2004 Vol. 25, No. 2
From April 2001 to June 2003,the flocking behavior of Reevess pheasants (Syrmaticus reevesii) was studied in the Dongzhai National Nature Reserve,Henan Province,and Foping County,Shaanxi Province.We tracked 17 pheasants captured and radio-collared,moreover,recorded 328 times of pheasants activities in the field.The result shows that the male and female have different tendency in flocking (χ=18.177,df=3,P=0.000).The adult male occupies stable home range all over the year.It usually moves solely or with a specifically male fellow and with some fixed females who wander in its home range.The females usually build up a flock including 4-6 individuals.The flock moves about in different males home ranges in non-breeding season and the beginning of breeding season.The flock separates while the female begin to incubate.In the late 10 days of June,the failing female in breeding begins to rebuild the flock and wander again.In winter,especially after snow,different flocks can build up a bigger flock for a short time,which includes many males and females.The sexual difference of flock in the species may be related to the differences of predation pressure and mating competition (male>female).
2004, 25(2): 96-104.
Ningxia was divided into 22 area units based on the environment and regionalism.To facilitate the cluster analysis,the grasshopper species in Ningxia were divided into three groups.1)all-area-distributed species (distributed in all the 22 areas),2)more-area-distributed species(distributed in more than one area),3)one-area-distributed species (distributed only in one area).The more-area-distributed species were clustered based on distributions,and then grouped into 14 groups.The distributive areas of each grasshopper group were taken as their distribution pattern.The results show that:The distribution of more-area-distributed grasshopper species in Ningxia is in disconnected,the grasshopper species sharing the same distribution patterns in Ningxia have the similar distribution pattern in China,Helanshan is the hotspot of grasshopper distribution.The fragmented environment is the reason for the unconnected-distribution of more-area-distributed grasshopper species in Ningxia.
We confirmed the foraging sites of Tylonycteris pachypus and T.Robustula using echolocation detecting and mist net catching,measured the potential food (insects) availability in the bats foraging area by sticky traps,and analyzed the bats food components using fecal analysis in Ningming County and Longzhou County,Nanning District,Guangxi Province,China,in the period from March to October,2002.We found that Diptera (above 45.93%,by volume per cent),Coleoptera (above 12.59%) and Hymenoptera (above 7.47%) were important in both Ningming County and Longzhou County,but Diptera and Hymenoptera were significant different between two counties.The results indicated that Diptera (40.33% by volume per cent) and Hymenoptera (38.46%) were important in the food components of T.Pachypus in Ningming County,following by Coleoptera (16.07%);while Hymenoptera (63.37%,62.34% respectively) was important in the food components of both T.Pachypus and T.Robustla in Longzhou County,following by Diptera (21.57%,29.62%) and Coleoptera (11.59%,5.96%).The food components of T.Pachypus in Ningming County also consisted of Hemiptera (2.55%),Homoptera (0.93%),Orthoptera (0.74%),Blattodea (0.52%),Ephemeroptera (0.23%) and Embioptera (0.17%);in Longzhou County also consisted of Hemiptera (1.77%),Homoptera (1.21%),Orthoptera (0.35%) and Trichoptera (0.14%).The food components of T.Robustula in Longzhou County also consisted of Hemiptera (1.54%),Orthoptera (0.26%),Trichoptera (0.16%) and Ephemeroptera (0.16%).Comparing the food components of T.Pachypus between Ningming County and Longzhou County,we found that Hymenoptera and Diptera were significant different.Comparing the food components of bats by fecal analysis with the potential food availability captured in the foraging area,we found that both species of bats positively selected Homoptera,but negatively selected other orders of insects,so both species of bats were prey selectors.
Two new loaches of subfamily Nemacheilinae have been recognized on basis of collections from Hongshuihe River,a tributary of Xijiang in Du an County,Guangxi,China.All type specimens of Yunnanilus pulcherrimus sp.nov.(Holotype:KIZ 995001,39.6 mm SL) were collected from an underground river,and had diagnosis characters:dorsal-fin 3,8-9 (occasionally 3,9);anal-fin 3,5-6 (occasionally 3,6);pectoral-fin 1,8-10;pelvic-fin 1,6-7 (occasionally 1,6);branched caudalfin rays 14-16 (occasionally 14);gill rakers 11-12 on the inner side of 1st gill arch;vertebrae (1 ex.) 4+29.The new species is closely related to Yunnanilus pleurotaenia (Regan,1904) in length of lateral-line,pattern of scale coverage,count of fin rays,shape of caudal-fin and length of rostral barbels,but can be distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern and the elongated papillae on upper and lower lips,and can be further distinguished from Y.Pleurotaenia by some morphometric characters:standard length/body depth 4.3-5.6 (5.0) vs.3.9-4.9 (4.2),standard length/head length 4.4-5.1 (4.7) vs.3.7-3.9 (3.8),standard length/caudal-peduncle length 5.7-7.1 (6.3) vs.7.7-9.1 (8.4),head length/snout length 2.7-3.5 (3.0) vs.2.5-2.8 (2.6),caudal-peduncle length/depth 1.2-1.7 (1.4) vs.1.1-1.2 (1.1).All type specimens of Triplophysa flavicorpus sp.nov.(Holotype:KIZ 995004,76.4 mm SL) were diagnosticated by characters:dorsal-fin 3,10;anal-fin 3,6-7;pectoral-fin 1,11;pelvic-fin 1,6-7 (occasionally 1,6);branched caudal-fin rays 8+8;gill rakers 5-9 on the outer side and 11-12 on the inner side of 1st gill arch;vertebrae (1 ex.) 4+34.The new triplophysid species is closely related to Triplophysa nandanensis Lan et al.1995 by dorsal-fin origin at mid point of body,lateral-line complete and deep forked caudal-fin,and can be easily distinguished from all congeners by following characters:10 branched dorsal fin rays,6-7 branched anal fin rays,body covered by tiny scales,lateral-line complete,6-7 broad vertical bars on body and 1 narrow longitudinal stripe along lateral-line,caudal-fin deeply forked,a large black spot on caudal-fin base,2 black bars on both lobes of caudal-fin,posterior tip of pelvic-fin surpasses anus,a developed axillary lobe present at pelvic-fin base,upper lip completely interrupted at the middle.Both genera of Yunnanilus and Triplophysa are plateaus-indicator fishes.The genus of Yunnanilus is endemic to the eastern Yunnan Plateau.The genus of Triplophysa occurs mainly in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.The geographical location of the two new loach species in Guangxi are far away from the distribution centers of their genera.Their distribution patterns are obviously disjunct.A preliminary phylogenetic analysis on both new species and their relatives demonstrates that disjunct patterns might have been yielded by vicariant mode of speciations.
2004, 25(2): 117-121.
To study the characteristics of energy metabolism,metabolic rate (MR),body temperature (T[b]),and thermal conductance ? were determined at a temperature range of 5-35℃ in 5 male and 3 female Siberian accentors (Prunella montanella) from Qiqihar City of Heilongjiang Province from April to June in 2003.MR was measured by using closed circuit respirometer,T[b] was measured by insertion of a digital thermometer into the cloaca,and C was calculated using the formula:C=MR/(T[b]-T[a]),where T[a] is ambient temperature.With a temperature range of 5-35℃,Siberian accentors can keep their T[b]s stable 41.25±0.12℃.The mean minimum MR was 4.27±0.07 mL O/(g·h).C was 0.26±0.00 mL O/(g·h·℃) with a temperature range of 5-26.5℃.Within this range of temperatures,MR increased with the declining in T[a],and the relationship between MR and Ta can be described as:MR［mL O/(g·h)］=10.39-0.24 T[a] (℃) for Siberian accentors.The ecophysiological characteristics of Siberian accentors were high level in MR and Tb,relative higher in C.These properties might make them adapt to their environments and survive at relatively colder areas.
The study of the ambient noises effect on the vocal frequency of Chinese Bulbuls,Pycnonotus sinensis,was carried out in two cities (Lin an and Fuyang) in China.Based on the noise level (55 db),the samples of each city were divided into two groups of high noise level and low noise level (HN and LN).The records of songs were inputted into the computer,and then the data of principal frequency (PF) of each syllable were gotten through fast Fourier transform (FFT) using a computerized analysis system.The statistical analyses of each syllables PF of the songs were carried out with Mann-Whitney U test to determine differences between HN and LN of each city.The results showed that the minimum PF,maximum PF,the first syllable (SⅠ) and the second syllable (SⅡ) of every song had significant differences between HN and LN in two cities.In Fuyang,the third syllable (SⅢ) had significant difference because of geographic diversity.In contrast HN with LN,the minimum PF,maximum PF and the PF of S1 and SⅡ increased significantly in the high noise level environment.This means that Chinese Bulbuls may avoid the interference of ambient noise with a higher pitch to communicate effectively,and the difference of ambient noises effects on each syllable principal frequency shows that each syllable has different status in communication in noisy environment.
It was disputed that Ficedula parva parva and F.P.Albicilla were two species or two subspecies.Complete sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were used as a genetic marker to study the taxonomic status of them.The genetic distance between F.P.Albicilla and F.P.Parva was 6.3% based on the Kimuras two Parameters method,which was far more than the genetic distance between other species of Ficedula.The results suggest that F.P.Albicilla and F.P.Parva should be two species,their names are F.Albicilla and F.Parva separately,and the divergence time between F.P.Albicilla and F.P.Parva is 3.15 to 3.25 My.
Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1),which is a transcription factor composed of HIF-1α and arylhydocarbon nuclear receptor translocator (ARNT),plays an important role in the signal transduction of cell response to hypoxia.Plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae),which are a kind of high anoxia-tolerance and cold adaptation species lived only above 3000 m on Qinhai-Tibet Plateau,have unusual high RMR and NST,acting mainly via increasing NST to adapt to extreme cold of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau;and high ratio of oxygen utilizing to cope with plateau hypoxia environment.In this study,the plateau pikas were taken to Beijing and adapted under normal oxygen and room temperature for 7 days.One fragment of the plateau pika HIF-1α cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR technique and labeled with P as specific probe.Northern blot analysis showed that HIF-1α mRNA was expressed in many kinds of tissues and displayed a tissue specific expression:the highest in brain,next in kidney,and much less in heart,liver,and spleen.
The behaviors of sub-adult giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) under two different captive conditions (3 pandas in traditional enclosures and 9 in semi-natural enclosures) were studied in China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda,Wolong Nature Reserve from Jul.to Aug.2001.The duration and the frequency of behaviors were recorded by continuous observation.The findings demonstrate that sub-adults in traditional enclosures spent more time in investigating behavior and marking behavior than those in semi-natural enclosures,and stereotypic behavior of sub-adults in traditional enclosures had an increasing trend yet the difference didnt reach statistic significance.The duration of stereotypic behavior was significantly and positively correlated with the frequency of marking behavior and the duration of investigating behavior.These results indicate that the improvement of captive conditions can help to reduce the time sub-adult giant pandas spend on investigating behavior and the frequency of marking behavior.
We used 180 primers in RAPD analysis of Guizhou native goats (the small-xiang goat,Guizhou white goat,Guizhou black goat and Qianbei-pockmarked goat),Nanjiang brown goats and Boer goats.Of the primers,27 amplified polymorphic patterns,including 281 bands.Of the bands,115 were polymorphic and their frequency was 40.92% on average (range 20%-80%).Each of the 27 primers had 10.41 bands on average (range 4-16),and the fragment length of products was 210-2 800 bp.Genetic distance index appeared the lowest between the Guizhou black goat and Guizhou white goat (0.0605),and the highest between the Boer goat and the other goats (0.1059-0.1488).NJ tree indicated that the Guizhou white goat was closely related to the Guizhou black goat,and the next was the Qianbei-pockmarked goat;the small-xiang goat was farther from the other Guizhou native goats than Nanjiang brown goat from.The results analysis suggest that the small-xiang goat is a independent breed on genetics,and Guizhou native goat breeds have the close genetic relationship,low genetic variability and high genetic stability.
Biochemical characters and protein compositions of intermediate filament (IF) -nuclear matrix (NM) system of vegetative- and resting-cell of Tachysoma pellionella were studied by the method of serial selective extraction,diethylene glycol distearate (DGD) embedment and emebedment-free electron microscopy,and SDS-PAGE.The result shows that in the vegetative cell,the IF,with diverse density in different regions,occurs in the cytoplasm;50 nm thick and thin-layer-shaped lamina,in the periphery of nucleus;the NM is composed of a more densely arranged filament network.The same kind of network also exists in the resting cell,as well as in the middle-level layer of cyst wall,but presents more compact compared with the similar structure of vegetative cell,and this phenomenon may refer to the comprehensive contraction in the course of encystment.The result of SDS-PAGE shows that protein composition of this system has changed notably when the cyst is formed,of which,part of the proteins have been preserved and part lost,and some new and distinct proteins occur.The following conclusions can be obtained:the IF-NM system is a stable structure in both vegetative- and resting-cell;changes of IF-NM system and protein composition after encystment reveal that gene expression of resting cell is different from that of vegetative cell.
Behaviors and characteristics of the occupying territorial song of spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis) were studied during the breeding season in Nanchong,Sichuan from April to June,2003.The data were collected by observation and recording in the wild.The records were processed with computerized analysis soft.The results showed that the occupying territorial songs of spotted dove had two types.The songs were different between the male and female.Every song was composed of three syllables.The behavior of the occupying territorial song of spotted dove was responsive.Furthermore,the sequences of singing in each roosting situs were similar.The diurnal frequencies of the occupying territorial song had a great variation and there were three peak periods every day.It was in different phases that the frequencies of the occupying territorial song had also great variation in breeding season.
Using RT-PCR and 3-RACE,DMRT1 gene was partially cloned from the black porgy,Acanthopagrus schlegeli.RT-PCR showed that DMRT1 mRNA was only expressed in the testis.When the transcript levels of DMRT1 were measured in the testis of black porgy before sex change,during sex change,or after sex change,no significant changes in the gene expression were observed.The results show that the transcript levels of DMRT1 gene in the testis of black porgy dont vary according to the changes of physiological status and structure of the testis.
2004, 25(2): 162-165.
Contents of 14 stomachs and 118 food pellets were analyzed to trace dietary information of upland buzzards (Buteo hemilasius) living at alpine meadow ecosystem in Maduo County,Qinghai Province.The prey items can be classified into three types:1)plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae),2) Qinghai vole (Lasiopodomys fuscus),and 3) small birds.The results indicated that the average occurrence frequencies (pi) and biomass ratios (bi) of plateau pika,Qinghai vole and small birds in diets of upland buzzards were 0.28,0.68 and 0.04 as well as 0.59,0.40,and 0.02 respectively.pi and bi of the prey items in food pellets were 0.70,0.27 and 0.02 as well as 0.89,0.10 and 0.01 respectively.Analyses on stomach contents and food pellets generated significant different pi and bi (χ test),however,both revealed key roles of plateau pika and Qinghai vole in diets of upland buzzards.
In order to understand the molecular mechanism of the characteristic of cashmere,we constructed a cDNA library using the SMART cDNA library construction kit (Clontech).Total RNA was isolated from the goat (Capra hircus) skin tissue with hair follicle angen.Oligotex (QIAGEN) was used to isolate mRNA from total RNA.The "anchor firststrand cDNA" synthesized by reverse transcription with the SMART technique.The LD-PCR was performed using a modified oligo (dT) primer and an anchor primer as the primer set,and anchor first-strand cDNA as the template to enrich the cDNA population for full-length sequences.After digestion with SfiⅠand size fractionation,SMART cDNA was ligated into the SfiⅠ -digested pBluescript Ⅱ SK (with SfiⅠA and B site).The ligation mixture was transformed into E.Coli 5α.The cDNA library contained 1.8×10 independent clones.Randomly select cDNA clones and sequence with the 5 prime end,a full-length KAP6-2 cDNA was found by compared with those in the NCBI database (nr) using the Blast-N programs,it showed 75.5% identity in amino acids with mouse KAP6-2 and the accession number in GenBank is AY316158.
2004, 25(2): 172-176.
The phylogenetic relationship of six marine crabs was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique.Predetermined optimal reaction conditions were as follows:Samples were first heated at 94℃ for 4 min;and followed by 45 cycles of 1 min at 94℃,1 min at 36℃,and 2 min at 72℃ then held at 72℃ for 10 min.With 16 primers,123 reproducible amplified fragments ranging between 500 and 14 000 bp were acquired.In all bands,2 bands were shared by all crabs,13 shared by Charybdis japonica,C.Acuta and C.Feriatus,16 shared by Portunus sanguinolentus and P.Trituberculatus.The amplified fragments were scored as present (1) or absent (0) for each DNA sample and an index of degree of band sharing (F) was calculated by using Nei and Lis matching coefficient method.The degree of F was 0.0606-0.8000.The value of 1-F was used to evaluate genetic distances between species.The genetic distances between species were 0.2000-0.9394.The phylogenetic trees were constructed with the method of UPGMA and NJ on the basis of genetic distances.The results from the two methods of cluster analysis are similar in general,and the relationships indicated by the phylogenetic trees show the difference between genus species.The results are in good overall agreement with classical taxonomy.
2004, 25(2): 177-180.
The cellular DNA contents of the yellow pond turtle (Mauremys mutica) and its two populations were studied by using a flow cytometer with the DNA of chicken red blood cells (2.5 pg/2c) as a standard.The DNA content of the turtle is 5.16±0.29 pg/2c (n=60).The DNA content of southern population is 5.19±0.30 pg/2c (n=30) and that of northern population is 5.14±0.30 pg /2c (n=30),and there is no difference between southern and northern populations of M.Mutica (t=0.6847,df=58,P>0.05).
Ten trace elements including Zn,Fe,Ca,Cu,Mg,Al,Se,Mn,Cr and Pb were determined in hair of 24 Sichuan golden monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellanae).The Zn,Fe,Cu,Ca,and Mg were determined by FAAS,Mn,Cr,Pb were determined by GFAAS,Al by ICP and Se by AAS respectively.The contents of trace elements in hair of 14 wild and 10 captive Sichuan golden monkeys were compared.The results showed that the contents of Cr,Mn,Mg,Pb,Zn and Se in captive monkeys were significantly higher,and that of Fe was much lower than those of wild monkeys.In addition,the contents of Pb,Cr,Mn and Zn in captive monkeys were distinctly higher than those of normal humans upper limit.This is probably because the food they eat have too much trace element additive in the captive troop.