Specimens Sex SVL (mm) TaL (mm) DS VS SC IL SL Tem Lo Poo Pro CB YBU16086 F 550 45 13-13-13 210 28 7/7 6/6 1+1/1+1 0 2/2 1/1 27+3 YBU16054 F 575 45 13-13-13 208 27 7/7 6/6 1+1/1+1 0 2/2 1/1 26+3 YBU16066 M 335 33 13-13-13 217 28 7/7 6/6 1+1/1+1 0 2/2 1/1 31+4 YBU16067 F 500 49 13-13-13 225 28 7/7 6/6 1+1/1+1 0 2/2 1/1 32+4 For abbreviations, see text. F: Female; M: Male.
Table 1. Morphological characters of the type specimens of Sinomcrurus peinani sp. nov.
Holotype: YBU 16086, adult female, from Cangwu County (N23.65°, E111.56°), Guangxi, China, elevation of ~30 m a.s.l.; collected on 05 June 2016.
Paratypes (three specimens): YBU 16054, female; YBU 16066, male; YBU 16067, female. Same locality and date as holotype.
Diagnosis: All examined specimens possessed a small to medium-sized body, varying from 368 mm to 620 mm, as well as: (1) 30–35 black cross-bands on body and tail; (2) 13 dorsal scale rows throughout, all smooth; (3) white belly with black speckles or bands; (4) broad white transverse bar on top of head with inverted V-shaped anterior margin, white bar wider than anterior black bar; and (5) frontal V-like, 1.3 times as long as wide.
Description of holotype: Adult female. Total length 550 mm, tail length 45 mm. Body rather slender; head short, broad, and rounded with obtuse muzzle. Rostral trapezoidal, 1.5 times as broad as deep. Internasals large and square, slightly wider than long, in contact with each other and with rostral. Prefrontals pentagonal, length equal to width. Frontal V-shaped, nearly 1.3 times as long as wide. Supraoculars large, twice as long as broad, shorter than frontals. Parietals large, 1.6 times as long as broad. Single loreal, large; one preocular, longer than wide; two postoculars, one below other. Two temporals, one behind other, in contact with supralabials. Seven supralabials on each side, third and fourth bordering eye. Six infralabials, second smallest, first four touching chin-shield; two pairs of chin-shields, in contact with each other.
Dorsal scales in 13 rows throughout, all smooth. Ventrals 219+4, cloaca scale divided. Subcaudals 28, paired; dorsal tail scale rows reduced from six to four at sixth subcaudal. Tail short and tip pointed.
Dorsal surface brownish, with 27+3 regular, narrow, black transverse bands edged with yellow, each band in contact with cross-band on belly, forming closed ring. Quadrangular spots or irregular short bands between rings on belly. Black rings occasionally not reaching abdomen, forming half rings. Head black above with very broad white transverse bar behind eyes. Anterior margin inverted V-shaped white band, extending to prefrontals; posterior margin nearly straight, exceeding end of frontals; white bar wider than anterior black bar, yellowish white below, with 47+5 cross-bars or quadrangular spots.
Ecological notes: The specimens were found in meadowland in bamboo forest (Figure 1A). An individual of Achalinus sp. was found in the stomach of Sinomicrurus peinani sp. nov. No data on diet or reproduction are available.
Etymology: The species is named after Professor Pei-Nan Yu, a distinguished doctor in China, in recognition of his great contribution to the treatment of snakebite. We suggest the following common names for this species: “广西华珊瑚蛇” (Chinese) and Guangxi coral snake (English).
Description of paratypes: The three paratypes are similar to the holotype in body color and pattern. A summary of the morphological and meristic data of the three paratypes is given in Table 1.
Distribution: This species is currently known from China (Cangwu, Guangxi) and Vietnam (Cao Bằng and Vinh Phuc). The speciemens from Vietnam were unavailable for examination, but molecular phylogeney indicated that they should be conspecific with those from Cangwu, Guangxi, China (Supplementary Appendix S3).
Phylogenetic position: Both BI and ML analyses recovered a consistent topology, with slight disagreement in support values in some nodes (Figure 1C). In the BI tree, all individuals of Sinomicrurus formed a monophyly with high support (1.00 PP and 100% BS). Within Sinomicrurus, the two species (S. sauteri and S. hatori) endemic to Taiwan, China formed the basal lineage. Sinomicrurus kelloggi and the recently described S. houi Peng, Wang, Ding, Zhu, Luo, Yang, Huang, Lv, & Huang, 2017, formed a highly supported lineage (1.00 PP and 100% BS). All putative individuals of S. macclellandi formed a monophyly with high support indices (1.00 PP and 97% BS), which was sister to a well-supported monophyly consisting of several individuals from Wuzhou and Guangxi, China and from Vietnam with poor support (0.60 PP and 57% BS). However, unexpectedly, all samples of S. m. swinhoei (Denburgh) were nested within the nominated subspecies (Figure 1C). In addition, two specimens from Guangxi, China and Vietnam formed a well-supported clade (97% BS) with all samples of S. houi from Hainan, China.
Uncorrected P-distances between each in-group taxa/lineage of Sinomicrurus ranged from 1.3% (between S. sauteri and S. hatori) to 14.6% (between S. houi and S. macclellandi) (Supplementary Appendix S4).
Based on a combination of morphological comparisons and molecular phylogenies, we deemed these specimens to represent an undescribed species, which we described herein.
|ZR-2019-074 Supplementary Appendix S1-S4.doc|