2005 Vol. 26, No. 1
Based on mass balance theory and IsoSource program,stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios revealed that small mammals (plateau pika,root vole and plateau zokor) contributed 26.8% and 27.0% and 29.2% to alpine weasel,steppe polecat and upland buzzard of carnivores as food respectively;adult passerine birds contributed 22.3%,47.7% and 69.1%,with hatchlings contributing 50.9%,25.6% and 1.70% to each respectively.δC values plotted against δN indicated significant partitioning in two-dimensional space among the three carnivores.It was reasonable to propose a food resource partitioning among alpine weasel,steppe polecat and upland buzzard,which partially revealed their co-existence mechanisms.
Population dynamics of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) are simulated by simulation model Vortex 9.42 on the basis of their relative parameters.All subpopulation sizes can increase during the period of next 100 years without inbreeding depression and poaching,but Pantiange and Baijixun subpopulations which is smaller may extinct with possibilities of 3% and 6%. When inbreeding depression and poaching are considered,only sizes of 5 subpopulations (Xiaochangdu,Wuyapuya,Jinsichang,Fuheshan and Gehuaqing) increase,3 (Cikatong,Gemorong and Xiangguqing) maintain stable,and the other 5 (Milaka,Bamei,Longmashan,Pantiange and Baijixun) decline.Population size of subpopulations with larger environmental capacity can increase faster when other parameters are close to the other subpopulations.Therefore,habitat protect should be emphasized for the long-term survival of the species.It is important to stop poaching because it has negative impacts on meta-populations.Inbreeding rate increases with time and smaller population size,it also has negative influences on the long term survival of the species.
From March to May,2004,we selected 8 typical parks or green lands in Shanghai downtown as the study sites to conduct a ornithological research. During this study,total 55 species of birds were recorded,which included 31 resident and 24 migratory species. With statistics methodology,we analyzed the avian communities with 10 major environmental factors covering the park area,water percentage,vegetation species,canopy cover,shrub cover,grass cover,hill number,location condition,human quantity,path width,the study results indicated that:(1) the following 7 environmental factors were important to impact the structures of the avian community,they were park area,vegetation species,shrub coverage,grass coverage,hill number,location condition of the parks and path width;(2) the avian community of theses urban parks tended to deteriorate in the bird number and diversity;the man-made lake which was currently promoted in the park designing and planning process would not be good to attract the birds.
In order to study spatial movements of understory birds,mist nets and point counts were used in primary tropical mountain rain forest (PTM),secondary tropical mountain rain forest (STM),secondary tropical evergreen monsoon forest (STE) and secondary tropical semi-deciduous monsoon forest (STS) of Jianfengling,Hainan Island from May 2000 to March 2002. Sampled sites have a range of sea level from 190 m to 1 025 m. A total of 137 species were recorded. Red-flanked Bush Robin (Tarsiger cyanurus),Grey Thrush (Turdus cardis),White-crowned Forktail(Enicurus leschenaulti),Rufous-necked Scimitar Babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis),Goulds Fulvetta (Alcippe brunnea) and Grey-cheeked Fulvetta (Alcippe morrisonia) often act under 3 m forest. Though White-throated Bulbul (Alophoixus pallidus) mainly acts in range 3.1-10.0 m height,it often feeds under 3 m. Silver-breasted Broadbill (Serilophus lunatus) has never been seen under 3 m in the field,but it often is captured by mist nets because of flying way bellowing 3 m. So,these birds are the target species of movement study in the paper. A total of 428 individuals of 41 species were banded and 32 individuals of 8 species were recaptured during 6 426 net-hours. Total recapture rate was 7.5%. Grey-cheeked Fulvetta was recaptured most often,representing 43.8% of recaptured individuals. Of all species,Grey-cheeked Fulvetta moved the farthest (up to 1 150 m) from its banding location. Understory insectivorous birds form the most dominant group in tropical forest of Jianfengling. Among insectivorous birds,Silver-breasted Broadbill,Grey-cheeked Fulvetta and Goulds Fulvetta moved furthest,their mean distance of movement were 650 m,582 m and 387 m respectively. Frugivorous birds,such as White-throated Bulbul and Green-winged Bulbul (Hypsipetes mcclellandii) often move near banding points. The mean distance moved by insectivorous birds (442.3 m,n=27) was longer than that of frugivorous birds. Vegetation types affect the movement of birds. The mean distances moved by birds in PTM,STM,STE and STS were 686.5 m (n=13),312.8 m (n=12),89.6 m (n=5) and 195 m (n=2),respectively. The mean distance of movement in PTM was highly significantly farther than that in STE (F3,28=5.05,P<0.01). The mean movement distance of birds was significantly related with the length of wings (r=0.84,P<0.05),but not significantly related with body weights (r=0.79,P>0.05). Because insectivorous birds have a large range of movement,continuous forest in Hainan Island must be protected in order to conserve these understory insectivorous birds. Silver-breasted Broadbill is the typical understory insectivorous birds and species of key protection of China. It distributes only in tropical mountain rain forests,not in STE and STS at Jianfengling. Its protection deserves considerably attention.
We inventoried the avifauna of two nature reserves in Hunan Province,China,from 21 August to 14 September 2002,recording 58 species at Shunhuang Shan Nature Reserve in southwest Hunan,and 43 species at Dawei Shan Nature Reserve in northeast Hunan. A voucher collection of 186 specimens representing 51 bird species was deposited at the University of Kansas Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center,with photographs documenting an additional 8 taxa. Most taxa had recently completed breeding,and 14 species of Palearctic migrants used the study sites as stopover areas or wintering grounds. We report range or elevational extensions for Grey-chinned Minivet (Pericrocotus solaris),Little Forktail (Enicurus scouleri),and Spotted Forktail (Enicurus maculatus).
We used four species of lizards (Eumeces chinensis,Takydromus septentrionalis,Eremias brenchleyi and Calotes versicolor) that use different habitats as the experimental models to study variation in locomotor performance resulting from inter-specific differences in morphological traits.The sequence of body size measuring by snout-vent length (SVL) was E.chinensis (a ground-dwelling lizard)>C.versicolor (an arboreal lizard)>T.septentrionalis (a grass-dwelling lizard)>E.brenchleyi (a saxicolous lizard). Head size,limb length and tail length relative to SVL were the greatest in C.versicolor,intermediate in E.brenchleyi and T.septentrionalis,and the smallest in E.chinensis.Body height relative to SVL was the greatest in T.septentrionalis,intermediate in E.chinensis and C.versicolor,and the smallest in E.brenchleyi.On a horizontal racetrack,E.brenchleyi and T.septentrionalis run faster than did E.chinensis and C.versicolor.On an oblique racetrack,E.brenchleyi and C.versicolor run faster than did E.chinensis.The cling ability was the greatest in C.versicolor but the lowest in E.chinensis.Our data provide a support for the previous predictions that locomotion of animals has clear morphological determinants and that morphological variation may have fitness consequences through affecting locomotor performance.
Based on the data collected from 9 types of habitat samplings on the macrobenthic community in the diked tidal flat at the south bank of Hangzhou Bay in Jan. 2004,the composition of species,diversity,and community structure were studied,and 9 types of habitats selected were Spartina alterniflora moist soil (SAMS),Phragmites communis moist soil (PCMS),S.alterniflora dry soil (SADS),P.communis dry soil (PCDS),S.alterniflora inundated soil (SAIS),P.communis inundated soil (PCIS),admixture dry soil (ADS),using pond (UP),and desolation pond (DP).From 9 types of habitats,total 13 species were collected,which are belonged to 7 order,3 classes,2 phylums and dominated by the living types of surface and surface below,and most of them are the arthropod and crustacea.Shannon-Wiener indexes (H) of the macrobenthic communities are followed SAMS>PCMS>SADS>PCDS=SAIS>PCIS>ADS>DP>UP,Pielou indexes (J) are SAMS>PCMS>SADS>PCDS>ADS>SAIS>PCIS>DP>UP,and Simpson indexes (D) are PCMS>SAMS>SADS>PCDS>ADS>SAIS>PCIS>DP>UP.Base on the data of four times extracting from the density of macrobenthic communities,using the hierarchical cluster of between-groups linkage method,9 types of habitats are classed 4 groups,I.e.the moist soil,dry soil,water soil and pond groups.The numbers of species of the moist soil,dry soil,water soil and pond are 10,6,10 and 5,the average densities are 45,40,87 and 240 ind/m2,and the biomasses are 23.67,15.11,14.81 and 8.23 g/m2,respectively;H，J and D tend towards moist soil>dry soil>water soil>pond.Using the Non-matric Multi-dimensional Scaling method,9 macrobenthic communities are displayed in the 2-dimensional ordinal configuration,and the dimension 1 implies being concern to the hydrology,the dimension 2 to the complexity of habitats.Also the analysis suggests that the macrobenthic community at the diked tidal flat may be affected by the complex power of hydrology condition,characteristics of sediment,succession of vegetation and relation among the species.
Influence of thermal and hydric environments on incubation eggs,embryonic use of energy and hatchling traits were studied in the lacertid lizards,Eremias brenchleyi,which were collected in Qianshan,Suzhou,Anhui,Eastern China.The eggs were incubated at temperatures of 27,30,and 33 ℃ on substrates with water potentials of 0 and -220 kPa using a 3×2 factorial design. Laid eggs were collected in one hour.Eggs were weighed at five-days intervals till hatchlings from eggs incubated.Each hatchling was thawed and separated into carcass,residual yolks,and fat bodies after measured and weighed.The components were preserved frozen for later determination of composition.All viable eggs increased in mass throughout the course of incubation due to absorption of water,and both thermal and hydric environments affected water exchanges between eggs and their surroundings.Final eggs incubated in wetter substrates (0 kPa) gained more mass than did eggs in drier substrates (-220 kPa) but at the same temperature;final eggs incubated at 27 and 30 ℃ gained more mass than did eggs at 33 ℃ but at the same substrate water potential.Incubation temperature significantly affected duration of incubation,and which decreased as incubation temperature increased,but substrate moisture and its interaction with temperature did not.Both incubation and substrate moisture did not affected hatching success.Substrate moisture and its interaction with temperature were unaffected almost all hatchling traits examined except residual yolk.However,Incubation temperature profoundly affected embryonic use of nutrients and size，mass,and residual yolk mass of hatchlings.33 ℃ was not a suitable incubation temperature for E.brenchleyi eggs,because eggs incubated at 33 ℃ produced smaller hatchlings that contained larger residual yolks than did eggs incubated at 27 ℃ and 30 ℃.Given that eggs incubated at 27 ℃ and 30 ℃ both produced well-developed hatchlings of which all measured variables were nearly the same,we conclude that 30 ℃ is better than 27 ℃ for incubation of E.brenchleyi eggs because of the shortened duration of incubation at 30 ℃.
Mitochondrial gene fragments of 12S and 16S rRNA of six species including 10 populations (Amolops),and 4 outgroup species were sequenced. Aligned sequences showed that there were 940 bp in length with 352 variable sites and 186 parsimony sites. Phylogenetic relationships were analyzed through NJ,MP,and ML methods and got a consistent topological structure,and it indicated that all of the ingroup were clustered together and comprised two groups. In the group Ⅰ, two populations of A.mantzorum were first clustered together as a sister clade to A.loloensis. In the group Ⅱ,A.daiyunensis and A.hongkongensis were clustered together,the Amolops sp. From Lantau Is. Of Hong Kong was clustered with A.ricketii together as a sister group to A.wuyiensis. This result indicates that there are at least two species of Amolops in Hong Kong,and that A.daiyunensis is a valid species.The fact that genetic differentiation between the Hongya and Shimian populations of A.mantzorum is even bigger than that between them and A.loloensis strongly implies that there maybe are some unknown species contained in A.mantzorum.
The relationship of Perdix between pheasants and partridges as well as some other Galliform species is uncertain because of rapid radiation. In this study,the relationship was investigated via mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (Cytb) nucleotide sequence in 18 individuals of 10 genera in Phasianidae. Amplified Cytb sequences by PCR technique with primers designed by ourselves based upon Galliform sequence data,828 bp were obtained and used to analyse. The result of neighbor-joining method analyses of Cytb sequences with Anhima cornuta and Kachuga dhongoka as outgroup,respectively,showed that P.dauuricae belonged to the pheasants. The obtained phylogenies were generally not in accordance with the taxonomy based on the traditional morphological analysis. In addition,the branching patterns in the phylogenic trees were supported with short branch lengths and low bootstrap values,based on molecular analysis of Phasianidae and Tetraonidae,none of the analyses could resolve the position of Perdix,which were congruent with previous studies in Galliform. The result also suggests that,for mtDNA studies,K.dhongoka may be a better outgroup for birds than A.cornuta.
2005, 26(1): 76-81.
Microsomal stress 70 protein ATPase core (STCH) is a member of the stress 70 protein chaperone family and plays a major role in the immune response and disease resistance of host.Based on the conserved regions of STCH gene sequences from human and mouse,a pair of primers was designed for PCR amplification of porcine STCH gene.A fragment of 445 base pairs product in the exon 5 of pig STCH gene was successfully amplified with the primers.The porcine STCH sequence determined from this fragment showed 87.13% and 80.45% nucleotide identity to the corresponding human and mouse STCH sequences,respectively.A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found at the position 1 050 of coding sequence in the exon 5 of porcine STCH gene according to the sequencing and alignment of STCH genes from Meishan pigs,Yorkshire pigs and PIC commercial pigs.As no cutting sites of all known restriction enzymes could be found for the SNP,Bi-directional PCR amplification of specific alleles (Bi-PASA) was employed to detect the mutation.According to the porcine STCH Bi-PASA marker,the gene allele frequencies and gene polymorphisms were analyzed in the Chinese pig populations (Meishan pigs,Rongchang pigs,Jinhua pigs) and European populations (Yorkshire pigs,Large white pigs) as well as a commercial line (PIC pigs).The STCH Bi-PASA marker established in this study and polymorphic information obtained from population analysis may be helpful for the further association study between the pig STCH gene mutations and economic traits in pigs.
Gills were operated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in Epinephelus fario (Thunberg) and Siniperca kneri Garman，both of which belong to Serranidae,Perciformes,and benthic living and ferocious predatory fishes.The results indicate that the surface architecture and ultrastructure of gill of two species of fishes are similar to other teleosts.They show the presence of various features such as regular and irregular circular microridges,indentations,micropits and crevices.However,their secondary gill lamellaes are rather higher and their surfaces much more concave and unevenness.It maybe acclimates to lower dissolve oxygen in the bottom of water.Some surface architecture of gill filaments of Efario are smoothness,the others are concave and unevenness.The height of secondary gill lamellaes of E.fario is higher than that of S.kneri,so the formers surface area is larger and respiratory efficiency better than the latters. Three kinds of epithelial gill cells,I.e. pavement cell,chloride cell and mucous cell in E.fario and S.kneri can be distinguished under SEM:The limit of pavement cells in the former is well defined by long and circular microridges,but in the latter characterized by irregular microridge throughout the cell surface,with unclear definition of cell boundaries;The number of chloride cells of the gill filament and lamellar in the former is higher than in the latter,and the morphology of chloride cells of both fishes are different;The number of mucous cells of the gill in the former is lower than in the latter.Those differences may be related to inhabit environment and mode of life of two species.The former live in seawater,while the latter live in fresh water.
Tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana and R.chaochiaoensis were collected from the same pond in the northeast suburb of Kunming.Their foods were analyzed.The results showed that food items of R.catesbeiana were eight types and 51 categories in tadpole stage Ⅰ,and eight types and 33 categories in tadpole stage Ⅱ.Food items of R.chaochiaoensis were six types and 30 categories in tadpole stage Ⅱ.Bacillariophyta,Chlorophyta,Cyanophyta were main items of food components in two species.However,there was a remarkable difference of food categories between tadpole stage Ⅱ of R.chaochiaoensis and stage Ⅰ of R.catesbeiana,and there was not difference of food categories between tadpole stage Ⅱ of R.chaochiaoensis and R.catesbeiana.Comparisons among tadpole stage Ⅱ of R.chaochiaoensis with stage Ⅰ and Ⅱ of R.catesbeiana,food niche overlap indexes were 0.6952 and 0.6887;biomass of unit body weight (food biomass/average weight) were 10.96 times and 15.48 times of two stages of R.catesbeiana;the indexes of percentage similarity of food (PS) were not high,I.e.54.95% and 58.11%.Comparisons between the same body weight tadpoles of R.chaochiaoensis and R.catesbeiana,the tadpole of R.chaochiaoensis has greater food quantity.The biomass needed for survival by the tadpole of R.chaochiaoensis was higher than the tadpole of R.catesbeiana.The results both in this text and observed in the field indicated that there was a drastic competition between tadpoles of R.catesbeiana and R.chaochiaoensis in food.Tadpoles of R.chaochiaoensis were in a disadvantageous position.
2005, 26(1): 96-100.
Chromosomes of two Collembola species,Hypogastrura adexilis (Stach,1964) (Hypogastruridae) and Sinella curviseta Brook 1889 (Entomobryidae),were investigated for the first time by squashing whole mount. The results indicated:in H.adexilis,haploid chromosome number was n=7,and 2n=13 in male and 2n=14 in female,so sex chromosome system should be XO;in S.curviseta,n=6,2n=11 in male and 2n=12 in female,also XO sex determination.The male meiosis of H.adexilis was observed:at prophase Ⅰ,homologous chromosomes pairing occurred,and chiasma presented in some bivalents;in the others,homologue were just end-to-end associations;at early anaphase Ⅰ,sex chromosome typically was left behind when autosome half bivalents moved to the poles, and it moved to one of the poles in late telophase Ⅰ.
The resistance of alphamethrin in Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) was selected in laboratory. The resistance development was monitored through the bioassay and the 96-well microplate reader for measuring change of esterase (Est). The results showed that the resistance level gradually rose with the increase of selection time. After three generations,the resistance of green peach aphid was 13-fold. While ten generations later,the resistance amounted to 49.86-fold. It suggested that green peach aphid developed obvious resistance to alphamethrin. As resistance developed,enzyme protein content increased significantly from 35.8632 to 66.2990 μg/mL with Est activity varying from 33.6760 to 171.0052 μmol/(mL·min). Comparing the frequency distribution of enzyme protein content and activity,we found that more and more individuals possessed higher content and activity. And there is a significant correlation between LD and enzyme protein content,Est activity respectively. The results showed that the Est played an important role in resistance development of green peach aphid to alphamethrin.
To investigate the effect of embryo transfer in buffaloes, buffaloes of Yunnan were experimented in 2002. Results showed:(1)Synchronous estrus and usable rates of donors and recipients administered with cloprostenol (PG) 0.6 mg/head,injection once,were 43.33% (13/30) and 16.67% (5/30). Especially,the synchronous estrus rate was higher in paritys than in heifer s (P=0.086),higher in crossbreds than in Dehong Buffalos (P=0.153),and higher in weight from 401 to 530 kg of buffalo cows than from 300 to 400 kg (P<0.05);And the usable rate of buffaloes with evidence estrus behavior was also higher than that of buffaloes with lack of evidence estrus (P<0.01).(2)Five donors crossbred F (Murrah×Dehong buffalo) were picked out from buffaloes of synchronous estrus and divided into two groups,I.e. import hormone group (n=2) and native hormone group (n=3),which were dealt with superovulation. The results showed that 2 out of 5 buffaloes gave 9 embryos,and average no. of recovered embryos and no. of transferable embryos in the import hormone were 2.0 and 1.5,and higher than those in the native hormone,which were 1.67 (P=0.454) and 0.33 (P=0.288),respectively.(3)Four fresh embryos were transferred into 3 receipts,thereinto the rate of 90-day conception was 33.33%,but finally none gave birth to a calf. The experiment results indicate that it is in effect for superovulation of buffaloes with administered 24 mg of import FSH and plus PG (Lutalyse[R]) 35 mg and the same as 11 mg of native FSH and plus PG 0.8 mg,meanwhile suggest that it is practicable if the receipt buffaloes are enough for synchronous estrus,then the cows with evidence estrus behavior and good CL checked can be selected for transferring embryos.