,Yunnan,China. Zoological Research, 1987, 8(4): 413-419.
    [18] YE Zhi-zhang. New Progress of Studies on Rhinopithecus bieti. Zoological Research, 1987, 8(4): 440-440.
    [19] LIU Lian-zhu, CHEN Fu-zhen, SONG Zong-chen, GAO De-yun. Observations on the Mating Behavior of Anopheles Dirus Peyton & Harrison,1979 Under Laboratiory Condition. Zoological Research, 1986, 7(1): 27-32.
    [20] LI Gui-zhen. A New Flea From the Golden Monkey Rhinopithecus bieti Milne-Edwards From Northwestern Yunnan. Zoological Research, 1985, 6(3): 243-248.
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (1719) PDF downloads(1534) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return