Volume 31 Issue 5
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XIONG Rong-Chuan, JIANG Jian-Ping, FEI Liang, WANG Bin, YE Chang-Yuan. Embryonic development of the concave-eared torrent frog with its significance on taxonomy. Zoological Research, 2010, 31(5): 490-498. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05490
Citation: XIONG Rong-Chuan, JIANG Jian-Ping, FEI Liang, WANG Bin, YE Chang-Yuan. Embryonic development of the concave-eared torrent frog with its significance on taxonomy. Zoological Research, 2010, 31(5): 490-498. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05490

Embryonic development of the concave-eared torrent frog with its significance on taxonomy

doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05490
Funds:  This study was supported by the National Natural Science Fundation of China (30730029)
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  • Author Bio:

    XIONG Rong-Chuan

  • Corresponding author: JIANG Jian-Ping
  • Received Date: 2010-03-01
  • Rev Recd Date: 2010-06-05
  • Publish Date: 2010-10-22
  • We investigated the early embryonic and larval development of the concave-eared torrent frogs, Odorrana tormota (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Embryos were derived from artificial fertilization of frogs’ eggs, and the staging of development was based on morphological and physiological characteristics. Two major periods of development were designated: i) early embryonic period, from fertilization to operculum completion stage, lasted for 324 hat water temperature (WT) 18 −23℃; ii) larval period, from operculum completion stage to tail absorbed stage, took 1207 h at WT 20 − 24℃. Tadpoles of the concave-eared torrent frogsshowed no evidence of abdominal sucker. Absence of this key characteristic supports the view from molecular systematics that concave-eared torrent frog does not belong to the genus Amolops. Two cleavage patterns were observed in embryos at 8-cell and 16-cell stages, with Pattern I - 2 (latitudinal cleavage at the 8-cell stage, and meridional cleavage at the 16-cell stage with two perpendicular meridional furrows) being the predominant pattern and only 1.5% belonging to Pattern II (meridional cleavage at the 8-cell stage and latitudinal cleavage at the 16-cell stage). The factors affecting cleavage and hatching ratios, developmental speed, and ecological adaptation were discussed.
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  • [1] Arch VS, Grafe TU, Gridi-Papp M, Narins PM. 2009. Pure ultrasonic communication in an endemic Bornean frog[J]. PLoS ONE, 4(4): 1-8.Cai HX, Che J, Pang JF, Zhao EM, Zhang YP. 2007. Paraphyly of Chinese Amolops (Anura, Ranidae) and phylogenetic position of the rare Chinese frog, Amolops tormotus[J]. Zootaxa, 1531: 49-55.Duellman WE, Trueb L. 1994. Biology of Amphibians [M]. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Fei L, Ye CY, Huang YZ. 1990. Key to Chinese Amphibia [M]. Chongqing: Chongqing Branch, Publishing House of Science and Technology Materials. (in Chinese)Fei L, Ye CY, Li C. 2001. Taxonomic studies of Odorrana versabilis in China II. Descriptions of two new species (Amphibia: Ranidae) [J]. Act Zootax Sin, 26(4): 601-607. (in Chinese)Fei L, Hu SQ, Ye CY, Huang YZ. 2006. Fauna Sinica: Volume 1 Amphibia [M]. Beijing:Science Press. (in Chinese)Fei L, Hu SQ, Ye CY, Huang YZ. 2009a. Fauna Sinica: Volume 2 Amphibia [M]. Beijing:Science Press. (in Chinese)Fei L, Hu SQ, Ye CY, Huang YZ. 2009b. Fauna Sinica: Volume 3 Amphibia [M]. Beijing:Science Press. (in Chinese)Feng AS, Narins PM, Xu CH, Lin WY, Yu ZL, Qiu Q, Xu ZM, Shen JX. 2006. Ultrasonic communication in frogs [J]. Nature,440: 333-336.Frost DR. 2009. Amphibian Species of the World: An Online Reference. Version 5.3 (12 February, 2009)
    [2] [DB/OL]. Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/. New York: American Museum of Natural History.Geng BR, Cai MZ, Wen Q. 1997. The early embryonic development of Rana versabilis [J]. J Fujian Norm Univ: Nat Sci, 13(1): 81-85. (in Chinese)Geng BR, Chen YL, Zhang QJ, Cai MZ. 1999. The early embryonic development of Rana rugulosa [J]. J Fujian Norm Univ: Nat Sci, 15(4): 85-90. (in Chinese)Gosner KL. 1960. A simplified table for staging anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification [J]. Herpetologica, 16(3): 183-190.Han YP, Lu XY. 2001. Early embryonic development in Rana plancyi [J]. Chn J Zool, 36(1): 6-11. (in Chinese)Li PP, Lu YY, Li A, Yu LN. 2008. The tadpole of a little-known frog, Rana tormotus Wu, 1977 [J]. Asiat Herpet Res, 11: 71-75.Li PP, Lu YY, Lü SQ. 2006. Taxonomic status of Rana tormotus Wu, 1977 with description of a new genus of subfamily Raninae
    [J]. Sichuan J Zool, 25(2): 206-209. (in Chinese)Liu JY, Lin XZ, Yang YQ, Xiao HB. 1994. Early embryonic development of Andrias davidianus [J]. Chn J Zool, 29(4): 42-46. (in Chinese)Luo J, Xiao YM, Luo KK, Huang XX, Peng LY, Liu J. 2007. The embryonic development of Andrias davidianus [J]. Prog Nat Sci, 17(11): 1492-1499. (in Chinese)McIntyre P, McCollum S. 2000. Responses of bullfrog tadpoles to hypoxia and predators [J]. Oecologia, 125: 301-308.Pan JH, Liang DY. 1990. Studies of the early embryonic development of Rana rugulosa Wiegmanm [J]. Asiat Herpet Res, 3: 85-100.Shumway W. 1940. Stages in the normal development of Rana pipiens [J]. Anatom Rec, 78(2): 139-147.Song ZM, Ouyang F. 1985. Early embryonic development in Scutiger boulengeri  [J]. Acta Herpet Sin, 4(3): 181-186. (in Chinese)Stuart BL. 2007. The phylogenetic problem of Huia (Amphibia: Ranidae)  [J]. Mol Phylogenet Evol, 46: 49-60.Tang XS, Chen QL, Huang S. 2007. Taxonomic status of the concave-eared frog rana tormotus (Anura, Ranidae) based on 12S rRNA gene [J]. Acta Zootaxon Sin, 32(3): 738-742. (in Chinese)Wang YB, Liu DJ, Xiao MJ. 2007. Early embryonic Development of Pseudorana weiningensis [J]. Sichuan J Zool, 26(2): 379-381. (in Chinese)Wu GF. 1977. A new species of frogs from Huangshan, Anhui—Rana tormotus Wu [J]. Acta Zool Sin, 23(1): 113-115. (in Chinese)Xu DD, Li J, Li FM. 2007. Early embryonic development of spot-legged treefrog (Polypedates megacephalus) [J]. Sichuan J Zool, 26(3): 647-651. (in Chinese)Xu X. 1986. Biology of Development  [M]. Shanghai: East China Normal University Press. (in Chinese)Zhang ZR, Tang ZJ, Huang LZ. 1992. Preliminary study on the early embryonic development in Vibrissaphora yoashanensis [J]. J Guangxi Norm Univ, 10(1): 79-84. (in Chinese)Zou PZ, Wen CY, Xu J, Chen JR. 2001. The primary research for the early embryonic development of Hylarana guentheri  [J]. Chn J Zool, 36(6): 15-19. (in Chinese)
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Embryonic development of the concave-eared torrent frog with its significance on taxonomy

doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05490
Funds:  This study was supported by the National Natural Science Fundation of China (30730029)
  • Author Bio:

  • Corresponding author: JIANG Jian-Ping

Abstract: We investigated the early embryonic and larval development of the concave-eared torrent frogs, Odorrana tormota (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Embryos were derived from artificial fertilization of frogs’ eggs, and the staging of development was based on morphological and physiological characteristics. Two major periods of development were designated: i) early embryonic period, from fertilization to operculum completion stage, lasted for 324 hat water temperature (WT) 18 −23℃; ii) larval period, from operculum completion stage to tail absorbed stage, took 1207 h at WT 20 − 24℃. Tadpoles of the concave-eared torrent frogsshowed no evidence of abdominal sucker. Absence of this key characteristic supports the view from molecular systematics that concave-eared torrent frog does not belong to the genus Amolops. Two cleavage patterns were observed in embryos at 8-cell and 16-cell stages, with Pattern I - 2 (latitudinal cleavage at the 8-cell stage, and meridional cleavage at the 16-cell stage with two perpendicular meridional furrows) being the predominant pattern and only 1.5% belonging to Pattern II (meridional cleavage at the 8-cell stage and latitudinal cleavage at the 16-cell stage). The factors affecting cleavage and hatching ratios, developmental speed, and ecological adaptation were discussed.

XIONG Rong-Chuan, JIANG Jian-Ping, FEI Liang, WANG Bin, YE Chang-Yuan. Embryonic development of the concave-eared torrent frog with its significance on taxonomy. Zoological Research, 2010, 31(5): 490-498. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05490
Citation: XIONG Rong-Chuan, JIANG Jian-Ping, FEI Liang, WANG Bin, YE Chang-Yuan. Embryonic development of the concave-eared torrent frog with its significance on taxonomy. Zoological Research, 2010, 31(5): 490-498. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.05490
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