Volume 38 Issue 4
Jul.  2017
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Lorenzo Alibardi, Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow. Regeneration of adhesive tail pad scales in the New Zealand gecko (Hoplodactylus maculatus)(Reptilia;Squamata;Lacertilia) can serve as an experimental model to analyze setal formation in lizards generally. Zoological Research, 2017, 38(4): 191-197. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.046
Citation: Lorenzo Alibardi, Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow. Regeneration of adhesive tail pad scales in the New Zealand gecko (Hoplodactylus maculatus)(Reptilia;Squamata;Lacertilia) can serve as an experimental model to analyze setal formation in lizards generally. Zoological Research, 2017, 38(4): 191-197. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.046

Regeneration of adhesive tail pad scales in the New Zealand gecko (Hoplodactylus maculatus)(Reptilia;Squamata;Lacertilia) can serve as an experimental model to analyze setal formation in lizards generally

doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.046
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  • Corresponding author: Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow, vbmeyrow@gmail.com
  • Publish Date: 2017-07-18
  • During the regeneration of the tail in the arboreal New Zealand gecko (Hoplodactylus maculatus) a new set of tail scales, modified into pads bearing setae 5-20 μm long, is also regenerated. Stages of the formation of these specialized scales from epidermal pegs that invaginate the dermis of the regenerating tail are described on the basis of light and electron microscopic images. Within the pegs a differentiating clear layer interfaces with the spinulae and setae of the Oberhäutchen according to a process similar to that described for the digital pads. A layer of clear cytoplasm surrounds the growing tiny setae and eventually cornifies around them and their spatular ends, later leaving the new setae freestanding on the epidermal surface. The fresh adhesive pads help the gecko to maintain the prehensile function of its regenerated tail as together with the axial skeleton (made of a cylinder of elastic cartilage) the pads allow the regenerated tail to curl around twigs and small branches just like the original tail. The regeneration of caudal adhesive pads represents an ideal system to study the cellular processes that determine setal formation under normal or experimental manipulation as the progressive phases of the formation of the setae can be sequentially analyzed.
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  • [1] Alibardi L, Meyer-Rochow VB, 1988. Ultrastructure of the neural component of the regenerating spinal cord of three species of New Zealand lizards (Leiolopisma nigriplantare maccanni, Lampropholis delicata and Hoplodactylus maculatum). New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 15(4): 535-550.
    [2] Alibardi L, Meyer-Rochow VB, 1989. Comparative fine structure of the axial skeleton inside the regenerated tail of lizards and the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus). Gegembaurs Morphologisches Jahrbuch, 135(5): 705-716.
    [3] Alibardi L. 1995. Electron microscopic analysis of the regenerating scales in lizard. Bollettino di Zoologia, 62(2): 109-120.
    [4] Alibardi L. 1999. Keratohyalin-like granules in embryonic and regenerating epidermis of lizards and Sphenodon punctatus (Reptilia, Lepidosauria).Amphibia-Reptilia, 20(1): 11-23.
    [5] Alibardi L. 2009. Cell Biology of adhesive setae in gecko lizards. Zoology, 112(6): 403-424.
    [6] Alibardi L, Edward DP, Patil L, Bouhenni R, Dhinojwala A, Niewiarowski PH. 2011. Histochemical and ultrastructural analysis of adhesive setae of lizards indicate that they contain lipids in addition to keratins. Journal of Morphology, 272(6): 758-768.
    [7] Bauer AM, 1998. Morphology of the adhesive tail tips of Carphodactyline geckos (Reptilia: Diplodactylidae). Journal of Morphology, 235(1): 41-58.
    [8] Bellairs Ad’A., Bryant SV, 1985. Autotomy and regeneration in reptiles. In:Gans, C, Billet F, Maderson PFA. Biology of the Reptilia. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 302-410.
    [9] Bryant SV, Bellairs Ad’A. 1967. Tail regeneration in the lizards Anguis fragilis and Lacerta dugesii. Zoological Journal of the Linnéan Society.(London), 46(310): 297-305.
    [10] Hiller U. 1972. Licht- und elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen zur Haftborstenentwicklung bei Tarentola mauritanica L. (Reptilia, Gekkonidae).Zeitschrft für Morphologie der Tiere, 73(3): 263-278.
    [11] Liu HC, Maneely RB. 1969. Observations on the developing and regenerating tail epidermis of Hemidactylus bowringi (Gray). Acta Anatomica, 72(4): 549-583.
    [12] Maderson PFA. 1966. Histological changes in the epidermis of the Tokay(Gekko gecko) during the sloughing cycle. Journal of Morphology, 119(1): 39-50.
    [13] Maderson PFA. 1970. Lizard glands and lizard hands: models for evolutionary study. Forma et Functio, 3: 179-204.
    [14] Maderson PFA. 1971. The regeneration of caudal epidermal specializations in Lygodactylus picturatus keniensis (Gekkonidae, Lacertilia). Journal of Morphology, 134(4): 467-478.
    [15] Maderson PFA, Baranowitz S, Roth SI. 1978. A histological study of the long term response to trauma of squamate integument. Journal of Morphology, 157(2): 121-136.
    [16] Werner YL. 1967. Regeneration of specialized scales in tails of Teratoscincus(Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica, 48(2): 117-124.
    [17] Wu P, Alibardi L, Chuong CM. 2014. Lizard scale regeneration and development: a model system to analyze mechanisms of skin appendages morphogenesis in amniotes. Regeneration, 1: 16-26.
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Regeneration of adhesive tail pad scales in the New Zealand gecko (Hoplodactylus maculatus)(Reptilia;Squamata;Lacertilia) can serve as an experimental model to analyze setal formation in lizards generally

doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.046
Funds:   
    Corresponding author: Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow, vbmeyrow@gmail.com

Abstract: During the regeneration of the tail in the arboreal New Zealand gecko (Hoplodactylus maculatus) a new set of tail scales, modified into pads bearing setae 5-20 μm long, is also regenerated. Stages of the formation of these specialized scales from epidermal pegs that invaginate the dermis of the regenerating tail are described on the basis of light and electron microscopic images. Within the pegs a differentiating clear layer interfaces with the spinulae and setae of the Oberhäutchen according to a process similar to that described for the digital pads. A layer of clear cytoplasm surrounds the growing tiny setae and eventually cornifies around them and their spatular ends, later leaving the new setae freestanding on the epidermal surface. The fresh adhesive pads help the gecko to maintain the prehensile function of its regenerated tail as together with the axial skeleton (made of a cylinder of elastic cartilage) the pads allow the regenerated tail to curl around twigs and small branches just like the original tail. The regeneration of caudal adhesive pads represents an ideal system to study the cellular processes that determine setal formation under normal or experimental manipulation as the progressive phases of the formation of the setae can be sequentially analyzed.

Lorenzo Alibardi, Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow. Regeneration of adhesive tail pad scales in the New Zealand gecko (Hoplodactylus maculatus)(Reptilia;Squamata;Lacertilia) can serve as an experimental model to analyze setal formation in lizards generally. Zoological Research, 2017, 38(4): 191-197. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.046
Citation: Lorenzo Alibardi, Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow. Regeneration of adhesive tail pad scales in the New Zealand gecko (Hoplodactylus maculatus)(Reptilia;Squamata;Lacertilia) can serve as an experimental model to analyze setal formation in lizards generally. Zoological Research, 2017, 38(4): 191-197. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.046
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