2019 Vol. 40, No. 5
Research on in vitro culture and gene editing of domestic spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is of considerable interest but remains a challenging issue in animal science. In recent years, some progress on the isolation, purification, and genetic manipulation of porcine SSCs has been reported. Here, we summarize the characteristics of porcine SSCs as well current advances in their in vitro culture, potential usage, and genetic manipulation. Furthermore, we discuss the current application of gene editing in pig cloning technology. Collectively, this commentary aims to summarize the progress made and obstacles encountered in porcine SSC research to better serve animal husbandry, improve livestock fecundity, and enhance potential clinical use.
Stem cell therapy (SCT) for Parkinson’s disease (PD) has received considerable attention in recent years. Non-human primate (NHP) models of PD have played an instrumental role in the safety and efficacy of emerging PD therapies and facilitated the translation of initiatives for human patients. NHP models of PD include primates with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism, who are responsive to dopamine replacement therapies, similar to human PD patients. Extensive research in SCT has been conducted to better treat the progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration that underlies PD. For effective application of SCT in PD, however, a number of basic parameters still need to be tested and optimized in NHP models, including preparation and storage of cells for engraftment, methods of transplantation, choice of target sites, and timelines for recovery. In this review, we discuss the current status of NHP models of PD in stem cell research. We also analyze the advances and remaining challenges for successful clinical translation of SCT for this persistent disease.
We provide an integrative taxonomic analysis of the Lipinia vittigera species complex from mainland Southeast Asia. Based on examination of external morphology, color pattern, and 681 base pairs of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene, we demonstrate the presence of four morphologically distinct lineages of Lipinia in Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, and Malaysia, showing a sequence divergence ranging 15.5%–20.4%. All discovered lineages are discretely diagnosable from one another by a combination of scalation traits and color patterns. A review of the published distribution data and a re-examination of available type material revealed the following results: (1) distribution of L. vittigera (Boulenger, 1894) sensu stricto is restricted to Sundaland and the Thai-Malay Peninsula south of the Isthmus of Kra; (2) L. microcercus (Boettger, 1901) stat. nov. is elevated to full species rank; the species has a wide distribution from central and southern Vietnam across Cambodia to eastern Thailand; we regard Lygosoma vittigerum kronfanum Smith, 1922 and Leiolopisma pranensis Cochran, 1930 as its junior synonyms; (3) Lipinia trivittata sp. nov. occurs in hilly areas of southern Vietnam, Cambodia, and eastern Thailand; and (4) Lipinia vassilievi sp. nov. is currently known only from a narrow area along the Vietnamese-Cambodian border in the foothills of the central Annamite Mountain Range. We further provide an identification key for Lipinia occurring in mainland Southeast Asia.
Information flow between the prefrontal and visual cortices is critical for visual behaviors such as visual search. To investigate its mechanisms, we simultaneously recorded spike and local field potential (LFP) signals in the frontal eye field (FEF) and area V4 while monkeys performed a free-gaze visual search task. During free-gaze search, spike-LFP coherence between FEF and V4 was enhanced in the theta rhythm (4–8 Hz) but suppressed in the alpha rhythm (8–13 Hz). Cross-frequency couplings during the Cue period before the search phase were related to monkey performance, with higher FEF theta-V4 gamma coupling and lower FEF alpha-V4 gamma coupling associated with faster search. Finally, feature-based attention during search enhanced spike-LFP coherence between FEF and V4 in the gamma and beta rhythms, whereas overt spatial attention reduced coherence at frequencies up to 30 Hz. These results suggest that oscillatory coupling may play an important role in mediating interactions between the prefrontal and visual cortices during visual search.
Classical Fc receptors (FcRs) mediate the binding to and recognition of the Fc portion of antibodies and play an important role during immune responses in mammals. Although proteins similar to soluble FcRs have been identified in fish, little is known about the role of such proteins in fish immunity. Here, we cloned a cDNA sequence encoding a soluble Fc receptor for an immunoglobulin G (FcγR) homolog from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) (PaFcγRl). The predicted protein was composed of two immunoglobulin C2-like domains but lacked a transmembrane segment and a cytoplasmic tail. The PaFcγRl transcripts were distributed at low levels in all tested tissues, but significantly increased after Vibrio anguillarum infection. The PaFcγRl protein was expressed in the head kidney, trunk kidney, and neutrophils. Recombinant PaFcγRl (rPaFcγRl) was secreted when transfected into mammalian cells and the native protein was also detected in serum upon infection. rPaFcγRl was also demonstrated to bind to ayu IgM, as assessed by cell transfection. Suppressive activity of the recombinant mature protein of PaFcγRl (rPaFcγRlm) on in vitro anti-sheep red blood cell (SRBC) responses was detected by a modified hemolytic plaque forming cell assay. In conclusion, our study revealed that PaFcγRl is closely involved in the negative regulation of IgM production in the ayu spleen.
Ephrin receptors are the most common tyrosine kinase effectors operating during development. Ephrin receptor genes are reported to be up-regulated in the regenerating tail of the Podarcis muralis lizard. Thus, in the current study, we investigated immunolocalization of ephrin receptors in the Podarcis muralis tail during regeneration. Weak immunolabelled bands for ephrin receptors were detected at 15–17 kDa, with a stronger band also detected at 60–65 kDa. Labelled cells and nuclei were seen in the basal layer of the apical wound epidermis and ependyma, two key tissues stimulating tail regeneration. Strong nuclear and cytoplasmic labelling were present in the segmental muscles of the regenerating tail, sparse blood vessels, and perichondrium of regenerating cartilage. The immunolocalization of ephrin receptors in muscle that gives rise to large portions of new tail tissue was correlated with their segmentation. This study suggests that the high localization of ephrin receptors in differentiating epidermis, ependyma, muscle, and cartilaginous cells is connected to the regulation of cell proliferation through the activation of programs for cell differentiation in the proximal regions of the regenerating tail. The lower immunolabelling of ephrin receptors in the apical blastema, where signaling proteins stimulating cell proliferation are instead present, helps maintain the continuous growth of this region.
Small populations with low genetic diversity are prone to extinction. Knowledge on the genetic diversity and structure of small populations and their genetic response to anthropogenic effects are of critical importance for conservation management. In this study, samples of Ancherythroculter nigrocauda, an endemic cyprinid fish from the upper reaches of Yangtze River, were collected from five sites to analyze their genetic diversity and population structure using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and 14 microsatellite loci. Haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity, and expected heterozygosity indicated that the A. nigrocauda populations had low genetic diversity, and decreased heavily from 2001 to 2016. Significant genetic differentiation was found among different populations in the cyt b gene and SSR markers based on the genetic differentiation index (F ST), whereas no differentiation was found in 2001. Haplotype genealogy showed that eight out of 15 haplotypes were private to one population. The SSR STRUCTURE analysis showed that there were four genetic clusters in the A. nigrocauda samples, with each population forming a single cluster, except for the Chishui River (CSR) and Mudong River (MDR) populations, which formed a common cluster. Therefore, loss of genetic diversity and increased genetic differentiation were found in the A. nigrocauda populations, which could be attributed to dam construction, overfishing, and water pollution in the upper Yangtze River. It is therefore recommended that the government should ban fishing, control water pollution, increase river connectivity, and establish artificial breeding and stocking.
Detailed information on the size and genetic structure of wildlife populations is critical for developing effective conservation strategies, especially for those species that have suffered population decline and fragmentation due to anthropogenic activities. In the present study, we used a non-invasive approach combining fecal pellet sampling with mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA microsatellite marker analysis to monitor and compare the population structure of the Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus) in Beijing and northeast Inner Mongolia in China. Of the 307 fecal samples confirmed to be from N. griseus, 15 individuals (nine females and six males) were found in the Beijing population and 61 individuals (37 females and 24 males) were found in the Inner Mongolian population. Among these 76 individuals, we identified eight haplotypes and 13 nucleotide polymorphic sites from mtDNA and 45 alleles from 10 microsatellite loci. Spatially structured genetic variation and a significant level of genetic differentiation were observed between the two populations. In both populations, the sex ratios were skewed toward females, indicating high reproductive potential, which is crucial for population recovery and conservation of this patchily distributed vulnerable species. We suggest that managing the two populations as evolutionarily significant units with diverse genetic backgrounds could be an effective solution for present population recovery, with the possible relocation of individuals among different groups to help ensure future goral species prosperity.
Investigations on manual laterality in non-human primates can help clarify human evolutionary origins of hand preference and cerebral cognition. Although body posture can influence primate hand preference, investigations on how posture affects hylobatid manual laterality are still in their infancy. This study focused on how spontaneous bipedal behavioral tasks affect hand preference in Hylobatidae. Ten captive northern white-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys) were chosen as focal subjects. Unimanual grooming during sitting posture and supported bipedal posture were applied as behavioral tasks. The gibbons displayed a modest tendency on left-hand preference during sitting posture and right-hand preference during supported bipedal posture, although no group-level hand preference was detected for either posture. From the sitting to supported bipedal posture, 70% of individuals displayed different degrees of right-side deviation trends. The strength of manual laterality in the supported bipedal posture was higher than that in the sitting posture. We found significant sex differences in manual laterality during supported bipedal posture but not during sitting posture. Thus, to a certain degree, bipedal posture in N. leucogenys facilitates stronger hand preference, elicits a rightward trend in manual laterality, and produces sex-specific hand preference.
Despite continuous studies on the cryptic diversity of the Diploderma flaviceps complex in Southwest China for the pastdecade, little attention has been given to other widespreadcongeners in China. Combining both morphological and phylogenetic data, we describe a new species of Diplodermafrom populations identified previously as D. dymondi in thelower Yalong River Basin in southern Sichuan Province. Thenew species is morphologically most similar to D. dymondiand D. varcoae, but it can be differentiated by a considerablegenetic divergence and a suite of morphological characters,including having taller nuchal crest scales, smaller tympana,and a distinct oral coloration. Additionally, we discuss otherputative species complexes within the genus Diploderma inChina.
Nest sanitation is a ubiquitous behavior in birds and functions to remove foreign objects that accidentally have fallen into their nests. In avian brood parasitism, the host’s ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs is a specific anti-parasitic behavior. Previous studies have shown that egg recognition may have evolved from nest sanitation behavior; however, few studies have offered evidence in support of this hypothesis. In the current study, we added one real white egg and one model egg to the nests of common tailorbirds (Orthotomus sutorius), the main host of plaintive cuckoos (Cacomantis merulinus), to explore the relationship between egg recognition ability in hosts and nest sanitation behavior. Results showed that common tailorbirds rejected both non-mimetic blue model eggs and mimetic white model eggs at a similar rate of 100%, but only rejected 16.1% of mimetic real white eggs. The egg rejection behavior of common tailorbirds towards both real and model eggs was consistent. However, when both blue model eggs and real white eggs were simultaneously added to their nests, the probability of rejecting the mimetic real white egg increased to 50%. The addition of blue model eggs not only increased the occurrence of nest sanitation behavior but also increased the ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs. This suggests that nest sanitation may facilitate egg rejection in common tailorbird hosts.