1999 Vol. 20, No. 5

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研究论文
This paper was to investigate the mutagenicity of KINGPANAX fresh Panax notoginseng juice.We used chromosomal aberration test of bone marrow cells in mice,chromosomal aberration test in mouse testicle meiotic cells and teratogenicity test in mice as an indicater to study the securities of KINGPANAX fresh Panax notoginseng juice.The results were as follows:(a) Chromosomal aberration of bone marrow in mice:Frequency of chromosomal aberration of bone marrow in mice in the control group was 0.8%,the frequencies of low,middle and high dose groups were 0.7%,0.2% and 0.9% respectively.In comparison with control group,there was no significant difference,More significant increase of frequency of chromosomal aberration were found in positive control group.(b) Chromosomal aberration in mouse testicle meiotic cells:Under our experimental conditions,frequency of chromosomal aberration in mouse testicle meiotic cells (including sexchromosomal univalents [X-YU],autosomal univalents[AU] showed no obvious difference among various experimental groups and control group.? Teratogenicity test in mice:The accumulative doses of KINGPANAX fresh Panax notoginseng juice in mice by gastric instillation reached 1/10,1/5 and 1/2 of 15 g/kg body weight.No statistically significant difference in the mouse teratogenicity test was observed.According to our exparimental results,KINGPANAX fresh Panax notoginseng juice is safe for drinking and has no poisonous side effect.
Seven kinds of hair dye are selected to lay on the skins of NIH strain mouse.After being touched with the hair dyes 7 times during 23 days,the mouse bone marrow cells and testis cells are collected to observe the chromosomal aberrations.The results show that all kinds of hair dye can induce the chromosomal aberration of mouse bone marrow cells and the aberration types include break,fragment,ring and so on.The ratios of chromosomal aberrations induced by three kinds of hair dye are statistically significant higher than control and the powdery types are the highest.Four kinds of hair dye of the seven have been to studied the chromosomal aberrations of the male mouse germinal cells.All of them induce the chromosomal aberration of the germinal cells (the aberration types include fragment,monovalent,quadrivalent),and the aberration ratios are statistically significant higher and the instant-oxidative types are the highest.
Estrus synchronization is an important technique in embryo transfer.Several methods have been used in cow synchronization.However,previous reports showed that the efficiency of synchronization would be different due to the situation of the recipients as well as other conditions.In the present study,the effect of GnRH on estrus synchronization of cow recipients in embryo transfer was determined,and compared with that of using PGF2α method.193 hostein cows reared in the Kunming farm were randomly divided into 3 groups.Group 1,recipients were administered once 25 mg PGF2α (5 mg/mL).Group 2,cows were injected PGF[2]α twice,with 11 day interval between two administration,25 mg/one injection.Group 3,cows were injected GnRH (86 μg) followed by injection of 25 mg PGF[2]α 7 days later and a second GnRH (86 μg) administration 16 days later.Results showed that in group 3 there were more transferable recipients (60.9%) for embryo transfer compared with that in group 1 (26.5%) and in group 2 (27.8%),respectively.It seems that interval injection of GnRH/PG/GnRH is a better method of estrous synchronization.
The energy density,water content and their variations of adult coleopteran insects were studied by determining carnivorous Carabidae and herbivorous Tenebrionidae in arid environment.The energy density of carnivorous Carabidae (22.64 J/mg AFDW) was significantly higher than herbivorous Tenebrionidae (20.55 J/mg AFDW),but their difference in water content (54.96% and 63.28% respectively) was converse (P<0.05).The energy density in these two families of beetles correlated negatively to their water content (r=-0.5962,P<0.05).Both the energy density and water content of these coleopteran insects exhibited significantly seasonal variations,in which the energy density was found maximum in autumn (22.80 J/mg AFDW) and minimum in spring (20.42 J/mg AFDW),conversely,the water content was lowest in autumn (54.93%) and highest in spring (61.88%) (P<0.05).The energy density of different parts of body in these beetles also showed significant variations in which the energy density was highest in abdomen (22.65 J/mg AFDW) and then decreased in thorax (21.33 J/mg AFDW),head (20.89 J/mg AFDW) and legs (20.60 J/mg AFDW),and similarly,found maximum in autumn (22.30 J/mg AFDW) and minimum in spring (19.46 J/mg AFDW).The energy density of Carabidae and Tenebrionidae insects correlated positively to the energy density in their abdomen,thorax,head and legs (r values were 0.897,0.846,0.718 and 0.604 respectively,P<0.05) in which the correlation coefficients of abdomen and thorax were significant higher than head and legs (P<0.05).This results implied that main reason for the high energy density in beetles was the accumulated lipid in abdomen and thorax.In addition,the factors that affect the variations of energy density and water content,and the effects of these variations in these prey beetles on the food selection of insectivorous predators were also discussed.
1999, 20(5): 341-341.
Influences of incubation temperatures on hatchling characteristics and the function of residual yolk were studied in the colubrid snake,Dinodon rufozonatum,from a population in Zhoushan Islands.Duration of incubation was strongly dependent on incubation temperature,and decreased as temperature increased.The result that hatchlings from eggs incubated at a lower temperature (24℃) had a smaller body dimension (SVL and TL) than did those incubated at higher temperatures (28 and 32℃) was in contrast to that reported for other species of reptiles.Except for the influence on hatchling dimension,over the range from 24 to 32℃,incubation temperature did not affect embryonic use of material and energy and other hatching characteristics such as mass and major components (carcass,residual yolk,fatbodies,lipids and energy) of hatchlings.Incubation temperature did not determine sex of hatchlings.The overall sex ratio of hatchlings was biased towards males.The residual yolk could be used to support carcass growth and maintenance during the first days of a hathclings life.During incubation,approximately 81.4% dry material,70.0% lipids and 79.4% energy in egg contents of the freshly laid egg were transformed to the hatchling.
We examined the effects of temperature and photoperiod on the thermogenic characteristics of brown adipose tissue in plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae).Pikas were acclimated in the following groups:1)Long day-warm temperature (16 L:8 D,23 ℃);2)Long day-cold temperature (16 L:8 D,5℃);3)short day-warm temperature (8 L:16 D,23℃);and 4)short day-cold temperature (8 L:16 D,5℃).Both temperature and photoperiod were important environmental cues for changes in thermogenesis for pikas.Low temperature and/or short photoperiod induced increases in tissue protein contents,mitochondrial protein contents of brown adipose tissue,and cytochrome c oxidase activity of brown adipose tissue mitochondria in pika.Animals habitat preference and behavioral properties play an important role in the seasoanl acclimazization of thermogenic characteristics.Our results showed that temperature and photoperiod combined induce thermogenic adjustments in plateau pika.
We have searched the soil animals of Funiu Mountain nature protective area in Henan Province in July,1996.Nine proturan species in 6 genera belonging to 4 families were collected in the study.The dominant species of Protura are Baculentulus tianmushanensis and Filientomon takanawanum.Results by EBP analysis indicated that the community patterns of Protura in this area were B mostly.Diversity of community varied in different habitats and the tendency was:deciduous forest>coniferous>grass land.
The habitat preference of sables (Martes zibellina) in winter was studied by radiotracking and GPS (Global Positing System) in Daxinganling Mountains,China.The results showed that:1)Sables preferred forest attributes associated with late succession.In winter,sables selected the dominant trees were Larix gmelini (55.3%) and selected forest with intermediate to dense tree canopy (71.6%).2)Sables preferred for the middle of slope and slope bottoms (83.6%) and did not like ridgetops.3)Sables preferred high density of trees (P=0.0001) with bigger DBH (P=0.0014),longer logs (P=0.0007) and higher log density (P=0.0001) etc.4)Sables did not like larchs DBH,shrub canopy and slop aspect etc.5)Sables generally selected sites with high food abundance.According to the results,the forest with attributes associated with late succession stages and the trees with large DBH (>40 cm) should be preserved properly during selection cutting.
Through sample plot investigating method,a comparative study on ant communities in primeval and secondary forests of 4 vegetation subtypes were conducted in Xishuangbanna District.The secondary forests of mountain rain forest and karst monsoon forest were formed from the primeval forest by continuous excessive felling of trees and the structure of arbor crown is incomplete.Secondary forests of deciduous monsoon forest and monsoon evergreen broad-leaf forest were recovered from bare land after slash-and-burn cultivation about 20 years ago and the structure of arbor crown is complete.Peculiar species number of secondary forests of mountain rain forest and karst monsoon forest is distinctly lower than the number of primeval forests.But peculiar species number of secondary forests of deciduous monsoon forest and monsoon evergreen broad-leaf forest is about equal to or higher than the number of primeval forests.The dominant species number of primeval forests is usually larger than the number of secondary forests.Species number of primeval forests is also larger than the number of secondary forests.Marginal effect is well displayed in the secondary forest of mountain rain forest.Karst monsoon forest is a relatively weak ecosystem,the stability of the ant community is obviously reduced in its secondary forest.A multi-species competition situation of an ecosystem in the later stage of an advance succession is presented in the secondary forest of deciduous monsoon forest.While the state of an ecosystem situated in the initial stage of an advance succession is expressed in the secondary forest of monsoon evergreen broad-leaf forest.According to the Jaccard similarity coefficient,the composition of the ant species all has distinct difference between primeval and secondary forests of the 4 vegetation subtypes.The result shows that formation of secondary forest is harmful to biodiversity conservation,and it is favorable for the conservation of biodiversity to change farmland into forest.
The spatial distribution of Maladera sp.adults on flue-cured tobacco plants in Yunnan Province was determined.Taylors power law,Iwaos patchness regression,and the negative binomial probability model were used to analyze the data.All three indices (b,β and k) of the three methods indicated an aggregated distribution of Maladera sp.Taylors power law provided a better description than Iwaos patchness regression.The negative binomial distribution parameter k was not dependent on-mean density.This indicates the presence of a common k (kc).The estimate of kc was 0.6529.This study provided basic data for establishing a sequential sampling plan for Maladera sp.
In this paper,five life table parameters (length of generation,net productive rate,innate capacity for increase,population trend index and days for population to double) were obtained by studying the agespecific life table of the laboratory population of Ephestia elutella Hübner,under the conditions of 4 temperatures (15,20,25,30℃) combined with relative humidity 85%.We also studied the effects of temperature and relative humidity on adult longevity,survival rate,development time,fertility and hatching rate.
Comparative sperm morphology of three species of crab,Portunus trituberculatus,Eriocheir sinensis and Sinopotamon yangtsekiense have been investigated with light and electron microscopes.These sperms are aflagellate and typical brachyurans.SEM observation shows:1)each sperm has a spherical body,2)the anterion part appears smooth,and the other part is uneven,from which 10-20 radial arms radiate,3)there is a ditch ring between the two parts.TEM reveals that each sperm is composed of acrosome,cytoplasmic region,nuclear cup and radial arms.The globular acrosome is a very complicated structure and shows PAS positive.Its centre is a cylindrical acrosomal tubule and its front is an apical cap.The acrosome is limited by an single continuous membrane and surrounded by nuclear cup,which shows Feulgen positive.The nuclear cup contains uncondensed chromatin and is bounded by a complete nuclear envelope.The radial arms are extensions of the nuclear cup.They are stational,then the sperm are immotile.There are no microtubular elements in the arm.The cytoplasmic region is posterior to the acrosome and consists of lamellar complex.Several differences exist the crab spermatozoa in three species.
267 species belonging to 76 genera and 9 subfamilies of Formicidae are identified in the tropical rain forest of Xishuangbanna.The ant fauna of Xishuangbanna District is predominant in Oriental components distributed from tropics to subtropics.At genus level,the fauna is the closest to Indo-Australian,closer to Australasian,moderately related to Afrotropical and Malagasy,the farthest to Nearctic,Neotropical,and Palaearctic.It is obvious that the ant fauna of Xishuangbanna has a typical character of Asia Tropics origin,meantime it has certain origin relationship with Australia Tropics and Africa Tropics.At species level,the fauna of Xishuangbanna is predominant in Oriental ones,the closest to Indo-Australian,closer to Australasian,farther to Palaearctic,and the farthest to Neotropical and Malagasy regions.The ant fauna of Xishuangbanna has its own characters,it is the closest to that of India and Burma,farther to that of Indo-China Peninsula;close to the fauna of Southern China,but farther to the fauna of Southwestern and Central China;meanwhile the fauna includes a considerable number of endemic species.
The transposable element (TE) is considered to be a kind of repetitive sequence.TE and its category of various organisms and the transposition mechanism—the recombination and integration,the relationship for TE and host and the evolutionary significance of TE have been described in this paper.There is a close relationship between TE and population dynamics,natural selection,and genetic drift.TE can make the host to get new function,meantime may get lost from the host even the extinct of population or species.TE has been reported as gene regulatory sequences,enhancer,silencer and promotor regions.It may change pseudogene into true gene.It can regulate and influence the mitotic chromosomal crossover process,gene recombination,chromosome breakage and heterochromatin distribution so as to affect the chromosome morphology and construction.TE possess not only vertical transfer but also the horizontal or lateral transfer.With the mechanisms of genome immnuity,mechanical geneome incompatability and genome resetting,TE may provide the base for post-mating isolation and even the pre-mating one to lead to the speciation and lineage evolution.