2013 Vol. 34, No. E5

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2013, 34(E5): 5310-E.
The Riodinidae is one of the lepidopteran butterfly families. This study describes the complete mitochondrial genome of the butterfly species Abisara fylloides, the first mitochondrial genome of the Riodinidae family. The results show that the entire mitochondrial genome of A. fylloides is 15 301 bp in length, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a 423 bp A+T-rich region. The gene content, orientation and order are identical to the majority of other lepidopteran insects. Phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted using the concatenated 13 protein-coding gene (PCG) sequences of 19 available butterfly species covering all the five butterfly families (Papilionidae, Nymphalidae, Peridae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae). Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses highly supported the monophyly of Lycaenidae+Riodinidae, which was standing as the sister of Nymphalidae. In addition, we propose that the riodinids be categorized into the family Lycaenidae as a subfamilial taxon.
There is some discrepancy in the classification of different species of Hylopetes, particularly regarding systematic status of H. electilis and H. phayrei and their relationship to other species. In the present study, for the first time we have brought together six of the nine Hylopetes speciesand performed statistical analysis of 14 measurable cranial variables, analyzing in total 89 specimens, including H. electilis, H. alboniger, H. phayrei, H. lepidus, H. spadiceus, and H. nigripes. Both univariate and multivariate analysis results indicate that H. electilis can not only be obviously distinguished from H. phayrei, but also clearly differs from the other four Hylopetes species. These results sustain the contention that H. electilis is neither a synonym nor subspecies of H. phayrei,but should be considered a distinct and valid species. Subsequently, a straightforward discussion on the biogeography of Hylopetes in southeastern Asia gives further insight into the differentiation and variety of species belonging to this genus.
Sinocyclocheilus is a cave-dwelling cyprinid genus endemic to southwest China. Several species possess a conspicuous horn on their head, which has been suggested as a constructive troglomorphic trait but lacks substantial evidence. We used non-invasive, high spatial resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the horn of Sinocyclocheilus hyalinus, one of eight such troglobiotic species. 3D renderings demonstrated the osteological components, which were comprised of a rear wall comprised of the supraoccipital bone, a remaining frontal wall with numerous fenestrae, and the bottom continuous with the parietal and epiotic. A horn cavity occurred within the horn. The fenestrae in the frontal wall were continuous in the horn cavity and showed elaborate channeling, and were, connected to the cranial cavity by soft tissue. We tentatively called this configuration the "otocornual connection" due to its anatomic and putative functional similarity to the otolateralic connection in clupeids and loricariids, which provide an indirect pathway to enhance perception of underwater sound signals. This study provides a functional morphology context for further histological and physiological investigations of such horn structures in Sinocyclocheilus cavefish, and we suggest that the horn might enhance acoustic perception to compensate for visual loss in subterranean life, which warrants future physiological examination as lab-reared S. hyalinus become available.
This study compared the accumulation of Zn2+and Cu2+ in the ovaries and ova of loaches under different concentrations of Zn2+ (1.00, 2.50 and 5.00 mg/L respectively) and Cu2+ (0.10, 0.25 and 0.50 mg/L respectively). The results showed that both Zn2+ and Cu2+ accumulated in the ovaries, and that the relationship between accumulation and time was linear over 20 days of exposure. The accumulation of the metals in ovaries was closely related to the concentration of exposure in the solutions (P<0.05), and was obviously affected by the time and doses. However, the Cu2+ concentration was significantly higher than Zn2+(P<0.05). The development level of ova in the ovaries also correlated with the concentration and exposure period in the Zn2+ and Cu2+ solutions.
Pratylenchus ekrami from maize (Zea mays) roots in Shenyang and luffa (Luffa cylindrica) roots in Dalian, China, are described in this paper. Nematodes from the two areas were identified consistently, and were characterized by a heavy cephalic sclerotization, extending posteriorly up to two body annuli, stylet 11-13 祄 long, elongating conoid tail, and becoming thinner from vulva. Males were not found. Pratylenchus ekrami is close to Pratylenchus vulnus, but the most critical characteristics between the two species were the number of lip annuli, stylet size, and shape of stylet knobs. This species is the first reported in China.