Volume 31 Issue 5
Sep.  2010
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XIAN Yi-Jie, WANG Ke-Xiong, JIANG Wen-Hua, ZHENG Bang-You, WANG Ding. Ethogram of Yangtze finless porpoise calves (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis). Zoological Research, 2010, 31(5): 523-530. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05523
Citation: XIAN Yi-Jie, WANG Ke-Xiong, JIANG Wen-Hua, ZHENG Bang-You, WANG Ding. Ethogram of Yangtze finless porpoise calves (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis). Zoological Research, 2010, 31(5): 523-530. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05523

Ethogram of Yangtze finless porpoise calves (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis)

doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05523
Funds:  National Basic Research Program of China (2007CB411600); National Natural Science Foundation of China (30730018); President Fund of Chinese Academy of Sciences (220103)
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  • Author Bio:

    XIAN Yi-Jie

  • Corresponding author: WANG Ding
  • Received Date: 2010-02-09
  • Rev Recd Date: 2010-06-05
  • Publish Date: 2010-10-22
  • Underwater behavioral patterns of one Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis) calf in captivity and those performed on the water surface by two calves in semi-natural environment were focally followed and continuously recorded until one year postpartum to construct the ethogram. The results indicate that 1) the three calves could display diverse and active behavioral patterns; 2) soon after birth, patterns critical for survival appeared first; 3) playful and social patterns predominated the ethogram; 4) most of the patterns were alike across age classes; 5) most of the patterns appeared at the calves’ early life stage. It is possible that the above characteristics are adaptively shaped by the aquatic and social life of this subspecies.
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  • [1] Baillie J, Groombridge B. 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals [M]. Gland (Switzerland): IUCN.Banks EM. 1982. Behavioral research to answer questions about animal welfare [J]. J Anim Sci, 54: 434-446.Barnard CJ. 2004. Animal Behaviour: Mechanism, Development, Function and Evolution [M]. Essex (England): Pearson Education Limited.Brown JL. 1975. The Evolution of Behavior [M]. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.Chen W, Zheng C, Zhang Q. 1992. Marine Mammals [M]. Qingdao (China): Qingdao Ocean University Press. (in Chinese)Clutton-Brock J, Wilson DE. 2002. Mammals [M]. New York (USA): DK Publishing, Inc.Cockroft VG, Ross GJB. 1990. Observations on the early development of a captive bottlenose dolphin calf [M]//Leatherwood S, Reeves RR (eds). The Bottlenose Dolphin. San Diego (USA): Academic Press, 461-478.Connor RC, Mann J, Tyack PL, Whitehead H. 1998. Social evolution in toothed whales [J]. Trends Ecol Evolut, 13(6): 228-232.Gao A, Zhou K. 1995. Geographical variations of external measurements and three subspecies of Neophocaena phocaenoides in Chinese waters [J]. Acta Theriol Sin, 15(2): 81-92. (in Chinese)Gonyou HW. 1994. Why the study of animal behavior is associated with the animal welfare issue [J]. J Anim Sci, 72: 2171-2177.Gubbins C, McCowan B, Lynn SK, Hooper S, Reiss D. 1999. Mother-infant spatial relations in captive bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus [J]. Mar Mam Sci, 15 (3): 751-765.Gurevich VS 1977. Post-natal behavior of an Atlantic bottlenosed calf (Tursiops truncatus, Montagu) born at Sea World
    [M]//Ridgway SH, Benirschke K. Breeding Dolphins, Present Status, Suggestions for the Future. Washington D C: US Marine Mammal Commission Report MMC-76/07, 168-184.Herman LM, Tavolga WN. 1980. The communication systems of cetaceans [M]//Herman LM. Cetacean Behavior: Mechanisms and Functions. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 149-209.Heyning JE, Dahlheim ME. 1988. Orcinus orca [J]. Mamm Spec, 304: 1-9.Hua Y, Xiang C, Xu X, Zhang X. 1993. Observation on group behavior of black finless porpoise, Neophocaena phocaenoides, near the beach using the net-surroundings in the Yangtze River [J]. J Fish Chn, 17(2): 120-125. (in Chinese)Jefferson TA, Huang SK. 2004. Neophocaena phocaenoides [J]. Mamm Spec, 746: 1-12.Jiang WH, Yu DP. 2006. Preliminary observations on respiratory behavior of the Yangtze finless porpoise in the semi-nature aqueous reserve [J]. Chn J Zool, 41(4): 97-99. (in Chinese)Jiang W. 2000. Observation on the group of the Changjiang finless porpoise and conserved in semi-nature conditions [J]. J Anhui Univ: Nat Sci Ed, 24(4): 106-111. (in Chinese)Jiang Z. 1997. Ex situ conservation of species [M]//Jiang Z, Ma K, Han X. Conservation Biology. Hangzhou (China): Zhejiang Science and Technology Press, 148-167. (in Chinese)Lehner PN. 1996. Handbook of Ethological Methods [M]. 2nd ed. Cambridge (London): Cambridge University Press.Liu R. 1997. Rearing of the Baiji [M]//Chen P, Liu R, Wang D, Zhang X. Biology of Baiji, and Its Rearing and Conservation. Beijing (China): Science Press, 175-208. (in Chinese).Mann J, Smuts B. 1999. Behavioral development in wild bottlenose dolphin newborns (Tursiops sp.) [J]. Behaviour, 136(5): 529-566.Mann J. 1999. Behavioral sampling for cetaceans: A review and critique [J]. Mar Mamm Sci, 15(1): 102-122.Mann J. 2006. Establishing trust: socio-sexual behaviour and the development of male-male bonds among Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins [M]//Sommer V, Vasey PL. Homosexual Behaviour in Animals: An Evolutionary Perspective. Cambridge (London): Cambridge University Press, 107-130.Martin P, Bateson P. 1993. Measuring Behavior: An Introductory Guide [M]. 2nd ed. Cambridge (London): Cambridge University Press.Miles JA, Herzing DL. 2003. Underwater analysis of the behavioural development of free-ranging Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) calves (birth to 4 years of age) [J]. Aquat Mamm, 29(3): 363-377.Müller M, Boutière H, Weaver A, Candelon N. 1998. Ethogram of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates) with special reference to solitary and sociable dolphins [J]. Vie Milieu, 48(2): 89-104.Tavolga MC, Essapian FS. 1957. The behavior of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): mating, pregnancy, parturition and mother-infant behavior [J]. Zoologica, 42(1):11-31.Tinbergen N. 1963. On aims and methods of ethology [J]. Z Tierpsychol, 20: 410-433.Wang D, Hao Y, Wang K, Zhao Q, Chen D, Wei Z, Zhang X. 2005. The first Yangtze finless porpoise successfully born in captivity
    [J]. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 12(5): 247-250.Wang K. 1998. Behavioral Development of the Yangtze Finless Porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis) during the Early Captive Period [D]. MS thesis, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. (in Chinese)Wei Z, Wang D, Kuang X, Wang K, Wang X, Xiao J, Zhao Q, Zhang X. 2002. Observations on behavior and ecology of the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis) group at Tian-E-Zhou Oxbow of the Yangtze River
    [J]. Raff Bull Zool, 10(Suppl): 97-103.Xian Y, Wang K, Dong L, Hao Y, Wang D. 2010. Some observations on the sociosexual behavior of a captive male Yangtze finless porpoise calf (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis) [J]. Mar Freshw Behav Physiol, 43(3): 221-225. Xiao JQ, Wang D. 2005. Construction of ethogram of the captive Yangtze finless porpoises, Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis [J]. Acta Hydrobiol Sin, 29(3): 253-258. (in Chinese)Yang J, Chen P. 1996. Movement and behavior of finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides Cuvier) at Swan Oxbow, Hubei province [J]. Acta Hydrobiol Sin, 20(1): 32-40. (in Chinese)Zhang X, Liu R, Zhao Q, Zhang G, Wei Z, Wang X, Yang J. 1993. The population of finless porpoise in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River [J]. Acta Theriol Sin, 13(4): 260-270. (in Chinese)Zhao X, Barlow J, Taylor BL, Pitman RL, Wang K, Wei Z, Stewart BS, Turvey ST, Akamatsu T, Reeves RR, Wang D. 2008. Abundance and conservation status of the Yangtze finless porpoise in the Yangtze River, China [J]. Biol Conserv, 141(2): 3006-3018.Zhao X. 2009. Investigation of Survey Methodology on the Abundance of Cetaceans in Riverine Systems and its Applications
    [D]. Ph.D. thesis, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. (in Chinese)
    [6]
     
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Ethogram of Yangtze finless porpoise calves (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis)

doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05523
Funds:  National Basic Research Program of China (2007CB411600); National Natural Science Foundation of China (30730018); President Fund of Chinese Academy of Sciences (220103)
  • Author Bio:

  • Corresponding author: WANG Ding

Abstract: Underwater behavioral patterns of one Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis) calf in captivity and those performed on the water surface by two calves in semi-natural environment were focally followed and continuously recorded until one year postpartum to construct the ethogram. The results indicate that 1) the three calves could display diverse and active behavioral patterns; 2) soon after birth, patterns critical for survival appeared first; 3) playful and social patterns predominated the ethogram; 4) most of the patterns were alike across age classes; 5) most of the patterns appeared at the calves’ early life stage. It is possible that the above characteristics are adaptively shaped by the aquatic and social life of this subspecies.

XIAN Yi-Jie, WANG Ke-Xiong, JIANG Wen-Hua, ZHENG Bang-You, WANG Ding. Ethogram of Yangtze finless porpoise calves (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis). Zoological Research, 2010, 31(5): 523-530. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05523
Citation: XIAN Yi-Jie, WANG Ke-Xiong, JIANG Wen-Hua, ZHENG Bang-You, WANG Ding. Ethogram of Yangtze finless porpoise calves (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis). Zoological Research, 2010, 31(5): 523-530. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05523
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