2001 Vol. 22, No. 3
Anhui musk deer [Moschus (moschiferus/berezovskii) anhuiensis] has been a taxonomic mystery since its discovery in early 80s .In this paper,with museum samples,we sequenced the complete cytochrome b gene of five Anhui musk deer.When compared with other species in Genus Moschus,Anhui musk deer showed a rather level of sequence divergence from all the other species in t his genus.The phylogenetic trees constructed by multiple methods supported the same topology,in which the monophyly of Anhui musk deer was clearly demonstrated.Therefore,our molecular data suggest a full species status for Anhui musk deer (Moschus anhuiensis),rather than a subspecies of either M.moschiferus or M.berezovskii previously suggested by morphological studies.
98 auditory cortical (AC) neurons were obtained on the 6 big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) with the two-tone stimulation and multi-barrel electrode method s and the characteristics of column organization sharpening frequency tunings of AC neurons were studied.The results showed that neurons from the same orthogonal penetration had basically same inhibitory tuning curve or area at low or/and high limbs of excitatory tuning curve.The neurons isolated within an obliquely (45° with AC surface) penetrated electrode to cross multi-columns were with different excitatory and inhibitory areas.Two penetrated ways of electrode demonstrated the characteristics of column organization sharpening frequency tuning of AC neurons,in other words,AC neurons that had same function on the frequency ana lysis were with the same type of neural inhibition and they located within a same column forming a functional organization unit-"mini-frequency processor".The multi-peaked frequency tuning curves observed in the experiment were considered to be essential for complex sound information processing.We can reasonably hy pothesize that AC neurons with multipeaked frequency tuning curves could execute a function as a highly tuned preprocessor of complex spectral information.In or der to investigate further the mechanism sharpening frequency tuning,GABAergic receptor-a (GABAa) antagonist,bicuculline,was injected ionophoreticaly to the AC neuron recorded through mult-barrel electrode and inhibitory areas of the neurons could be abolished mostly or completely by bicuculline application.These results showed that GABAergic inhibition participated in forming inhibitory area of frequency tuning of AC neuron and increased the ability of frequency resolu tion under the normal physiologic condition,whereas frequency tuning curve became the wider and decreased the abilities of frequency selectivity and resolution after GABAergic disinhibition by bicuculline.
The PN response pattern evoked by electrical shock would be interdependent with morphological results and could be used as descriptor of neurons in some moths. In this study,intracellular recordings were performed and 34 neurons in MGC of Agrotis segetum were recorded;all those neurons responded to sex pheromone.12 neurons just tested by sex pheromone,and 22 neurons both tested by sex pheromone and electrical stimulation.Electrical stimulation elicited similar response of neuron as blend,which was one kind of biphasic response pattern consisting of a depolarization phase and followed by a hyperpolarization phase.The depolari zation phase stimulated by electrical shock was very short,but it was clearly present in this and all other tested neurons.In all tested neurons stimulated by electrical shock,there were 2-10 spikes followed the stimulus artifact and 10-80 ms burst duration in the depolarization phase.So electrical stimulation elicit ed the frequency response of neuron as same as the pulsed response of neuron activated by blend.Hyperpolarization potential and followed inhibition duration bec ame bigger and longer with hyperpolarizing current injection.This was different from the case in Manduca sexta,which the early inhibitory potential was re versed with only -0.2 nA of injected current.Further analysis revealed that the frequency of neuron positively correlation with the hyperpolarization potential (R=0.667,P<0.0001) and negatively correlation with inhibition duration (R=-0.709,P<0.0001).Results indicated descriptor of neurons in MGC with electrical stimulation in A.segetum should be proved by more experiments.
Display sites selection by Houbara bustard in eastern Jungar Basin,Xinjiang were studied from April to July 2000.Plant species richness,vegetative density,v egetative cover and distance to the bushy patches are the most important factors for houbaras to select their display sites.They display in the habitats with re latively low plant species richness,vegetative density and vegetative cover.However,most of display sites are close to bushy patches.Those vegetation structur es of display sites that have short sub-shrubs scattered with densely bushy patches provide an ideal habitat for houbara surviving and breeding.
2001, 22(3): 191-199.
A background survey and a species observation on avian were conducted respectively in the Three Gorges Reservoir during 1996-1997,and 1999-2000.354 species,be longing to 17 orders and 51 families were recorded.Among them,153 (43.22%),164 (46.33%),and 37 (10.45%) species are the avian of Palaearctic region,Orie ntal region and Cosmopolitan respectively.There are 87 species (24.58%) of summer residents,63 species (17.78%) of winter residents,46 species (12.99%) of travelers and 158 species (44.63%) of residents.The birds of Passeriformes have more important contribution to the group diversity in the Three Gorges Reserv oir.Zigui County has the maximal family diversity,while Badong County has the upmost species composition.The research indicated that habitat diversity was the main key factors to control bird species diversity in a certain time and space.
Maximum metabolic rates (MMR) were determined in plateau pikas and root voles under different photoperiod and temperature acclimation (long day-warm temperature:16L∶8D,23℃;short day-warm temperature:8L∶16D,23℃;long day-cold temperature:16L∶8D,5℃;short day-cold temperature:8L∶16D,5℃).The result in dicated that 1)photoperiod had no effect on MMR of plateau pikas,but cold induced its increase (P<0.01),and temperature was the main physiological cue for seasonal variation in MMR;2)both of short photoperiod and cold could increased MMR in root voles (P<0.01),and they both became the physiological cue for MMR change in root voles.
In order to recover from deforestation and find a sustainable way for the economic development in montane area,bird diversity and frugivorous birds were studied in forest succession fields at Mengsong area,Xishuangbanna,Yunnan Province.We identified the forest age for each type of fallow fields with local informati on.The sampling areas were established (5 ha.for each type) within the different habitats,and the surveys were conducted during the dry season and rainy season.We also observed and recorded species of frugivorous birds,which related seed dispersal in the forest succession fields.Birds were sampled by mist nets;they were ringed and released after getting their excrements.Many species of plant seeds were got from bird excrements.Our study shows that bird diversity increased with the increasing of forest stratification.There are similar varied regular on the value of the Shannon-Wiener Indexes (H,Hmax and J) for bird diversity in the dry season and rainy season.Diverse birds and their activity linked with the all fallow fields and the different patterns of forests.Birds sensi tively indicated the relationship between biodiversity and forest dynamic.The bird species with certain habitat have a special significance,especially the relationship between the forest dynamic and the frugivorous birds which related seed dispersal.Generally speaking,the study showed that we should pay more attention to the ecological principle of frugivorous birds and forest succession,and it was crucial to protect primary tropical forest and the birds in it.
Based on the data collected from samplings on the benthic macro-invertebrate community in various habitats of creek system in eastern beach of Chongming Island in the Changjiang estuary,the structure of benthic macro-invertebrate community,diversity,and relation between habitat heterogeneity of creek system and zoobenthic community were analyzed.Major conclusions from this research are:1)Because there are difference in water dynamics and characteristics of sediment,zonation of macrobenthic community exists in creek sections in eastern beach of Chongming Island in the Changjiang estuary.From bottom of creek,bank of creek to grass flat,variations in composition of species,types of life form and life group reflect ecological series of macrobenthos in creek system of estuarine tidal flat.2)Density and biomass for macrobenthic communities of different habitats are in order of bank of creek＞grass flat＞bottom of creek.For value of GS/GSB in density and biomass of macrobenthos,there is variety in different habitats.These results suggest that dominant life form and life group for density and biomass would change with various habitats of creek system.3)As a result of differentiation in habitat structure of creek system,D,H′and J for macrobenthic communities of different habitats are in order of grass flat＞bank of creek＞bottom of creek.Specific habitats such as the bottom and bank of creek increased habitat heterogeneity of estuarine tidal flat,and played an important role in maintaining species diversity in estuarine ecosystem.
In this paper,a new species of pentatomid bug Menida speciosa Zheng & Xiong,sp.nov.is described from southwestern part of Yunnan Province of China;and the Menida salvazana Distant 1921 is redescribed and figured based upon the type material.
2001, 22(3): 220-225.
This paper studied the teeth of crickets by using scanning electron microscope.10 species belonging to 5 genera under 3 family of Grylloidea were studied.The re sults revealed that individuals of the same species had almost identical teeth but individuals of different species often had dramatic differences in their teet h.Hence teeth could be used as important identification characters of crickets.Morever,the possibility of using teeth to classify generic taxa was discussed.
Pituitary growth hormone (GH) is essential for growth and metabolism in animals.Association of GH with the GH receptor (GHR) in target tissues of GH triggers the postreceptor signaling systems,which culminate in the biological actions of GH.GHR is a glycoprotein of about 620 amino acids (aa) with single transmembrane domain.The extracellular,the transmembrane and the intracellular domain of GHR are composed of about 245 aa,25 aa and 350 aa respectively.The pathways of signaling by GHR include the activations of the tyrosine kinase JAK2,the protein kinase C and the insulin receptor substrate.Nutrition,GH and other factors can also regulate the expression of GHR.
2001, 22(3): 231-238.
Ecological energetics involves the application of energetics to address questions of interest to population biologists.These questions cover a variety of topics,ranged from the adaptive significance of sex,life history evolution,behavioral allocation and trade-off to reproductive and mating systems or foraging str ategies.This review has following parts:principles of evolutionary optimization,the relationship between energy expenditure and fitness,the approaches of de scribing life history,how could energy budget be regularized by supply or demand,the links of energy with structure and function,energy and foraging theory, and energy allocation and sexual selection.
2001, 22(3): 238-241.
A partial common carp genomic library was constructed.45 positive clones were isolated from screening about 2000 clones of the genomic library with a (CA) 15 probe labelled at the 5 end with γP-ATP.Sequencing of these clones was performed with automated sequencer,and 22 microsatellites were isolated.17 primers were designed based on unique sequences flanking each motif with the software Primer3.PCR on Cyprinus carpio haematopterus was carried out with these primers,and all gave expected bands.Annealing temperature of these primers was between 50 ℃ and 53 ℃.
2001, 22(3): 242-245.
The distribution and biosynthesis sites of cathepsin B in Helicoverpa armigera through the developing stages were studied by means of Immunoblot and Northern Blot.The results of Immunoblot showed that cathepsin B existed in ovary,female and male adult fat body.The mRNA in larval fat body,female pupal fat body,male adult fat body,female adult fat body and ovary were detected using Northern Blot.This indicated that cathepsin B mRNA could be transcribed in these tissues.However there was no cathepsin B mRNA in larval epidermis and larval mid-gut as also no distribution of this proteinase.Furthermore,we detected mRNA transcrip tion in larval fat body,female pupal fat body using Northern Blot,but there were no cathepsin B distributed in these two issues accordingly in Immunoblot.This indicated that the mRNA in these two tissues could not be translated into cathepsin B,and there might be some kind of regulation in translation level.
2001, 22(3): 246-249.
Four sheep installed chronic catheters in the portal vein,hepatic vein and mesenteric vein were used to study the effects of clenbuterol on metabolic hormones.The results are:1)The GH level of portal vein is markedly increased during clenbuterol treatment period (0.8 mg/kg BW,twice daily for five days);2)The GH level of hepatic vein with clenbuterol-treated is similar to that of control;3)The IGF-Ⅰ concentration of hepatic vein is markedly elevated and IGF-Ⅰ of portal vein is maintained a higher level in clenbuterol treatment period.4)The insulin concentration of hepatic blood is decreased with clenbuterol-treated.These showed that the changes of those hormone levels in clenbuterol treatment played an important role in regulation of growth and metabolism in sheep.
2001, 22(3): 250-252.
When they are flying,Great evening bat (Ia io) produces short FM echolocation calls including three harmonics,of which the first one and the second one are stronger.As they fly,the first harmonic is modulated from 49.0 to 18.3 kHz,the second one is modulated from 80.0 to 35.6 kHz,and the third one from 87.2 to 56.7 kHz.The average duration of the calls is 3.7 ms.It was predicted t hat Great evening bat (Ia io) captures big insects in the open area among foliages according to the sound characteristic analysis of echolocation calls and the analysis comparing with the echolocation calls of other bats that perch in the same cave.
With two whole infertile eggs and two incomplete infertile eggs (having shell membrane and shell) of Chinese Alligator (Alligator sinensis) from the artificial condition and the field in Anhui Province,the authors studied the concentration of four heavy metal elements (Cu,Zn,Cd and Pb) in the different parts (albumen,yolk,shell membrane and shell) with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS).Our results showed that these four elements concentration was quite different in the different parts of the same egg.The concentration of these four elements from high to low is Zn,Cu,Pb,Cd in the albumen,yolk and shell membrane of the infertile egg.However the sequence is Zn,Pb,Cu,Cd in the shell of the infertile egg.The concentration of Zn (the highest is 63.29 mg/kg) is higher than the other three elements in the same egg.The concentration of Cu (the highest is 20.03 mg/kg) is higher in the shell membrane than the others parts of the same egg.The concentration of Pb (the highest is 26.8 mg/kg) is higher in the shell than the other parts of the same egg.The concentration of Cd (the minimum is 0.024 mg/kg) is much lower than the other three elements in the albumen,yolk and shell membrane of the same egg.In addition,our results also showed that the concentration of these four elements tended higher in the infertile egg from the artificial condition than that from the field.The results should be considered by Chinese Alligator Breeding Center.