Volume 31 Issue 5
Sep.  2010
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ZHAO Shuang, SONG Jia-Kun, WANG Xiao-Jie. Functional morphology of puffing behavior in pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus). Zoological Research, 2010, 31(5): 539-549. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05539
Citation: ZHAO Shuang, SONG Jia-Kun, WANG Xiao-Jie. Functional morphology of puffing behavior in pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus). Zoological Research, 2010, 31(5): 539-549. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05539

Functional morphology of puffing behavior in pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus)

doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05539
Funds:  国家自然科学基金资助项目(30970365);上海市重点学科建设资助项目(S30701);上海海洋大学博士启动基金;上海市优青专项科研基金
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  • Author Bio:

    ZHAO Shuang(1983 - ),Email : yippefrog@yahoo.com.cn

  • Corresponding author: SONG Jia-Kun
  • Received Date: 2010-04-15
  • Rev Recd Date: 2010-06-28
  • Publish Date: 2010-10-22
  • As a defensive behavior of escaping from the predators, sudden inflating (“puffing”) has been found in all members of the pufferfish sister taxa Diodontidae and Tetraodontidae. However, the mechanism of inflation is largely unknown. To further understand the inflation behavior of Tetraodontidae, morphological dissection, X-ray and staining methods were conducted to investigate morphological variations and functional adaptation during the inflation in Takifugu obscurus. The results indicated that after receiving stimulation, Takifugu obscurus quickly and frequently swallows water or/and air into the flexible but tough sac, which is a distinct portion of the specialized esophagus. For adapting the inflation, the anterior and posterior joints of the sac and the digestive duct are tightened by special musculature; and the structure and arrangement of the skin of the body, as well as the abdomen muscle bundles are particularly modified to be elasticated; more over, even the backbone and the nerve are ready for flexible positioning change. This study provides some important information about the inflation mechanism of the Takifugu obscurus in sucking and expelling water/air during the puffing behavior, which would be helpful to further understand the neural control mechanism of pufferfish inflation.
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  • [1] Brainerd EL. 1994. Pufferfish inflation: functional morphology of postcranial structures in Diodon holocanthus (Tetraodontiformes) [J]. J Morph, 220: 243-261.Brainerd EL, Patek SN. 1998. Vertebral column morphology, C-start curvature, and the evolution of mechanical defenses in tetraodontiform fishes
    [J]. Copeia, 4: 971-984.Breder CM, Clark E. 1947. A contribution to the visceral anatomy, development, and relationships of the Plectognathi [J]. Am Mus Nat Hist, 88: 287-319.Gu SY, Cai Y. 2007. Morphology and histology of digestive tract in juven ile Takifugu obscurus 顾曙余, 蔡  原. 2007. 暗纹东方鲀幼鱼消化道的形态学和组织学研究. 水利渔业, 27(6): 12-14.][J]. Reserv Fish, 27(6): 12-14.
    [3] [Hertwig I, Eichelberg H, Hentschel J. 1992. Light and electron microscopic studies of the skin of the palembang puffer, Tetraodon steindachneri (Teleost, Tetraodontidae) [J]. Zoomorphology, 111: 193-205.Hua YY, Gu ZF. 2000. Biological characteristics and rearing of Takifugu obscurus 华元渝, 顾志峰. 2000. 养殖条件下暗纹东方鲀的生物学特性及饲养技术. 内陆水产, 4: 21-22.]on the culture condition [J]. Inland Fish,4: 21-22.
    [4] [Li MD. 1998. Fish Taxonomy[M]. Beijing: Ocean Press. [李明德. 1998. 鱼类分类学. 北京: 海洋出版社.]Lou YD. 2002. Histoembryology.[M]. 2nd ed .Beijing: China Agriculture Press. [楼允东. 2002. 鱼组织胚胎学2版. 北京: 中国农业出版社.]Meng QW, Su JX, Li WD. 1987. Comparative Anatomy of Fishes[M]. Beijing: Science Press. [孟庆闻, 苏锦祥, 李婉端. 1987. 鱼类比较解剖学. 北京: 科学出版社.]Mittal AK, Banerjee TK. 1976. Functional organization of the skin of the“green-puffer fish” Tetraodon fluviatilis (Ham-Buch.) (Tetraodontidae,Pisces)
    [J]. Zoomorphologie, 84: 195-209.Nakae M, Sasaki K. 2005. The lateral line system and its innervation in the boxfish Ostracion immaculatus (Tetraodontiformes: Ostraciidae): description and comparisons with other tetraodontiform and perciform conditions [J]. Ichthyol Res, 52: 343-353.Nakae M, Sasaki K. 2006. Peripheral nervous system of the ocean sunfish Mola mola (Tetraodontiformes: Molidae) [J]. Ichthyol Res, 53: 233-246.Nakae M, Sasaki K. 2008. Branchial arch muscle innervation by the glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagal (X) nerves in Tetraodontiformes, with special reference to muscle homologies[J]. J Morph, 269: 674-690.Nelson JS. 2006. Fishes of the World. [M]. 4nd ed New York: Wiley.Song JK, Parenti LR. 1995. Clearing and staining whole fish specimens for simultaneous demonstration of bone, cartilage, and nerves
    [J]. Copeia, 1: 114-118.Wainwright PC, Turingan RG, Brainerd EL. 1995. Functional morphology of pufferfish inflation: mechanism of the buccal pump[J]. Copeia, 3: 614-625.Wainwright PC, Turingan RG. 1997. Evolution of pufferfish inflation behavior[J]. Evolution, 51(2): 506-518.Winterbottom, R. 1974. The familial phyloeny of the Tetraodontiformes (Acanthopterygii: Pisces) as evidenced by their comparative mycology
    [J]. Smithson Contrib Zool, 155: 1-201.Yang Z, Hua YY. 2003. Preliminary Study on the Behavioral Characteristics of Takifugu obscurus 杨 州, 华元渝. 2003. 集约化养殖条件下暗纹东方鲀行为习性的初步观察. 齐鲁渔业, 20(3): 22-24.]during Intensive Culture[J]. Shandong Fish, 20(3): 22-24.
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Functional morphology of puffing behavior in pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus)

doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05539
Funds:  国家自然科学基金资助项目(30970365);上海市重点学科建设资助项目(S30701);上海海洋大学博士启动基金;上海市优青专项科研基金
  • Author Bio:

  • Corresponding author: SONG Jia-Kun

Abstract:  As a defensive behavior of escaping from the predators, sudden inflating (“puffing”) has been found in all members of the pufferfish sister taxa Diodontidae and Tetraodontidae. However, the mechanism of inflation is largely unknown. To further understand the inflation behavior of Tetraodontidae, morphological dissection, X-ray and staining methods were conducted to investigate morphological variations and functional adaptation during the inflation in Takifugu obscurus. The results indicated that after receiving stimulation, Takifugu obscurus quickly and frequently swallows water or/and air into the flexible but tough sac, which is a distinct portion of the specialized esophagus. For adapting the inflation, the anterior and posterior joints of the sac and the digestive duct are tightened by special musculature; and the structure and arrangement of the skin of the body, as well as the abdomen muscle bundles are particularly modified to be elasticated; more over, even the backbone and the nerve are ready for flexible positioning change. This study provides some important information about the inflation mechanism of the Takifugu obscurus in sucking and expelling water/air during the puffing behavior, which would be helpful to further understand the neural control mechanism of pufferfish inflation.

ZHAO Shuang, SONG Jia-Kun, WANG Xiao-Jie. Functional morphology of puffing behavior in pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus). Zoological Research, 2010, 31(5): 539-549. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05539
Citation: ZHAO Shuang, SONG Jia-Kun, WANG Xiao-Jie. Functional morphology of puffing behavior in pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus). Zoological Research, 2010, 31(5): 539-549. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05539
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