Volume 37 Issue 2
Mar.  2016
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Jia-Qi WANG, Jia-Jia WANG, Xu-Jian WU, Wei-Hong ZHENG, Jin-Song LIU. Short photoperiod increases energy intake, metabolic thermogenesis and organ mass in silky starlings Sturnus sericeus. Zoological Research, 2016, 37(2): 75-83. doi: 10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2016.2.75
Citation: Jia-Qi WANG, Jia-Jia WANG, Xu-Jian WU, Wei-Hong ZHENG, Jin-Song LIU. Short photoperiod increases energy intake, metabolic thermogenesis and organ mass in silky starlings Sturnus sericeus. Zoological Research, 2016, 37(2): 75-83. doi: 10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2016.2.75

Short photoperiod increases energy intake, metabolic thermogenesis and organ mass in silky starlings Sturnus sericeus

doi: 10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2016.2.75
Funds:  This study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31470472), the National Undergraduate "Innovation" Project and Zhejiang Province "Xinmiao" Project.
More Information
  • Corresponding author: Jin-Song LIU
  • Received Date: 2015-11-03
  • Rev Recd Date: 2016-01-10
  • Publish Date: 2016-03-18
  • Environmental cues play important roles in the regulation of an animal's physiology and behavior. One such cue, photoperiod, plays an important role in the seasonal acclimatization of birds. It has been demonstrated that an animal's body mass, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and energy intake, are all affected by photoperiod. The present study was designed to examine photoperiod induced changes in the body mass, metabolism and metabolic organs of the silky starling, Sturnus sericeus. Captive silky starlings increased their body mass and BMR during four weeks of acclimation to a short photoperiod. Birds acclimated to a short photoperiod also increased the mass of certain organs (liver, gizzard and small intestine), and both gross energy intake (GEI) and digestible energy intake (DEI), relative to those acclimated to a long photoperiod. Furthermore, BMR was positively correlated with body mass, liver mass, GEI and DEI. These results suggest that silky starlings increase metabolic thermogenesis when exposed to a short photoperiod by increasing their body and metabolic organ mass, and their GEI and DEI. These findings support the hypothesis that bird species from temperate climates typically display high phenotypic flexibility in thermogenic capacity.
  • loading
  • [1]
    AL-Mansour MI. 2004. Seasonal variation in basal metabolic rate and body composition within individual sanderling bird Calidris alba. Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(4):564-567.
    Bao HH, Liang QJ, Zhu HL, Zhou XQ, Zheng WH, Liu JS. 2014. Metabolic rate and evaporative water loss in the silky starling (Sturnus sericeus).Zoological Research, 35(4):280-286.
    Brand MD, Turner N, Ocloo A, Else PL, Hulbert AJ. 2003. Proton conductance and fatty acyl composition of liver mitochondria correlates with body mass in birds. Biochemical Journal, 376(3):741-748.
    Christians JK. 1999. Controlling for body mass effects:is part-whole correlation important? Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 72(2):250-253.
    Clapham JC. 2012. Central control of thermogenesis. Neuropharmacology, 63(1):111-123.
    Cooper SJ. 2000. Seasonal energetics of mountain chickadees and juniper titmice. The Condor, 102(3):635-644.
    Coutre P, Hulbert AJ. 1995. Relationship between body mass, tissue metabolic rate, and sodium pump activity in mammalian liver and kidney.American Journal of Physiology:Regulatory, Integrative & Comparative Physiology, 268(3):R641-R650.
    Daan S, Masman D, Groenewold A. 1990. Avian basal metabolic rates:their association with body composition and energy expenditure in nature.American Journal of Physiology:Regulatory, Integrative & Comparative Physiology, 259(2):R333-R340.
    Dawson WR, Carey C. 1976. Seasonal acclimatization to temperature in cardueline finches I. Insulative and metabolic adjustments. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 112(3):317-333.
    Doucette LI, Geiser F. 2008. Seasonal variation in thermal energetics of the Australian owlet-nightjar (Aegotheles cristatus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A:Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 151(4):615-620.
    Else PL, Brand MD, Turner N, Hulbert AJ. 2004. Respiration rate of hepatocytes varies with body mass in birds. Journal of Experimental Biology, 207(13):2305-2311.
    Eyster ME. 1954. Quantitative measurement of the influence of photoperiod, temperature and season on the activity of captive songbirds. Ecological Monographs, 24(1):1-28.
    Farner DS, Oksche A, Kamemoto FI, King JR, Cheyney HE. 1961. A comparison of the effect of long daily photoperiods on the pattern of energy storage in migratory and nonmigratory finches. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 2(2):125-142.
    Grodziński W, Wunder BA. 1975. Ecological energetics of small mammals.In:Golley FB, Petrusewicz K, Ryszkowski L. Small Mammals:Their Productivity and Population Dynamics. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 173-204.
    Hammond KA, Diamond J. 1997. Maximum sustained energy budgets in humans and animals. Nature, 386(6624):457-462.
    Hansen JC, Gilman AP, Odland JO. 2010. Is thermogenesis a significant causal factor in preventing the "globesity" epidemic? Medical Hypotheses, 75(2):250-256.
    Heldmaier G, Steinlechner S, Ruf T, Wiesinger H, Kingenspor M. 1989.Photoperiod and thermoregulation in vertebrate:body temperature rhythms and thermogenic acclimation. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 4(2):251-265.
    Hill RW. 1972. Determination of oxygen consumption by use of the paramagnetic oxygen analyzer. Journal of Applied Physiology, 33(2):261-263.
    Johnston DW. 1962. Lipid deposition and gonadal recrudescence in response to photoperiodic manipulations in the slate-colored junco. The Auk, 79(3):387-398.
    Karasov WH. 2011. Digestive physiology:a view from molecules to ecosystem.American Journal of Physiology:Regulatory, Integrative & Comparative Physiology, 301(2):R276-R284.
    Karasov WH, Martínez del Rio C, Caviedes-Vidal E. 2011. Ecological physiology of diet and digestive systems. Annual Reviews of Physiology, 73(1):69-93.
    Klaassen M, Oltrogge M, Trost L. 2004. Basal metabolic rate, food intake, and body mass in cold- and warm-acclimated Garden Warblers. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A:Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 137(4):639-647.
    Liknes ET, Swanson DL. 2011. Phenotypic flexibility in passerine birds:Seasonal variation of aerobic enzyme activities in skeletal muscle. Journal of Thermal Biology, 36(7):430-436.
    Liu JS, Li M. 2006. Phenotypic flexibility of metabolic rate and organ masses among tree sparrows Passer montanus in seasonal acclimatization.Acta Zoologica Sinica, 52(3):469-477.
    Lou Y, Yu TL, Huang CM, Zhao T, Li HH, Li CJ. 2013. Seasonal variations in the energy budget of Elliot's pheasant (Syrmaticus ellioti) in cage. Zoological Research, 34 (E1):E19-E25.
    MacKinnon J, Phillipps K. 2000. A field guide to the birds of China. London:Oxford University Press.
    McKechnie AE. 2008. Phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate and the changing view of avian physiological diversity:a review. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 178(3):235-247.
    McKechnie AE, Freckleton RP, Jetz W. 2006. Phenotypic plasticity in the scaling of avian basal metabolic rate. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 273(1589):931-937.
    McKechnie AE, Swanson DL. 2010. Sources and significance of variation in basal, summit and maximal metabolic rates in birds. Current Zoology, 56(6):741-758.
    McKechnie AE, Wolf BO. 2004. The allometry of avian basal metabolic rate:good predictions need good data. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 77(3) 502-521.
    McNab BK. 2006. The relationship among flow rate, chamber volume and calculated rate of metabolism in vertebrate respirometry. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A:Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 145(3):287-294.
    Ni XY, Lin L, Zhou FF, Wang XH, Liu JS. 2011. Effects of photoperiod on body mass, organ masses and energy metabolism in Chinese bulbul(Pycnonotus sinensis). Acta Ecologica Sinica, 31(1):1703-1713. (in Chinese)
    Piersma T, Bruinzeel L, Drent R, Kersten M, Van der Meer J, Wiersma P. 1996. Variability in basal metabolic rate of a long-distance migrant shorebird(Red Knot, Calidris canutus) reflects shifts in organ sizes. Physiological Zoology, 69(1):191-217.
    Piersma T, Drent J. 2003. Phenotypic flexibility and the evolution of organismal design. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 18 (5):228-233.
    Piersma T, Van Gils JA. 2011. The Flexible Phenotype:A Body-centred Integration of Ecology, Physiology and Behavior. Oxford:Oxford University Press.
    Petit M, Lewden A, Vézina F. 2014. How dose flexibility in body mass composition relate to seasonal changes in metabolic performance in a small passerine wintering at northern latitude? Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 87(4):539-549.
    Pohl H, West GC. 1973. Daily and seasonal variation in metabolic response to cold during rest and exercise in the common redpoll. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A:Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 45(3):851-867.
    Rolfe DFS, Brown GC. 1997. Cellular energy utilization and molecular origin of standard metabolic rate in mammals. Physiological Reviews, 77(3):731-758.
    Saarela S, Heldmaier G. 1987. Effect of photoperiod and melatonin on cold resistance, thermoregulation and shivering∕nonshivering thermogenesis in Japanese quail. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 157(5):509-518.
    Saarela S, Vakkuri O. 1982. Photoperiod-induced changes in temperaturemetabolism curve, shivering threshold and body temperature in the pigeon.Experientia, 38(3):373-374.
    Schmidt-Nielsen K. 1997. Animal Physiology:Adaptation and Environment.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 169-214.
    Smit B, McKechnie AE. 2010. Avian seasonal metabolic variation in a subtropical desert:basal metabolic rates are lower in winter than in summer.Functional Ecology, 24(2):330-339.
    Starck JM, Rahmaan GHA. 2003. Phenotypic flexibility of structure and function of the digestive system of Japanese quail. Journal of Experimental Biology, 206(11):1887-1897.
    Swanson DL. 1990. Seasonal variation in cold hardiness and peak rates of cold induced thermogenesis in the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). The Auk, 107(3):561-566.
    Swanson DL. 1991. Seasonal adjustments in metabolismand insulation in the dark-eyed junco. The Condor, 93(3):538-545.
    Swanson DL. 2010. Current Ornithology. In:Charles F. Thompson Seasonal Metabolic Variation in Birds:Functional and Mechanistic Correlates.New York:Springer Science, 75-129.
    Swanson D, Zhang YF, Liu JS, Merkord CL, King MO. 2014. Relative roles of temperature and photoperiod as drivers of metabolic flexibility in darkeyed juncos. Journal of Experimental Biology, 217(6):866-875.
    Vézina F, Jalvingh K, Dekinga A, Piersma T. 2006. Acclimation to different thermal conditions in a northerly wintering shorebird is driven by body mass-related changes in organ size. Journal of Experimental Biology, 209(16):3141-3154.
    Williams JB, Tieleman BI. 2000. Flexibility in basal metabolic rate and evaporative water loss among hoopoe larks exposed to different environmental temperatures. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 203(20):3153-3159.
    Wolfson A. 1952. The occurrence and regulation of the refractory period in the gonadal and fat cycles of the junco. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 121(2):311-325.
    Wu MX, Zhou LM, Zhao LD, Zhao ZJ, Zheng WH, Liu JS. 2015. Seasonal variation in body mass, body temperature and thermogenesis in the Hwamei, Garrulax canorus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A:Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 179:113-119.
    Wu YN, Lin L, Xiao YC, Zhou LM, Wu MS, Zhang HY, Liu JS. 2014. Effects of temperature acclimation on body mass and energy budget in the Chinese bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis. Zoological Research, 35(1):33-41.
    Yang ZH, Shao SL, Liu JS. 2009. Changes of metabolic rate and organ masses of tree sparrow Passer montanus in photoperiod acclimation.Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 28(4):513-516. (in Chinese)
    Zhang YF, Eyster K, Liu JS, Swanson DL. 2015. Cross-training in birds:cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows(Passer domesticus). Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(14):2190-2200.
    Zhang YP, Liu JS, Hu XJ, Yang Y, Chen LD. 2006. Metabolism and thermoregulation in two species of passerines from southeastern China in summer. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 52(4):641-647.
    Zheng GM, Zhang CZ. 2002. Birds in China. Beijing:China Forestry Press, 169-232. (in Chinese)
    Zheng WH, Li M, Liu JS, Shao SL. 2008a. Seasonal acclimatization of metabolism in Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A:Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 151(4):519-525.
    Zheng WH, Li M, Liu JS, Shao SL, Xu XJ. 2014a. Seasonal variation of metabolic thermogenesis in Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) over a latitudinal gradient. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 87(5):704-718.
    Zheng WH, Lin L, Liu JS, Pan H, Cao MT, Hu YL, 2013. Physiological and biochemical thermoregulatory responses of Chinese bulbuls Pycnonotus sinensis to warm temperature:Phenotypic flexibility in a small passerine.Journal of Thermal Biology, 38(5):240-246.
    Zheng WH, Liu JS, Jang XH, Fang YY, Zhang GK. 2008b. Seasonal variation on metabolism and thermoregulation in Chinese bulbul. Journal of Thermal Biology, 33(6):315-319.
    Zheng WH, Liu JS, Swanson DL. 2014b. Seasonal phenotypic flexibility of body mass, organ masses, and tissue oxidative capacity and their relationship to RMR in Chinese bulbuls. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 87(3):432-444.
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (987) PDF downloads(1643) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint